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Industrial Training Institute Amreli

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£ Types, grades, shapes and sizes of insulation.
£ Their proper selection & uses.
£ Different types of joints e.g. Britannia, straight, tee
western union.
£ Care in making a good joint.
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£ ›etters, signs and symbols used in electrical terminology.
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£ phm¶s law & its application.
 
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£ Concept of ele. Circuit


£ Series, parallel & mixed circuits.
  

£ A.C. meters
£ D.C. meters
6  |

£ ›aw of resistance.
£ Problems on law of resistance.
M $|""%% 

£ ›aws.
£ Their applicationY
 
& "   

£›aws.
£Its application.



£Testing of wiring
£Installations.
£Common faults, their causes & remedies.
Ú  "

£Its purpose & types.


£I.E. rules regarding earth & earth resistance.
' 

£Veasurement of earth resistance by use of Vegger.


 
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£ Electrolysis.
£ Primary & secondary cell, dry cell, standard cell.
£ Grouping of cells.
£ Construction & working of lead acid, alkaline.
£ Battery charging.
  

£ Their types, shapes, properties, B-H curves.


£ Vethods of magnetization & demagnetization.
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£ Their advantages over permanent magnets.


£ Faradays law & ›enz's law (self & mutual indu.)
 
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£!orking & types.
£Capacity of capacitor & energy stored in capacitor.
6  | | |

£á.m.s. value, max.value, ave.value,


£Inductance, capacitance, impedence,reactance
£Power & power factor & improving method.
M  | || 

£Single phase & three phase.


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£!orking principle
£Types as per core, 1-phase, 3-phase.
 
£Parts of x¶mer.
£Different methods used for cooling.
£Parallel operation of x¶mer.
£›osses of x¶mer (hysterias & eddy current).

 

£ types & laws.


£Construction & working of incandescent lamp, discharge
lamp, fluorescent lamp, mercury vapor lamp, neon lamp.
Ú  ||

£Study of simple contactor & alarm circuit.


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)* +, - .*
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It is called vulcanized insulation rubber wire. Copper &


aluminum conductor are used in its. áubber coating
vulcanized on its. now single & double braided wires are
mostly in a uses. But Its lower tensile strength,chamical
reaction & bed insulation so its uses low in today.
|   .*

It is called crab tyre sheath wire & tuff rubber sheath wire.
Hard & good rubber coating on copper wire in this wire. Its
uses in house wiring & industrial wiring. It is used in a11kv.
 |
r + ,- .*

Ro any weather reaction , in this types of wire. Because it


has cotton breeding with water proof. But it is flammable so
no in use now.
 | .*

It is called led covered wire. ›ed pipe on rubber insulation


&its coating on conductor. It is very good in moisture
condition but less tensile strength so low uses now.
6 || .*

It is called mineral insulated copper covered wire. In this


types wire copper conductor coated with magnesium oxide.
And After copper coating is coated on its. In case of
moisture weather PVC coating (serving) is coated on its. It
 |
is uses in mines, factory, furnace, boiler, rolling mills etc.
magnesium oxide is used for avoiding moisture problems.
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It is called poly venial chloride wire. PVC coating on copper


conductor so its so many advantages as follows.
(a) High die electric strength
(b) High tensile strength
(c) Vore defense against moisture
(d) High life
(e) Ro disturb in vibration
%/ 
This is flexible wire.
Its P.V.C. insulation wire.
There is two core wire. A red
!ire is use for phase & black
For neutron wire. It is also
Called 32\20 wire, its means
32 is gauge & 20 is no, of wire
Its used for temporary wiring,
Fan wiring, tube wiring etc.
" | 
This is three
core wire. It is pvc
insulated wire. Its
used for 1-phase.
There is blue wire
for phase, yellow
wire for neutral &
brown wire for earth.
There is color code
wire used for wiring
&supply.
|  | 
There is cable wire. Its
Use for power transmit ion.
1- core
2- pvc insulation
3- oil duct
4- metallic screen
5- rubber insulation
 |
|
Introduction
Under ground cable is used electricity distribution
& street light in mega and big cities and area in place of over
head line. Its looking so wonder & beautiful but also so costly.
General construction & main parts of cable
£Core
£Insulation
£Vetallic sheath
£Bedding
£Armoring
£Serving
|  | 
|
Classification of cables as construction
1. ›ow tension cable
2. Belted cable
3. Screened or H type cable
4. S› type cable (separate lead sheath cable)
5. HS› type cable (H+S›)
6.Super tension cable
(a) pil field cable
(b) Gas pressure cable
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1. áubber insulated.
2. PVC insulated.
3. Polyethylene insulated.
4. Varnish cambric insulated.
5. Paper insulated.
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A Instrument which is use for measure Cross Area
(gauge) of wire

