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In the tutorial, you will
ƥ Learn the   using the APA
reference style for formatting citations.
ƥ Be able to cite ideas from someoneƞs works
using the APA style in your essay.
ƥ Be able to create a reference list of books,
journals & online documents (webpages)
using the APA style.
ƥ Once you find a useful idea to support your
essay argument, the source must be
ƥ Whether paraphrasing or quoting an author
directly, you must credit the source.
ƥ An essay without the acknowledgement of
sources will be considered as  .
ƥ Your research paper will be complete when an
adequate reference list is attached!
What is APA? Why APA style?
 : Formatting text citations.
  : Formatting bibliographic information
for a reference list.
 !: Referencing online resources in the
APA style.
 ": Listing formatted references in your
reference list.
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ƥ ƠAPAơ stands for Ơcmerican sychological
ƥ It is also known as an Ơc  ơ
System, in contrast to a Ơ$ 
á e c &' 
: Citations in
t e text refer to references in t e
bibliograp  at t e end of essa.
 (t e footnote citation ste)
w ere numbers in t e text refer to
references in t e footer area.
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ƥ There are many Author-Date citation styles.
ƥ In the (
)a citation would be:
*h ++",-
ƥ In the c c
)it would be:
*h) ++)%",-
ƥ APA is the most popular international author-
date reference style for Social Sciences &
Management journals.
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ƥ ƠAPAơ publishes an excellent user manual on
referencing & editorial style.
ƥ The library has many copies of the manual in
many sections of the Library. Some copies can
be loaned.

This tutorial is based on

the APA Publication Manual
(BF11.A69 2001 ƛ 5th edition)
Formatting Citations
in Your Essa wit
APA ste
c .  cc

4our t esis statement.
An outine of our essa.

/01 4our arguments (4our answer to t e question)

e.g. It is discussed t atƦ. (Anderson, 2002, p.35)Ʀ

  A parent etica reference
á e summar of our answer.
refers to Reference List.

Anderson, S. (2002). Adventure tourism: An introduction.
Oxford: Oxford Universit Press.
Direct quotations
If yoursymbolsơ
ƠLanguage involves attaching meaning to world direct
(Samovar & Porter, 1997, p. 286). quotation is more
than 40 words,
According to Coakley (1994), the successindent the quoted
of a professional
sporting event is no guaranteed as it requires without
Ơpeople in a
society must have timeƦơ (pp. 303-304).quotation marks.

As Taylor (1983) points out,

All society establishes hierarchies, In few societyƦ are
they so widespread or important as in Japan. For the
Japanese, rank is so finely determined thatƦ (p. 42).
When paraphrasing or referring to an idea
contained in another work, you donƞt have to
provide a location reference (e.g. a page or
paragraph quotations (paraphrasing
number). Nevertheless, /
you are
summarizing) encouraged to do so.
He spends years cultivating his clients, building long-term
relationships based on reliability (Hall, 1983).
If an idea comes
Lormax (1968) from
song and dance styles of a
country were related to itsuse
sources, level
a of social cohesion and
collectivism (pp.54-55).
semicolon (;).

As discussed above, electronic commerce is typically

characterised by disintermediation of supply chain. (Gould,
2001; New Zealand Tourism, 2003, pp.34-37).
!þitations from a secondary
source (e.g. from a text book)
According to Steinberg and McDonaldƞs study (as cited in
McNeil, Ballard, Atkins, & Hall, 1996), it is not always true.

If you
However, it is always bestwant to use
to   an idea from
especially if you are aangraduate
author cited by another
(1) References could author,
be citeduse Ơ ơ.
In the reference list, list only the
(2) That would be dishonest.
secondary source.
Bibiograp ic Data for
List of References
wit APA ste
ƥ Once your references are cited in the text, you
need to append a reference list to
acknowledge cited materials.
ƥ The reference list provides the information
necessary to identify and retrieve each source.
ƥ ƠOur purpose of listing references is 

