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What are these???
„ It was derived from the Greek word
³Telos>>End´ ³meros>> Part´

„ Repetitive DNA sequence ³TTAGGG´

„ Present at the ends of linear chromosomes

„ The telomeres of humans consist of as many as

2000 repeats of the sequence 5' mm 
Who discovered???
„  Muller coined the word Telomere

„ Recently in 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn,

Carol W Greider and ack W zostak
awarded Nobel prize for the discovery of ³how
chromosomes are protected by telomeres and
the enzyme telomerase´
ow these are formed???
„ Telomeres are
formed during the
end replication
„ Telomerase is an enzyme that adds telomere
repeat sequences to the 3' end of DNA strands

„ Its single snoRNA molecule called m

 provides an
AAUCCC (in mammals) template to guide the
insertion of TTAGGG

„ Its protein component called mm

catalytic action

„ Thus telomerase is a reverse transcriptase

melomeres and Cellular Aging
„ Telomeres are important so their steady shrinking
with each mitosis might impose a finite life span on

„ This phenomenon is called Replicative senescence

„ hrinkage of telomeres be a clock that determines

the longevity of a cell lineage and thus is
responsible for replicative senescence

„ ome cells do not undergo replicative senescence

melomeres and Cancer
„ Most cancer cells have regained the ability to
synthesize high levels of telomerase

„ Thus are able to prevent further shortening of

their telomeres

„ Perhaps agents that prevent the expression of

the gene for telomerase will provide a new
class of weapons in the fight against cancer
melomeres and mransplanted Cells

Gne approach to gene therapy

„ Remove cells from the patient,

„ Transform them with the gene for the product
that the patient has been unable to synthesize,
„ Return them to the patient

ike all normal somatic cells are mortal,

after a series of mitotic divisions, they die out
melomeres and diseases
„ ome inherited diseases are now known to be
caused by telomerase defects, including
certain forms of congenital aplastic anemia

„ Insufficient cell divisions in the stem cells of

the bone marrow lead to severe anemia

„ Certain inherited diseases of the skin and the

lungs are also caused by telomerase defects
The recent discoveries have added a new
dimension to our understanding of the telomere,
shed light on disease mechanisms, and stimulated
the development of potential new therapies I
hope we will share our hands in this research in
the future to make miracles
„ http://nobelprize org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laurea
tes/2009/adv pdf
„ Muller  The remaking of chromosomes
Collecting Net 1938; 13:181‰198
„ Greider CW, Blackburn E Identification of a
specific telomere terminal transferase activity in
 1985; 43:405-13
„ Greider CW, Blackburn E A telomeric sequence
in the RNA of m     
       synthesis Nature 1989;
resented by,