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m   


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DEFINATION
R Matter = anything that occupies space and has mass
ELEMENT & COMPOUND

R Element = subtance that consist of only one type of


atoms
R Compound = subtance that contains two or more
element which are chemically bonded together.
CATEGORIZATION

Matter

Element Compound

Atom Molecule Molecule Ion


CATEGORIZATION
  m 
Atom Molecule Molecule Ion
Gold, Au 
Iron, Fe 
Silicon dioxide, SiO2 
Instant coffee 
Zinc oxide, ZnO 
Nitrogen, N2 
Air 
Ammonia, NH3 
Tetrachloromethane, 
CCl4
Ozone, O3 
Potassium sulphate, 
K2SO4
KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
R Matter consist of tiny and discrete particles
R Random motion and collide with each other

R There are spaces between the particles

R When a substance is heated, the particles move


faster.
R When a substance is cooled, the particles move
slower.
R At a fixed temperature, lighter particles move
faster than the heavier particles.
DIFFUSION
R A random movement of particles of a substances from
a region of high concentration to a region of low
concentration
R Brownian Movement:
! Movement of pollen in water[collision between pollen
grains and moving water molecules]
! Movement of pollen in air [collision between smoke
particles and the air particles]
DIFFUSION IN SOLID

R Copper(II) sulphate crystals are made of copper(II) ions and


sulphate ions which are tiny and discrete.
R The particles in the copper(II) sulphate crystal will separate to
become ions and diffuse randomly upwards until the whole
agar turns blue.
R Diffusion of solid is defined operationally as the random
movement of particles to all directions in a solid.
DIFFUSION IN LIQUID

R Diffusion has taken place in the liquid.


R The rate of diffusion of the particles in water is faster
than the diffusion rate of particles in solid.
R The occurrence of diffusion proves that potassium
permanganate(VII) consist of tiny and discrete
particles.
DIFFUSION IN GAS
R Bromine vapour is made of
tiny and discrete molecules
that move randomly to fill
up space.
R Bromine vapour moves
randomly and diffuses in all
directions in air from areas
of higher concentration to
areas of lower
concentration.
EXERCISE 1

R The above Diagram shows two cotton wools soaked


with concentrated hydrochloric acid and concentrated
ammonia solution respectively, placed in a long tube.
After a few minutes, a white fume of ammonium
chloride is observed. Explain why this occur?
[3 marks]
ANSWER
R Solid ammonium chloride is produced when
hydrogen chloride reacts with ammonia gas.
R Ammonia molecules move faster than hydrogen
chloride molecules because the relative molecular
mass of ammonia is less than relative molecular
mass of hydrogen chloride.

Question 2
Write down the equation of the reaction. [1 mark]
HCl + NH3   · NH4Cl
MORE QUESTION
R Why does the tube need to be plugged at both ends?
So that the vapour of ammonia and hydrochloric acid
do not escape to the surrounding.

R Why the tube is placed horizontally?


To avoid the effect of gravitational pull.

R Why does it take several minutes before the white


fume appears?
The collision between the ammonia molecule/
hydrochloric acid molecule with the air molecule slow
down the diffusion rate. Therefore the ammonia
molecule and hydrochloric acid molecule take longer
time to meet each other.
THE INTER-CONVERSION OF
THE STATE OF MATTER
m  ! "   

  !   " !
 m
  !   m #" !
 m
EXERCISE 2

R Figure (a) shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the


heating process of substance Y. In this experiment, solid
substance Y was heated in a water bath from room
temperature until it turned into gas. Substance Y was
stirred throughout the whole experiment. The temperature
of substance Y was recorded at fixed intervals of time and
the graph of temperature against time during the heating of
substance Y is shown in figure (b) above.
QUESTION
a. What is the physical state of naphthalene at
the region
i. QR ii. ST iii. TU

b. What is the time when substance Y begins to


melt?

c. What is the boiling point of substance Y?

d. Why the temperature of M remains unchanged


from time t3 to t2 even though heating
continues?

e. Why water bath is used for heating the solid of


substance Y?

f. Give a reason why water bath is suitable in this


experiment?
QUESTION
g. Name 2 substance, whose boiling point can be determined by using
water bath.

h. Given that the boiling point of substance X is around 105ºC. Why


can·t we use water bath to determine the boiling point of substance
Y?

i. Suggest another method which can replace water bath in this


experiment.

j. Why stirring of substance Y is required throughout the whole


experiment?

k. Compare the kinetic energy of particles of substance Y at t1 and t3.

l. State one different in the arrangement of the particles of substance


Y before t1 and after t4.
SYNTHESIZE ATOMIC STRUCTURE
R John Dalton 1805

R6    

   
   
 
R6      
      
   


 6   
 
        
   
SYNTHESIZE ATOMIC STRUCTURE
R J.J Thomson 1897

R 2     


SYNTHESIZE ATOMIC STRUCTURE
R Ernest Rutherford 1911

R 6      



     

       
SYNTHESIZE ATOMIC STRUCTURE
R Neils Bohr 1913

R w       
     
R w      
       
 
SYNTHESIZE ATOMIC STRUCTURE
R James Chadwick 1932

R   



     
MODERN ATOMIC MODEL
R The atomic model in the present day is based on
the contributions of the above scientists.
R According to the modern atomic model,
! The central nucleus consists of protons and neutrons.
It containing almost all the mass of the atom.
! the nucleus of an atom is very small compared to the
size of the atom
! the electrons are orbiting outside the nucleus in the
electron shells
! the electrons are moving in electron shells at a very
high speed and we cannot determine the position of
the electrons at a particular time
 
$ "m "m# 

R Proton, neutron and electron are called
subatomic particles

R Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus


of an atom.
R Electrons move in the shells that surround the
nucleus.
R Nucleus is positively charged (proton)
R Atom is neutral (equal number of p and e)
PROTON & ELECTRON NUMBER
R Proton number = number of protons in the atom
R Nucleon number = total number of protons and
neutrons in the atom
R Proton number also shows the number of
electrons in a neutral atom.
SYMBOL OF AN ELEMENT
Nucleon number 23
Proton number 11 Na

Number of protons, electrons &


neutrons ?
EXAMPLE
ISOTOPES
R Atoms of the same element with the same
number of protons but different number of
neutrons/ different nucleon number
EXAMPLE
USES OF ISOTOPES IN DAILY LIVES
 "

Medicine Cobalt-60 Radiotherapy for cancer
treatment
Iodine-131 Treat thyroid cancer
Sodium-24 Determine location of
blood clog
Agriculture Phosphorus-32 Study the rate of
adsorption of phosphorus
Carbon-14 Study the path of carbon
during photosynthesis
Archeology Carbon-14 Estimate the age of fossils
and artifacts
Industry Sodium-24 Detect leakages of pipe
Food Cobalt-60 Destroy bacteria in food
THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF
AN ATOM

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ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT
RFor a neutral atom,
number of electrons = number of
protons.
RElectrons occupy the shell closest to
the nucleus first. Electron only start
occupy the next shell when the
previous shell has been fully
occupied.
VALENCE ELECTRONS
RValence electrons are electrons
found in the outermost occupied
shell ( the furthest from the
nucleus ) of an atom.
RThe number of valence
electrons in an atom can be
determined from its electron
arrangement.