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EXPERIMENT 8- ZENER DIODE

FADHLINA MAZRAH BT MOHAMMAD NAJIB


AP080126

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OBJECTIVES
1) Measure and plot the forward and reverse
characteristics of a typical Zener diode using
digital multimeter.
2) Demonstrate the forward and reverse characteristics
of a typical Zener diode using oscilloscope.

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EQUIPMENTS
1) Power Source 0-10Vac
2) Power Source 0-40Vdc
3) Digital Multimeter
4) Oscilloscope
5) R1-470 Ω
6) R2-10 Ω
7) VR1-Zener Diode
8) Project board with connecting wires

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PROCEDURES FOR OBJECTIVE
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FIGURE 2
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1. a)The circuit shown in Figure 2. Series resistor
R1 limits the maximum diode current to
approximately 80mAdc. The digital multimeter
was set to a low dc volt range.
 b)The dc source voltage Es was slowly increase
until the forward diode voltage,VF, indicated by
the digital multimeter, is 0.2 Vdc.
 c)The forward diode current, IF were measure and
record in table 1.
 d)For each of the forward voltages listed in the
Table was repeated.
 e)The voltage was return to zero.

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RESULT ( TABLE 1 )
Forward volts, VF (Vdc) ±0.01 Forward current, IF (mAdc) ±0.01
0.20 0.00
0.40 0.00
0.50 0.00
0.55 0.00
0.60 0.07
0.65 0. 10
0.70 0.35
0.75 1 . 71

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 2.a)The forward current
measurements from table 1
was plot on the graph.

 b)A smooth curve through all


of plotted points was draw.

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3. a)The circuit was change to that shown in

Figure 4, by reversing the Zener diode


connection.
 b)The dc source voltage,Es was slowly
increase until the reverse voltage,VR
indicated by the digital multimeter, is 2Vdc.
 C)The reverse diode current, IR were
measure and record in Table 2.
 d)The measurement were repeated for each
of the reverse voltage listed in the table.
 e)The voltage was return to zero.

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RESULT ( TABLE 2 )
Reverse voltage,VR (Vdc) ±0.01 Reverse diode current, IR (mAdc)
2.0 ±0.01
0.00
3.0 0.00
4.0 0.00
5.0 0.00
6.0 0.00
7.0 0.00
8.0 0.00
9.0 0.00
10.0 0.00
11.0 0.05
12 . 0 0.1 0

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4. a)The reverse current measurements

from Table 2 were plot on the graph.


The lower left hand (reverse volts)
portion of the graph was use
 b)A smooth curve was draw through

all plotted point.

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PROCEDURES FOR
OBJECTIVE 2

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5. a)The test circuit in Figure 5 was examine. The Zener

diode is tested by applying a controlled ac voltage


across the anode and cathode through current
limiting resistor R1 and R2. The ac voltage was set to
a value above the Zener voltage, alternately biased
the diode in forward and reverse direction, this
would cause both forward and reverse diode current
to low through R1 and R2. The voltage drop across
R2 is applied to the vertical input of the oscilloscope
and cause the spot to move up and down. Vertical
deflection is proportional to current. The vertical
scale divisions was converted directly to current since
the value of R2 is 10 Ω.

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b)The oscilloscope was calibrate. The vertical
deflection for 0.05V/cm was calibrate and the
horizontal SWEEP TIME/CM was set to EXT.
The spot was center by adjusting the
horizontal and vertical positioning controls.
The intensity was reduce to prevent damage to
the CRT.
c)The output of the variable ac power source

was connect between the EXT SYN/HOR


input and GDN of the oscilloscope.
d)The digital multimeter was set to 15Vac range

and was connect across the output of the ac


power source.

