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Models, approaches,

strategies & methods of


teaching

Models
Approaches
Strategies
Methods
LHL/BTSL/09
TEACHING
Models

4 types

Approaches

4 types

Strategies

4 types

Methods/Technique

LHL/BTSL/09 6 types
Inquiry Project

MODELS
LHL

Information processing Expository


Inductive Deductive

Approach
JO

Integrative Thematic

Eclectic
Teacher centered Student centered

Strategies
SS

Resources-based Task-based
Brain-storming Thematic

Methods Discussion
LHL

Story-telling

Mastery learning Demonstration


Models of Teaching & Its
Implications on T-L
Scope
Inquiry
Information-processing
Expository
Project
Constructivist (5E)**
LHL/BTSL/09
Models of Teaching
 Prescriptive system of procedures for
planners & teachers
 Goal: Effective process of teaching to
achieve instructional goals
 Functions:
 Provide guidance in planning materials,
interactions, environment & feedback
 “Blueprint for instruction
 Provides a scheme for research to use
as reference.

LHL/BTSL/09
4 Families/Groups of
Models of Teaching (Bruce
Joyce)
1. The social family
 partners in learning, role play, inquiry, etc.
2. The information-processing family
 Teaching students the skills of learning
through thinking (inductive/deductive
thinking)
3. The personal family
 Non directive, learner centered
4. The behavioral systems family
 Human beings ability to modify behavior
(Skinner, Mastery learning)

LHL/BTSL/09
INQUIRY
Activity: “ Story of the Mormon” or “The
Battle Ship”
o Discrepant event
o Group work: hypothesizing
o Plenary: Collecting further information
o Plenary testing the hypotheses & theorizing
o Reflection

LHL/BTSL/09
INQUIRY : Richard Suchman

INQUIRY is the active pursuit of meaning


involving thought processes that change
experiences to bits of knowledge. When we
see a strange object, for example, we may
be puzzled about what it is made of, what it
is used for, To find answers to questions
such as these we might examine the object
closely, subject it to certain tests, compare
it…..All these activities – observing,
LHL/BTSL/09
Cont…

theorizing, experimenting, theory testing


– are part of inquiry. The purpose is to
gather enough information to put
together theories that will make new
experiences less strange and more
meaningful (Suchman, 1968)

LHL/BTSL/09
Inquiry
 Natural process
 Autonomous, self-directed learners
 For all disciplines/subjects
 Presenting a puzzling problem
 Learners ask questions
 Teacher answer with “yes”, “no’ or “maybe”

LHL/BTSL/09
Suchman Inquiry
1. Choose a problem
2. Explain the process
3. Built hypothesis & collect data
4. Test hypothesis & form theory
5. Explain theory
6. Reflection – analysis inquiry process

LHL/BTSL/09
Suchman Inquiry
Step 1: Presenting the problem
 Teacher chooses a situation/ issue and present
the problem
 Problem chosen must be interesting and
challenging

LHL/BTSL/09
Suchman Inquiry
Step 2: Explain the process
 Teacher explains the process how to go about
it so as to ensure no one is left out
 The problem given is then read, distributed as
work sheets

LHL/BTSL/09
Suchman Inquiry
Step 3: Build hypothesis & collect data

 Students discuss & make references


 Students can ask teacher questions but
with only “Yes”, “No” and “Maybe”
answers
 Students will then build the hypothesis

LHL/BTSL/09
Suchman Inquiry
Step 4: Testing hypothesis & form theory

 Students use data to test out hypothesis


 If hypothesis is correct, students will form
theory
 If hypothesis is incorrect, students will
build another new hypothesis and test it
out again

LHL/BTSL/09
Suchman Inquiry
Step 5: Explaining the theory
 Students are required to explain their
theory used to solve the problems given

LHL/BTSL/09
Suchman Inquiry
Step 6: Analyze the inquiry process
 Students are asked to reflect on the
processes they used to build the theory and
solve the problem
 The aim of this analysis of the process is
to ensure a more effective and faster way
of solving the problem in future

LHL/BTSL/09
Many types of Inquiry Model
Besides Suchman inquiry model:

 Scientific Inquiry Model


 Social Inquiry Model
 Juris-Prudential Model

LHL/BTSL/09
Scientific Inquiry Model
 Used to study principles, phenomena &
characteristics of science elements.
 Research model with 5 investigation stages:
 Identify problem
 Look for relevant information
 Design hypothesis
 Test hypothesis
 Evaluate, interpret, infer & conclude

LHL/BTSL/09
Social Inquiry Model
 Used to study topics related to society and
humanity
 Research process based on observations,
interviews or questionnaires
 Emphasizes social interaction process

LHL/BTSL/09
Juris-Prudential Inquiry Model
 Used to look at current issues, e.g. Greater
focus should be places on the learning of
science than arts
 Particularly concerned with science,
philosophy, law
 Inquiry process based on debate

LHL/BTSL/09
What are the implications
of inquiry model
to teaching & learning ?
Information Processing Model
Focus:
 view of memory (Gagne)
Key words:
 Sensory register, short-term memory, long-
term memory
R’s:
 receptors; repetition; rehearsal; remembering;
retrieval; recall.

LHL/BTSL/09
Information-Processing (IP) Model:
Outline of Session
 Intended learning outcomes/objectives:
1) Awareness of IP theorists’ view of learning
& teaching
2) Application of IP in the classroom
3) Description of expository procedures used
by presenter

LHL/BTSL/09
Information-Processing Model:
Concept
 IP theorists: learning is information-
processing
 Investigation: How are stimuli from the
environment…
 Perceived?
 Transformed?
 Stored?
 Recalled?

LHL/BTSL/09
Information-Processing:
Basic Assumptions
 People have mental structure for
processing information
 The structures carry out processes like
perceiving, coding information,
remembering
 Past knowledge influences what we will
learn & remember in a new situation.
 What is already known is stored in memory
 Learning & memory are closely related
LHL/BTSL/09
IP: The Human Computer Analogy
 Human being: very sophisticated computer
 Uses different transformations to process
input & generate output
 Built-in problem-solving strategies to deal with
new information
 Difficulty processing if programmers are not in
storage to act on information

LHL/BTSL/09
IP: View of Memory (Gagne)
 Stimuli & environment
 Receptors (eyes, ears, 5 senses)
 Sensory register ( sensory input held for ¼
second; pattern recognition)
 Short-term memory ( 20 seconds)
 Rehearsal/repetition – semantic coding
(information organized according to meaning)
 Long-term memory

LHL/BTSL/09
Information Processing Model

Retrieval
Long-term memory

Sensory Rehearsal
Processing
Stimulus Register
Short-term memory
Forgetting

Forgetting

LHL/BTSL/09
Applying IP: Guidelines
 Make sure you have the students’ attention

EXAMPLES
 Novelty in presenting materials ( don’t
overuse)
 Move around the room, use gestures, avoid
monotone

LHL/BTSL/09
Applying IP: Guidelines
 Help students focus on the most important
information

EXAMPLES
 Highlight important points with pauses, writing
on the board, or review important points
 Ask students to summarize the important
points in a presentation

LHL/BTSL/09
Applying IP: Guidelines
 Help students combine new information with
old information

EXAMPLES
 Use outlines, diagrams, analogies, examples
or advance organizers
 Give assignments that specifically call for the
use of new information along with information
already learned

LHL/BTSL/09
Applying IP; Guidelines
 Help students remember

EXAMPLES
 Help students develop images
 Help students develop verbal cues for
remembering important ideas
 Have meaningful lessons

LHL/BTSL/09
Exercise on Remembering

 Look at each line for a second & write


down all the letters you remember
1. KYBVODUWGPJMSQTXNOGMCTRSOG
 Very few letters remembered
 Makes no sense
 No way to organize at a glance

LHL/BTSL/09
Exercise on Remembering
2. READY JUMPS WHEAT POOR BUT SEEK

 More letters remembered


 More meaningful
 Don’t have to see each word because of
knowledge of vocabulary & spelling

LHL/BTSL/09
Exercise on Remembering
3. SOLDIERS RODE HORSES INTO WAR

 Most meaningful
 Prior knowledge of vocabulary & spelling
 Prior knowledge of structure & history of war
 Teachers can help learners remember
through meaningful lessons: make learning
more like line 3 & less of line 1

LHL/BTSL/09
What are
the implications to
teaching & learning ?
EXPOSITORY MODEL

LHL/BTSL/09
Discussion:
EXPOSITORY Procedures used by
presenter (checklist)

 Did the lesson begin with introductory


statements about the information that will
follow?
 Were examples given such as analogies,
diagrams & exercises?