2* +, - 33


(a) 1/18
(b) 3/20
(c) 32/20

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‡ To measure Cross area of wire
‡ To measure gauge
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Introduction
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Different types of sign & symbols of ele
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Õ) Reutral = R
8) Positive polarity = 7
9) Regative polarity = -
10) delta connection =
11) Star connection = Y
12) áesistor =
13) Variable áesi. =
14) impedance = Ë
15) Inductor =
16) !inding =
1Õ) Capacitor =
18) Earth =
 !
19) Fault =
20) Going up wiring =
21) Going down wiring =
22) 1-pole switch = o
23) 2- pole switch = o
24) 3-pole switch = o
25) Two way switch= o
26) Intermediate switch = o
2Õ) Push button switch =
28) socket 5- amp. =ŀ
29) Socket 15- amp. =
30) ›amp = X
31) Fluorescent lamp =
 !
32) Heater =
33) Bell =
34) Siren =
35) Ceiling fan =
36) Exhaust fan =

3Õ) volt meter = ]


38) ammeter =
39) wattmeter = 
40) frequency meter= 
41) phm meter = 
 !
V
42) A.C. Votor =

43) A.C. Generator=
44) D.C. Votor = V

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Introduction
Defination
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Equation ,
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Equation solution
Triangular equation symbols.
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Introduction
Different types of meters
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4 1"


4 1"


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412""


4 1"


4 1"


Difference bet¶n A.C. & D.C. meters
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There is varies function able
type meter. It is measure
varies A.C. voltage, D.C.
voltages,D.C. ampere &
resistance in ohms ranges.
Its also measure diode¶s
value etc.
2*13 0* *1+81+
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Introduction
A.C. ele. Circuits
D.C. ele. Circuits
Different types of fault in ele
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áESISTARCE
Introduction
£Conductor, insulator, semi conductor.
Unit of resistance
á=V/I
Different metters effecting on resistance
(1) length of conductor
(2) area of conductor
(3) materials of conductor
(4) temperature of conductor
Kirchoff law & their application
1) Voltage law
2) Current law
!heat stone bridge and its application
Kirchoff law
£Kirchhoff¶s First law
At each junction of currents, the sum of the incoming
current is equal to the sum of the outgoing currents.´
If all inflowing currents have positive signs, then we
can state that, I1+I2=I3+I4+I5
+I1+I2-I3-I4-I5=0
in the above example the sum of all the currents flowing
at the junction (node) is equal to zero.
ȈI = 0
£Kirchhoff¶Second ›aw
in closed circuits, the applied terminal voltage V is
equal to the sum of the voltage drop V1+V2 and so forth." If
all the generated volt. Are taken as positive, and all the
consumed voltage are taken as negative, then it can be stated
that; in each closed circuit the sum of all voltage is equal to
zero. ȈV = 0
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1) ppen fault.
2) short circuits fault.
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1) Vetal conduits.
2) P.V.C. conduits.
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1) wooden casing capping.
2) P.V.C. casing capping.
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Ear thing is used for protection and safety of
instruments and our. It is used for grounding to short circuit
current.
Connection of instrument with ground with help of
wire is called ear thing.
,
(1) plate ear thing
(2) pipe ear thing
   34*13 + + *+10
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4 (*, +*13

these electrodes shall be made of metal rod or pipe


having a clean surface not covered by paint, enamel or other
poorly conducting material. rod electrodes of steel or
galvanized iron shall be at least 16mm in diameter and those
of copper shall be at least 12.5 mm diameter. Pipe electrodes
shall not be smaller than 38mm internal diameter, if made of
galvanised iron or steel and 100mm internal diameter if made
of cast iron. Electrodes shall as far as practicable be
embedded in earth below the permanent moisture level. The
length of the rod & pipe electrodes shall not be less than
2.5m. Except where rock is encountered, pipes and rods shall
be driven to a depth of 2.5 m where rock is encountered at a
 "
Depth of less than 2.5m the electrodes may be buried inclined
to the vertical. In this case too the length of the electrodes
shall be atleast 2.5m and the inclination not more than 30º
from the vertical. Deeply driven pipes and rods are however
effective where the soil resistivity decreases with depth or
where a sub-stratum of low resistivity occurs at a depth
greater than those to which rods and pipes are normally
driven. Pipes or rods as far as possible shall be one piece. For
deeply driven rods, joints between sections shall be made by
means of a screwed coupling which should not be of a greater
diameter than that of the rods which it connects together.
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(+ +*13

Plate electrodes when made of galvanised iron or steel


shall not be less than 6.3 mm in thickness. Plate electrodes of
copper shall be not less than 3.15 mm in thickness. Plate
electrodes shall be of a size at least 60cm by 60cm. Plate
electrodes shall be buried such that the top edge is at a depth
not less than 1.5 m from the surface of the ground. !here the
resistance of one plate electrode is higher than the required
value. Two or more plates shall be used in parallel. In such
case the two plates shall be separated from each other by not
less than 8m. Plate shall preferably be set vertically. Use of
plate electrodes is recommended only where the current
carrying capacity is the prime consideration for example,
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In generating stations if necessary plates electrodes shall have
a galvanize iron water pipe buried vertically and adjacent to
the electrodes. pne end of the pipe shall be at least 5cm
above the surface of the ground, and it need not be more than
10cm. The internal diameter of the pipe shall be at least 5cm
and need not be more than 10cm. The length of pipe, if under
the earth¶s surface, shall be such that it should be able to
reach the centre of the plate. In no case, however shall it
more be than the depth of the bottom edge of the plate.