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e)The output of the ac power source was adjust
for 7.07Vrms (20 volts peak-to-peak) as
indicated on the digital multimeter. The
oscilloscope VARIABLE/HOR GAIN control
was adjust until the horizontal trace covers
10cm. The horizontal input was calibrated for
2 volts per cm.
f)The voltage was return to zero. The
oscilloscope and digital multimeter was
disconnect. The oscilloscope were leave
horizontal and vertical gain controls set at
their calibrated position.

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g)The circuit was connect as shown in Figure 5.
The anode of VR1 was connect to the EXT
SYNC/HOR input and the cathode to the
vertical input of the oscilloscope. The
oscilloscope was connect to the ground to test
circuit ground.
h)The output voltage of the power supply was

gradually increase to 20 volts peak-to-peak, as


indicated by the digital multimeter, while
observing the oscilloscope screen.
i)The current-voltage values against the values

as plotted on the graph paper was compare.


j)The voltage was return to zero.

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DISCUSSION

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DISCUSSION FOR OBJECTIVE 1
 1)The voltage of Zener diode
forward biased,VF is 0.60Vdc.
 2)Comparison of forward
characteristics between the
Zener diode and the
convensional Silicon diode.

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Zener diode Silicon diode

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 3) The Zener( avalanche) action occur when Voltage
drop,VZequal to 12.0V. Current did not flow
through the diode until it reaches
the knee voltage.
4) A conventional silicon operated in the reverse
breakdown region of its operating curve is normally
destroy. But ,The Zener diode is specially designed
to have a greatly reduced breakdown voltage and
always keep voltage always higher than breakdown.
A Zener diode is doped more heavily than other
diodes. This doping allows the Zener diode to hold a
specific voltage despite fluctuations in electrical
current when the Zener diode is reverse-biased.

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DISCUSSION FOR OBJECTIVE 2
1)The voltage breakdown from A is 12V
and voltage breakdown from B is
8.36 V. This result differ because
the resist 10 Ω was adding in
Experiment B. Addition of this
resistor cause the current change.
Therefore the result of Experiment
A and B are different.

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Demonstrate the forward and reverse

characteristics of a typical Zener using an


oscilloscope.

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QUIZ

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A Zener diode differs from a conventional silicon diode?

 Zener diode is a special kind of diode which


permits current to flow in the forward
direction as normal and also allow it to flow
in the reverse direction when the voltage is
above certain value which is breakdown
voltage known as Zener voltage.
 A convensional silicon diode will not allow
the significant if it reverse biased below its
reverse breakdown voltage.

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2) A Zener diode can be use as what?

• Since the voltage dropped across a


Zener diode is a known and fixed
value, Zener diode used to
regulate the voltage in electric
circuit. Zener diode are widely
used as voltage reference and
regulate the voltage across a small
circuit.

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3) What is Zener diode voltage?

• The Zener diodes maintain a fixed voltage in


an electrical circuit. They are designed so
that when a certain voltage is reached, the
diode breaks down without damaging the
circuit.
 4) A Zener diode is normally connected?

• When the Zener diode are connected in


parellel with variable voltage source so that it
is reverse biased, a Zener diode conducts
when the voltage reaches the diodes reverse
breakdown voltage.
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is the resistance of the Zener diode in the breakdown region?

• V=IR
• R=V/I
 = 12.0 = 120.0 kΩ
 0. 1 x 10-3

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What is the maximum Zener current the diode can safely hand

Maximum Current = Power/ Voltage,


Power = I2R , I=V/R
 1 = 1 + 1
 R 470 Ω 10 Ω
 1 = 243

 R 235
 R = 9.79 Ω

I = V/R

 = 6.8V/9.79 Ω

 =0.69 A

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CONCLUSION

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• The voltage current characteristics of
Zener diode are similar to
conventional silicon diode when the
Zener diode is biased forward. But in
reverse biased, the Zener diode act
same as conventional silicon diode,
until the reverse breakdown voltage
value is reach. At this point,
conventional silicon is normally
destroy but Zener diode have a
greatly reduced breakdown voltage
and always keep voltage always
higher than breakdown.
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 THANK YOU . . .

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