LHL/BTSL/09
Discussion
 Was the approach
deductive in nature?  YES
 Was the instruction
presented in an organized  YES
fashion?
 Was there a focus on  YES
explanation & narration?
 Was it relatively teacher
centered?
 YES

LHL/BTSL/09
Expository Model
 Ausubel was influenced by Piaget cognitive
development theory
 Focus is meaningful learning of large amounts of
materials
 “the most important single factor influencing
learning is what the learner already knows”
(Ausubel, 1968)
 The incorporation of new information into
existing ones by making the connections
(subsumption theory)

LHL/BTSL/09
Main ideas
 People acquire knowledge primarily through
reception rather than through discovery. Concepts,
principles & ideas are presented and understood
 The more organized, sequenced and focused the
presentation, the more thoroughly the individual will
learn
 Meaningful learning can only occur id connections
are made between new & existing knowledge

LHL/BTSL/09
Main ideas ( cont…)
 Learning should progress deductively (general
to specific) and not inductively
 Meaningful NOT rote learning
 Lessons should start with advanced
organizers
 Only applies to learning in school settings
(Info-Processing – human learning in general)

LHL/BTSL/09
Advanced organizer (AO)

Definition: AO is information that is


presented prior to learning and that can be
used by learner to organize and interpret new
incoming information
 Overviews & summaries – presented at a
higher level of abstraction & generality
 Integrated & interrelated lesson content even
before the lesson

LHL/BTSL/09
Advanced organizer ( cont…)
 Builds external connections with existing
relevant knowledge ( act as a subsuming
bridge)
 Enhances assimilation of to-be-learned
information into existing schemas
 Provides scaffolding ( support new info)
 Directs attention to what is important in the
coming material

LHL/BTSL/09
Types of AO
1. Expository
Used when new materials is completely
novel; also it provides new knowledge that
students will need to understand before they
can follow the new lesson
2. Comparative
used when new material is somewhat
familiar; also it activates already existing
knowledge

LHL/BTSL/09
E.g. of a Graphic AO

Global organizer

Drama Poetry Novel Short Essay


story

Comed Traged Satire Romance


y y

Greek Shakespearean

Hamlet King Lear


LHL/BTSL/09
Expository stages of lesson presentation
Stage 1: Presentation of AO
 Relates new info to student’s existing
schemas
Stage 2: Presentation of the learning task &
materials
 Step by step progression from general to
specific information
Stage 3: Strengthening cognitive organization
 Reminding students how each specific detail
is tied to the big picture. Assessment.
LHL/BTSL/09
Principles of expository teaching
 The most general ideas of a subject
should be presented first & then
progressively differentiated in terms of
detail and specifics
 Instructional materials should attempt to
integrate new materials with previously
presented info through comparisons and
cross-referencing of new and old ideas

LHL/BTSL/09
Implications to teaching & learning

• Inputs to learning are important


• Learning materials (inputs) should be
well organized
• New ideas & concepts must be organized
meaningful to learner
• anchoring new concepts into the learner’s
already existing cognitive structure as it’ll
make new concepts recallable
PROJECT MODEL
 An in-dept investigation of a real world
topic worthy of children’s effort &
attention
 For all age groups
 Opportunities to do 1st. hand research,
present their findings, apply basic math,
language skills & knowledge

LHL/BTSL/09
Project model
 Any form of teaching strategy that allows students to
study in-depth about a problem / issue/ topic that
related to real world or real situation.
Types of project:
 Survey

 Practical

 Visits

 Research

LHL/BTSL/09
Aims of projects:
 To enrich / develop further the skills,
knowledge, experience and potential of
students.

