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m   m

A radian is the angle measure of a perfectly cut piece of pie.

As soon as we see
that the arc length
equals the radius,
r
we know the central
angle is 1 radian.
r

r
Since circumference C of
a circle with radius r is
calculated using 2› r,

It follows that a complete


rotation will produce an
angle of 2› radians
n° Ƨ rad
=
180 ° › rad
m  
m

ïhen we construct a circle graph, we assume that the | | of a V  of a


circle is u u | to the V  .

The length of the arc bounding the sector is proportional to the sector angle and is

called the  




Sector

Arc Length

Sector Angle
Arc Length of Sector Sector Angle
=
Circumference Full-turn Angle
 
Calculate the arc
length of a sector of a
circle of radius 20 cm
if the sector angle is
140°.
   
  m 
m mm 

 m   
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Solution

What do we know? r = 20 cm angle = 140°


L = ș°
2 ›r 360°
L = ș° 2›r L = (140)(2) › (20) = 49cm
360 360
 
Find the measure of the
angle, to the nearest
tenth of a degree,
subtended at the center
of a circle, radius R, by
the arc of each length
a) R b) 2R c) 3R


Úo back to the original proportion:
Arc Length = Sector Angle
Circumference Full-turn Angle

ïhat do we know?
a) R = Ƨ Ƨ = 360 = 57.3
2›R 360 2›
b) 2R = Ƨ Ƨ = 360 = 114.6
2›R 360 ›
c) 3R = Ƨ Ƨ = (3)(360) = 171.9
2›R 360 2›
In Example 2 we discovered that an angle of 180°/› {approximately 57°} is subtended at
the center of a circle by an arc length of R, where R is the radius.

Definition: One RADIAN is the measure of an angle which is subtended at the center of a
circle by an arc equal in length to the radius of the circle.

From this definition: 1 radian = 180°/›

Multiply both sides by › to get the following results:

› radians = 180°

Therefore, a full-tern angle, 360° is equal to 2› radians.


    m

Arc Length of Sector Sector Angle


=
Circumference Full-turn Angle
In DEÚREES

= Ƨ›r
180°
In RADIANS

=
 
A circle has radius 6.5 cm.
Calculate the length of an
arc of this circle
subtended by each angle.
a) 2.4 radians b) 75°


a) L = Ƨr
= (6.5)(2.4)
= 15.6 cm
b) L = Ƨ›r/180
= (75) › (6.5)/180
= 8.5 cm
‰
 
1. Convert from degrees to radians. Express the answer in
terms of ›.
a) 30° b) 60° c) 225° d) 300°
e) 330° f) 405° g) 120° h) 270°

2. Covert from radians to degrees.


a) ›/2rads b) -2 ›/3rads c) 3›/4rads d)2›rads
e) -3›/2rads f) 7›/4rads g) -11›/6rads h) ›/6rads
3. Find the length of the arc which subtends each angle at the
center of a circle of radius 5cm. Úive answers to 1 decimal place.
a) 2.0 rads b) 3.0 rads c) 1.8 rads
d) 6.1 rads e) 4.2 rads f) 0.6 rads

4. Find the length of the arc of a circle with radius 12 cm that


subtents each sector angle. Úive answers to 1 decimal place where
necessary

a) 135° b) 75° c) 105° d) 165°


e) 240° f) 180° g) 310° h) 200
5. Find the arc length to the nearest centimetre of the sector
of a circle with radius:
a) 7m, if the sector angle is:
i) 120° ii) 210°
b) 90cm, if the sector angle is:
i) 30° ii) 225°
c) 216mm, if the sector angle is:
i) 135° ii) 300°
6. How many radians are there in:
a) A full turn b) a half turn c) a quarter turn
7. Calculate the arc length to the nearest metre of a
sector of a circle with radius 6m if the sector
angle is 140°

8. Two sectors of the same circle have sector angles


of 35° and 105° respectively. The arc length of
the smaller sector is 17cm. ïhat is the arc
length of the larger sector?
9. The Earth travels in a nearly circular orbit around the sun.
The radius of the orbit is about 149 000 000 km.
a) ïhat is the measure in radians of the angle subtended at
the sun by the position of the Earth at two different times
24h apart?
b) About how far does the Earth travel in one day in its orbit
around the sun?
Earth now

Earth 24 hrs later


10. The   of an object is the angle per unit
time through which an object rotates about a rotation
center.
a) ïhat is the angular velocity in radians per second of a
car tire of diameter 64cm when the car is travelling at
100km/h?
b) ïrite an expression for the angular velocity in radians
per second for a car tire of diameter  centimeters
when the car is travelling at kilmeters per hour.

