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m m 

m m     

FLOW OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
2 For the electric current to flow from one end to
another there must be some medium for it.

2 These mediums may be Copper, Steel,


Aluminum, Rubber, Wood etc.

2 These mediums must fall into three categories


i.e. m,  and 
m.


CONDUCTORS
2 Any material which allows electric current to
pass through it is called Conductor.
2 Examples of Conductors are Copper, Steel,
Aluminum or any metal.

Copper

Aluminum
Steel

Any Metal 3
OOW DOES IT WORK
2 When we see a wire which conducts electricity,
we observe that there is a kind of Insulator
coated outside the inner metal so we can safely
handle that electricity wire.

2 The metal or the conductive material inside


supports the flow of electricity and makes that
flow of electrons between two ends of a wire.

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INSULATORS
2 Any material which does not allow the current to
flow through it is called an Insulator.
2 Examples of Insulators are Rubber, Wood,
Plastic, Glass etc.

Plastic Rubber

Glass Wood 
USES OF INSULATORS
2 Insulators such as Rubber and Plastic are used
as a coating on the copper wires so they can be
held by hand safely

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SEMI CONDUCTORS
2 These are also called Resistors.

2 Semi Conductors or Resistor is a material or a


device that allows some current to pass through
it and resists the other.

2 These Semi Conductors are devices used in


appliances which convert the electrical energy
into the required useful energy such as light
energy (bulb), sound energy (musical
instruments) etc.
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J  
mJ
JONDING JETWEEN ATOMS
2 The atoms tend to achieve nobel gas
configuration i.e. they want to complete their
octet.
2 For this purpose atoms borrow electrons from
nearby atoms in different ways which are called
bonds.
2 There are different types of bonds between atoms
like Ionic Jond and Covalent Jonds.

Œ
COVALENT JONDING
2 In this type of bonding, two atoms share a pair of
electrons to complete their octets.
2 The shared electron pair is called a Jonding Pair.

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OOW DOES IT JOND?
2 For Example Chlorine (Cl2) forms a covalent
bond between itself like this

Cl Cl

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m m 
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N-TYPE SEMI CONDUCTORS
2 In the semiconductors, the atoms are gone
through the process of — either extra
electron is given to the atom from some source or
some electrons from that atom are shared to
some other source, to increase the conductivity or
resistivity of that semiconductor.
2 The N-type semiconductors are those which have
electrons are in excess in their atoms.

º3
P-TYPE SEMI CONDUCTORS
2 The P-type semiconductors are those which have
electrons are in deficiency i.e. they carry `  at
the deficient electron places in their atoms.
2 The P-type semiconductors carry a negative
charge (-), while the N-type carry a positive
charge.

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DEFINITION
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