1+40+*1
)*  - 833
1) To measure insulation resistance of wire.
2) Testing of faults.
3) Testing of continuities of circuits.
4) To measure earth resistance .
+0+ - 833
Vegger is one type of a D.C. generator and used for
measurement of insulation resistance of cable and earth. It is
rotate in 160 rpm with help of handle. It is generate about 500
volt. Scale of megger is in ohms range. Vegger have two or
three terminals, there are ear thing, ground and line.
33    + ++
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1+40+*1
£Preparation of electrolyte
£Primary & Secondary cell
£Dry cell & Standard cell
Grouping of cells
Construction & working of lead acid & alkaline
Common defects in accumulators
Theirs causes & remedies
Batteries charging
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£Types of magnet
(1) natural magnet
(2) artificial magnet
(a) permanent magnet
(b) electromagnet
£Shapes of magnet
(1) bar magnet
(2) horse shoe magnet
(3) ring magnet
(4)cylindrical magnet
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(1) self
(2) mutual
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1) First law  whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux,
an e.m.f. is induced in that conductor´
2) second law the magnitude of induced e.m.f. is equal
to the rate of charge of flux linkage´
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Vonolithic 1pF -10pF 50-200 UHF,áF coupling
Disc &tube ceramics 1pF -1ȝF 50-500 General, VHF
Paper 0.001 -1ȝF 200-1600 Votors, power supply
Film- polypropylene 0.001 -0.4ÕȝF 400-1600 TV vertical circuit, áF
Polyester 0.001 -1ȝF 100-600 Entertainment-electronics
Polystyrene 0.001 -1ȝF 100-200 General, high stability
Polycarbonate 0.01 -18ȝF 50-200 General
Vetallized polypropylene 4 -60 ȝF 400VAC 50 Hz AC motors
Vetallized polyester 0.01 -10ȝF 100-600 Coupling, áF filtering
Electrolytic aluminum 1 -500000ȝF 5-500 Power suppliers, filters
Electrolytic tantalum 0.1 -1000ȝF 3-125 Small space requirement
Electrolytic non polarized 0.4Õ -220ȝF 16-100 ›oudspeaker cross-over
Vica 330pF -0.05ȝF 50-100 High frequency
Silver Vica 5 -820pF 50-500 High frequency
Variable ceramic 1 -5 to 16- 100pF 200 áadio,TV,communication
Film 0.8- 5 to 1.2 -30pF 50 pscillators, antenna,
air 10- 365pF 50 Broadcast, receivers
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£ á.m.s. value.
£ Vaximum value.
£ Average value.
£ Inductance.- Xl =2šf›
£ Capacitance. - Xc = 1/2šfC
£ Impedance
£ áeactance.
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Introduction
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Comparison of series & parallel resonant circuits.
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Comparison between 1-phase & 3-phase.
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(1)copper losses.
It produces in winding of primary &
secondary of transformer.´
!=I2á watt
(2) hystersis losses.
It produces in core of transformer.´
(3) eddy current losses.
It is also produces in core of transformer´
 
1+40+*1
£ Terminology
›aws of illuminations.
›aw of inverse squares.
£ ›ambert¶s cosine law.
, - *3+*13 +8
£ Direct ›ighting.
£ Semi ± direct lighting.
£ Semi ±indirect lighting.
£ Indirect lighting.
1 -0+*1
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(1) incandescent lamps

(2) fluorescent lamps

(3)mercury lamps

(4) sodium vapour lamps


%| (
Principle of a discharge lamp
the basic principle of a gas discharge lamp is explained.
Gasses are normally poor conductors, especially at
atmospheric & higher pressures, but application of suitable
voltage( known as ignition voltage) between two electrodes in
a sealed envelope containing gas at low pressure ionises the
gas and current passes from one electrode to the other.
A glass shall with two electrodes apart is connected
through lead in wires to the voltage source. The space within
the shall is filled with low pressure vapor . !hen the voltage
applied to the electrode is increase to a certain value , the
gases inside gets ionise & start conducting when once the
ionization take place & current is conducted from one to
%| (
The other, the resistance in the circuit drop very rapidly it
causes heavy current drawl a device to limit the excess current
must be provided the current flow through the low pressure
gas is called discharged this causes the gas vapor to emit
radiation ultra violet region. The UV radiation can not be
perceived by the human eye, certain phosphors have the
property of emitting light in the visible spectrum when the
phosphor is exposed to UV rays.
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