1 Centimeter per Second = 0.036 Kilometers per Hour


‰
 

1. Convert from degrees to radians. Express the answer in terms of ›.


a) 30° ›/6 b) 60°›/3 c) 225° 5›/4 d) 300° 5›/3
e) 330° 11›/6 f) 405° 9›/4 g) 120° 2›/3 h) 270° 3›/2

2. Covert from radians to degrees.


a) ›/2 90° b) -2 ›/3 120° c) 3›/4 135° d)2› 360°
e) -3›/2 f) 7›/4 g) -11›/6 h) ›/6
-270° 315° - 330° 30°
3. Find the length of the arc which subtends each angle at the
center of a circle of radius 5cm. Úive answers to 1 decimal place.
a) 2.0 rads 10 cm b) 3.0 rads 15cm c) 1.8 rads 9cm
d) 6.1 rads 30.5cm e) 4.2 rads 21cm f) 0.6 rads 3cm

4. Find the length of the arc of a circle with radius 12 cm that


subtents each sector angle. Úive answers to 1 decimal place where
necessary
a) 135° 28.3 b) 75° 15.7cmc) 105° 22cm d) 165° 34.5cm
cm

e) 240° 50.2 f) 180° 37.7cm g) 310° 64.9cm h) 200 41.9cm


cm
5. Find the arc length to the nearest centimetre of the sector
of a circle with radius:
a) 7m, if the sector angle is:
i) 120° 14.7 m ii) 210° 25.6 m

b) 90cm, if the sector angle is:


i) 30° 47.1cm ii) 225° 353.3 cm
c) 216mm, if the sector angle is:
i) 135° 508.7mm ii) 300° 1130.4mm
6. How many radians are there in:
a) A full turn 2› b) a half turn › c) a quarter turn ›/2
7. Calculate the arc length to the nearest meter of a
sector of a circle with radius 6m if the sector
angle is 140°
140 › × 6 ÷ 180 = 14.7m

8. Two sectors of the same circle have sector angles of 35°


and 105° respectively. The arc length of the smaller sector
is 17cm. ïhat is the arc length of the larger sector?
Radius small circle = radius big circle
LS = 17 = 35 ›r ÷ 180 ü r = 27.8435
Using found r and LB equation ü LB = 51cm
9. The Earth travels in a nearly circular orbit around the sun.
The radius of the orbit is about 149 000 000 km.
a) About how far does the Earth travel in one day in its orbit around the sun?
The Earth circles the sun once a year, how far does it go?
FIND CIRCUMFERENCE: 935720000km per year ÷ 365 days
Therefore it travels 2563616.43 km per day
b) ïhat is the measure in radians of the angle subtended at the sun by the position
of the Earth at two different times 24h apart?
Earth now
ƈ = L/r = 00.0172 rads

Earth 24 hrs later


10. The   of an object is the angle per unit
time through which an object rotates about a rotation
center.
a) ïhat is the angular velocity in radians per second of a car tire of diameter 64cm
when the car is travelling at 100km/h?

Angular Velocity = 360°/t (seconds) = 2›/t(seconds)


Ctire = 200.96
How many rotations per second?
100km/hr = 2777.7cm/s Vang = 360 2›
0.0723476 0.07
2777.7 cm = 200.96 = 4975°/s = 86.8 rads
s ?
= 0.0723476 seconds per rotation

1 Centimeter per Second = 0.036 Kilometers per Hour


ïrite an expression for the angular velocity in radians per second for a car tire of
diameter  centimeters when the car is travelling at kilometers per hour.
Vang = 360 = 2› ü where t is measured in seconds
t t
Speed (cm/s) = Circumference ü time = Circumference = 2›r
time Speed y
y (cm/s) = 0.036x (km/h)
we need d not r

Vang = 2›
›d ü 2 × 1
0.036x d 0.036X