readers to retrieve and use the sources ƛ
reference data must be correct and complete.ơ
ƥ All references cited in the text must appear in
the list.
ƥ þonversely, each entry in the reference list
must be cited in the text.
ƥ Make sure that the text citation and reference
list entries are identical.
2  *3  -
ƥ Your lecturerƞs comments in your lecture or personal
email, interviews must be acknowledged in the body
of your essay, but these do not need to be listed in a
reference list.
In his lecture for ƝIntroduction to Sociologyƞ on 16
April 2002, Prof. Harris said thatƦ
Thus, it was proved to be 3.7%. (P. Harris, personal
communications, April 16, 2002)
ƥ The reference list and bibliography are $/
the same.
ƥ Donƞt include books that you didnƞt use in
your reference list, even if you borrowed
ƥ A reference Your
list cites works that are
essay in APA style used in
the body of your essay.
requires a 2,
ƥ A bibliography cites works for background or
not a Bibliography!
further reading.
ƥ What is the minimum information to retrieve
source information?
ƥ Basic bibliographic data that are usually
included in each citation are:
<1> c $
    *4c  -
<3> á
ƥ A bibliographic reference should  be like:
Author: John W. þreswell (1994) Reference
Title: Research Design ƛ Qualitative & List doesnƞt
Quantitative approaches. need library
call numbers.
Publisher: Sage Publication, London
þall number: H62.þ71 1994 <Level 3>
ƥ But it should be like...
þreswell, J. W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative &
quantitative approaches. London: Sage Publication.
ƥ Invert all authorƞs name ƛ give surnames and
ƛ White, R.
ƛ Dryden, G., & Vos, J.
ƛ Robbins, S. P., Bergman, R., & Stagg, I.
ƥ For editors, use (Ed.) or (Eds.) after initials of
ƛ Duncan, G. M. (Ed.).
ƛ Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. (Eds.).
'%    ' 
ƥ Books, Journals & Audiovisual media need a
ƠPublication Year.ơ
ƛ White, R. (1997).
ƛ Knop, N., & Pope, þ. (1998).
ƥ Magazines & Newspapers etc. need ƠYear,
Month, Day.ơ
ƛ þreswell, J. (1993, June). [Monthly]
ƛ Smith, A. (1994, September 28). [daily & weekly]
ƛ Pope, þ. (n.d.). [Work with no date available]
±%á * -
Encose additiona information
after the tite. (trans.) (press.) or information
[þD], [Motion Picture]for authors such as
.3  (Director), (Producer)
Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. (Eds.) (1997). Intercutura
communication: A reader. (8th ed.). New York:
Wadsworth Pubication þompany.

Gannon, M. J. (1997). Irish conversations. In L. A.

Samovar, & R. E. Porter (Eds.), Intercutura
communication: A reader. (8th ed.). (pp. 125-133). New
York: Wadsworth Pubication þompany.
±%á *   -
Periodicals are journals, magazines etc.
Deutsche, F. (1993). Husbands at home: Predictors of
paternal participation in childcare and housework.
Journal of Personalit and Social Pscholog, 65 (3),

Henr, W. A. (1990, April 9). Beond the melting pot.

áime. 135, 28-31.

Gill, M. A. (2001, December 13). Ringing endorsement.

Waikato áimes. Edition 2, p. 15.
Publication Information is:
1: Publication Place: Publisherƞs name (for Books,
Audiovisual media etc.)
þreswell, J. W. (1994). Publisherƞs name Qualitative
design: & Place of &
quantitative approaches. London: Sage Publication.

2. Issue Number, Page Numbers (for periodicals).

Volume numbers are a part of Journal áitles
Zhang, Z. (1988). A discussion of communicative culture.
Journal of þhinese Language áeacher Association, 23
(2), 107-112.
Well-known publication places suc
as Tokyo and New York do not need
states or country names.
þreswell, J. W. (1994). Researc design: Qualitative &
quantitative approac es. London: Sage Publication.

Robbins, S. P., Bergman, R., & Stagg, I. (1997).

Management. Maryboroug , Victoria, Australia: Prentice

If two or more publis er locations

are given, give t e location listed
first in t e book or t e location of
t e publis erƞs ome office.
á ±
Êeferencing Onine
Êesources in APA ste.
No matter whether it is onine or print,
our reference needs four basic eements:
(1) Author (2) Date (3) Tite &
(4) Pubication Information ƛ UÊLs/Databaseƞs name
ƥ A reference of an electronic source needs all four
basic elements, and also Ơ  
publication information.