LHL/BTSL/09
Main characteristics:
 After certain skills/knowledge acquired
 Structured
 Students very motivated
 Suitable for all age group
 Enrichment
 Hands-on

LHL/BTSL/09
Criteria when choosing project topics:
The topic chosen must enable students to:
 built on the knowledge of the students

 understand the world better

 better understanding of others ( interpersonal


relationship)
 realize the importance of language & mathematical
skills in the context of the real world
 source for information outside the text book /school
context
 motivate themselves in their search for
knowledge/solve problems etc.
 solve problems in a systematic way

LHL/BTSL/09
Phases of a project model
Phase I ( Introduction)
 Students to recall previous experience

Phase II ( Development)
 Students will experience new learning, explore,

investigate, observe, build, record, experiment,


discuss and innovate, invent
Phase III ( Conclusion)
 Analyze & conclude /sum-up, to reinvent or redesign

new things/method/ideas.
LHL/BTSL/09
Can you give some
implications to teaching & learning ?

LHL/BTSL/09
Constructivist
Model
5E

LHL/BTSL/09
Discussion
 Choosing the activity
 Creating opportunities to think
 Allowing opportunities to give opinions
 Debate/discussion
 Learning to think

 Procedure is constructivist model of


teaching

LHL/BTSL/09
5 E Constructivist
Model
 Based on the constructivist theory of learning
 Teaching strategy that draws on learners’
existing knowledge, beliefs & skills
 Learners synthesize new understanding from
prior learning & new information
 Teacher sets up problem & uses 5 E’s
 Suitable for all ages

LHL/BTSL/09
Model Constructivism 5 E
 5 phases
1. Engage
2. Explore
3. Explain
4. Elaborate
5. Evaluate

LHL/BTSL/09
5 E’s Lesson Components
I. ENGAGEMENT

Aktiviti Lat
 Beginning
activities capture
 YES/NO
the learners’
attention,
stimulate their
thinking & help
them access prior
knowledge
LHL/BTSL/09
5 E’s Lesson Components
II. EXPLORATION

Aktiviti Lat
 Learners are
given time to
 YES/NO
think, plan,
investigate and
organize
information

LHL/BTSL/09
5 E’s Lesson Components
III. EXPLANATION

Aktiviti Lat
 Learners are
involved in an
 YES/NO
analysis of their
exploration  YES/NO
 Their understanding
is clarified or
modified because of
dialogue or
reflective activities
LHL/BTSL/09
5 E’s Lesson Components
IV. ELABORATION

Aktiviti Lat
 Learners are
given the
 YES/NO
opportunity to
expand and
solidify their
understanding of
the concept ( e.g.,
of “right” &
“wrong”) LHL/BTSL/09
5 E’s Lesson Components
V. EVALUATION

Aktiviti Lat
 Learners assess their
understanding and
 YES/NO
abilities
 Teacher evaluates  YES/NO
learners’
understanding of key
concept (s) & skill

LHL/BTSL/09
Ciri-ciri Utama
 Pelajar berpeluang mengemukakan
pandangannya tentang sesuatu
konsep
 Pelajar berpeluang berkongsi
persepsi antara satu sama lain
 Pelajar menghormati pandangan
alternatif rakan-rakan sebaya
 Aktiviti berpusatkan pelajar

LHL/BTSL/09
Ciri-ciri Utama
 Pelajar mengaplikasikan kemahiran
berfikir, berkomunikasi, membuat
refleksi, menilai
 Pelajar berpeluang berubah idea
asal, sikap
 Pelajar mengaplikasikan
pembelajaran baru dalam kehidupan
seharian

LHL/BTSL/09
Model 5 Fasa
Konstruktivisme
 Orientasi
 Pencetusan idea
 Penstrukturan semula idea
 Penggunaan idea
 Refleksi

LHL/BTSL/09
Social Constructivism
 Lev Vygotsky
 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
 Social learning theory
 Scaffolding

LHL/BTSL/09
Implications to teaching & learning ?