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‡ A thickening on the helix at the junction of


the upper and middle thirds.
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‡  
  is the transfer of pollen grains
from the anther to the stigma of a flower.
‡ Since flowers cannot move, pollinators
must carry the pollen for them.

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u  
 
‡ Many flowers attract animals to carry their
pollen by offering a food reward, sweet
nectar and protein-rich pollen.
‡ The flower's color, shape, and fragrance
attract these animals.

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‡ Active during the day
‡ Visit flowers to get pollen and nectar for food.
‡ Use their senses of sight and smell
‡ Prefer sweet-smelling flowers and blossoms that
are yellow, blue, purple, and white (red looks like
black to them).
‡ Land on the flower to
collect the food.


  

‡ Active during the day


‡ Visit flowers to get nectar for food.
‡ Use mainly their sense of sight
‡ Prefer blossoms that are red or orange.
‡ Not strong enough to hover over a flower, but
must land to feed.
‡ Have a long tongue called a proboscis they use
as a straw to sip nectar out of a flower.
w

‡ Active during twilight or night
‡ Visit flowers to get nectar for food
‡ Use mainly their sense of smell, and some sight
‡ Prefer blossoms that are white, off-white, or
yellow
‡ Attracted to strong, sweet, vegetable-like odors
‡ Usually hover above the flower to feed
‡ Have a long tongue called a proboscis they use
as a straw.

‡ Active during the day
‡ Visit flowers to get nectar for food.
‡ Use only their sense of sight
‡ Prefer blossoms that are red or yellow
‡ Hummingbirds hover next to the flower to feed;
other types of birds perch to feed.
‡ Birds that feed on nectar have long bills to reach
the nectar
‡ Visit larger flowers.
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 u  

‡ Flies
o some flies feed on nectar and pollen as adults,
o some are attracted to flowers that mimic dead
animals and these plants have a strong, unpleasant
odor, and are brown or orange in color.

Sapromyophilous
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‡ Beetle
o flowers are usually large, greenish or off-white in
color, flattened or dish shaped and heavily scented.
Scents may be spicy, fruity, or similar to decaying
organic material.
‡ Bats
o flowers tend to be large, bell-shaped, white or light
coloured, open at night and have strong odours

Sumatran
corpse flower
African Baobab
v 
 
‡ Flowers are often small and inconspicuous and
lack petals
‡ Flowers do not produce nectar and they do not
have any scent.
‡ Most trees, grasses, wheat, rice, maize, pine
‡ Usually have exposed stamens, so that the light
pollen grains can be carried by the wind.
v
 
 
‡ The most uncommon of all the pollination
techniques
‡ It takes place in rivers or streams
‡ Two types:
o Surface pollination: pollen float on the water¶s
surface drifting until it contacts flowers
o Under water pollination
‡ Examples:
pondweed and waterweed
Ê  
 
o The pollen grains can be transferred within
the same flower or across flowers on the
same plant

stigma pollen grains


from anther

 2009 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Private Limited


§  
 
o The pollen grains can also be transferred from
one flower to another.

 2009 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Private Limited


ÚÊ 
‡ Identify the male and female parts of a
flower
‡ Recognise that pollination is the transfer of
pollen grains from the anther to the stigma
of a flower
‡ Identify the agents that help in pollination
‡ Understand Self and Cross pollination