Palmquist, S. (2004) Kant on t e web. Retrieved

October 6, 2004, from
ttp://www. k/~ppp/Kant. tml
ƥ Wherever possible, identify the authors of
documents. Be mindful of the quality of online
documents (of unknown authorship!)
ƥ On the other hand, you might find more than one
authorƞs name ƛ the host organisation and webpage
author(s) are not the sameƦ
ƥ Suppose you want to use a webpage about
 5ơ as a reference for your
ƥ What are four reference elements?
Webpageƞs title is
always on the top bar
of your browser.
The URL (Publication
Information) is in the
address bar.
If you cannot find the
authorƞs name or
publication date, scroll
down the browser.
Otherwise, go to the homepage of
the website and/or find link to
ƝAbout meƞ. Or ƝAbout Usƞ

At the bottom of the

webpage, you normally find
the copyright information
(Author & Publication Date).
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ƥ We identified all four basic elements:
ƛ Author: HamiltonAcknowledge
þity þouncilwebsiteƞs author before
(& Hamilton Zoo).
the URL if itƞs different from the
ƛ Date: 2001 websiteƞs host (e.g. Government
Agency, University department)
ƛ Title: Hamilton Zoo
ƛ Pub.Info: URL & Date of Access
ƥ This webpage will be referenced as:
ƛ Hamilton þity þouncil. (2001). Hamilton Zoo.
Retrieved October 7, 2004, from the Hamilton Zoo
No underline
h 7h
1. A webpage (A document in an Internet
only journal)
New Zealandƞs Information Network. (n.d.).
Hamilton Visitor's Guide & Visitor Information -
Hamilton City, Waikato, New Zealand. Retrieved
October 11, 2004, from
h 7h
2. A website (multiple documents)
When Internet documents comprises multople
pages (it has different URLs), acknowledge its

American Psychological Association. (2003). APA

style; Electronic References. Retrieved October 7,
2004, from
1. An online article based on a print source
(The same journal is available on the WWW:
i.e. PDF version)
Adderly, B. (2001). Mother natureƞs medicine chest
[Electronic version]. Better Nutrition, 63 (8), 30-32.
2. An Articles in a Library Database (A HTML
Adderly, B. (2001). Mother natureƞs medicine chest. Better
Nutrition, 63 (8), 30-32. Retrieved September 30, 2004,
from Academic Research Library database.
V  8  #
1. Use PDF version if possible.
PDF is a scanned printed article. Page numbers
should be available as printed articles.
2. Online Article in the HTML version.
There will no page numbers. If paragraph numbers are
visible, use them in place of page numbers.
Use the ¶ symbol or the abbreviation para.

(Adderly, 2001, para. 5) or (Adderly, 2001,. ¶ 5).

V  8  #
3. Online Article in the HTML version.
If there are headings in the document, use the heading and
the paragraph number.

ƠPrivacy has long been defined as the night of an individual

to be left alone and to be able to control the flow of
information about him or herselfơ (Liu & Armett, 2002,
Influence on E-commerce, para. 1)

ƠThe current system of managed care and the current

approachƦ are shortsightedơ (Beutler, 2000, þonclusion
section, para. 1).
á È
Listing Bibiograp ic
Êeferences in 4our
Êeference List wit
APA ste
ƥ The list should be placed after the body of
your essay.
ƥ List all reference entries 

ƥ If no author is known, the entry should start
with its 
(ignore Ɲtheƞ or Ɲaƞ Ɲanƞ).
ƥ Some webpages & many newspaper articles
do not have authorƞs name.
Drivers reject fuel prices driven by war threat. (2003,
March 7). áE áMAÊ EÊALD. p.1.
ƥ n the text, use a short title (or the full title if
it is short) for the parenthetical citation.
e.g. (ƠDrivers reject fuel,ơ 2003)
ƥ If there are two or more references by the same
author in the same year, add alphabet after the
publication year.
Statistics New Zealand (2002a). áhe annual report.
Wellington, New Zealand: Author.

Statistics New Zealand (2002b). áhe New

Zealand Official 4ear Book. Auckland, New
Zealand: Author.
Use ƠAuthorơ if Author and
Publisher are identical.
In the textƦ
According to Statistics New Zealand (2002b, pp.
306-310), international tourismƞs contribution to NZ
economy is tremendous.
ƥ When you have completed your reference list,
make sure that:
ƛ each entry has four basic elements.
ƛ each entry referenced appears in both the text
and the list.
ƛ the text citation and reference list entry are
identical in spelling and year.
ƥ Always check with  cc  if you
are not sure - use Ơindexes.ơ
You have learned:
ƥ How to format citations in text using the APA
reference style.
ƥ How to make a reference list using the APA
reference style.
ƥ How to use the Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association (þall
Number: BF11.A69).

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