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Elements of Military

Intelligence
2
Terminal Learning Objective
• ACTION: Identify the role of intelligence in the
tactical Army.
• CONDITION: In a classroom with the use of
references
• STANDARD: The student will identify the four
intelligence tasks IAW FM 2-0 and how they are
influenced by the variables of the Contemporary
Operational Environment.

3
Admin Data

• Normal safety considerations for this class.


• The risk assessment is LOW.
• There are NO environmental considerations.
• Evaluation:
– 30 multiple choice questions at the end of the
Intelligence instruction, Must answer 70% correctly
to pass.

4
Warfighting Functions
• Maneuver
• Intelligence
• Fire Support
• Air Defense Artillery
• Command and Control
• Logistics
• Mobility, Survivability,
Counter-Mobility
5
Your S2 Section

Half of the MI
• Brigade S2 • BATTALION S2


Branch
MI (35D) MAJ
MI (35D) CPT


MI (35D) CPT
MI ( 35D) LT
– MI (35D) CPT – INF (11) MSG
– INF (11) MSG – MI (96B) SSG*
– MI (96B) SFC* – MI (96B) SL1

Works at Corp


MI (96B) SGT
4 MI (96B) SL1

Level or Higher
– INF (11) SL1

6
What is MI??
1-1. The commander requires intelligence about the
enemy and the battlespace prior to engaging in
operations in order to effectively execute battles,
engagements, and other missions across the full
spectrum of operations. Intelligence assists the
commander in visualizing his battlespace,
organizing his forces, and controlling operations to
achieve the desired tactical objectives or end-state.
Intelligence supports force protection by alerting
the commander to emerging threats and assisting in
security operations.

7
Intelligence - The Forms

• All Source Intelligence

• HUMINT - Human Intelligence


• SIGINT - Signals Intelligence
• IMINT - Imagery Intelligence
• TECHINT - Technical Intelligence
• MASINT – Measurements and Signals
Intelligence
• CI – Counter Intelligence

8
The Four Intelligence Tasks

1. Support to Situational Understanding


2. Support to Strategic Responsiveness
3. Conduct Intelligence, Surveillance and
Reconnaissance
4. Provide Intelligence Support to Effects

9
The Four Intelligence Tasks

1. Support to Situational Understanding

10
Enabling Learning Objective #1
• ACTION: Discuss the role of the
Intelligence soldier in Support to Situational
Understanding.
• CONDITION: In a classroom with the aid
of References.
• STANDARD: The student will understand
that all intelligence tasks stem from the
Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield
(IPB) process and what input they will have
as a platoon leader. 11
12
Enabling Learning Objective #2

• ACTION: Conduct IPB as a leader.


• CONDITION: In a classroom with the
aid of references.
• STANDARD: The student will correctly
define IPB and identify the steps of IPB
IAW FM 34-130, as well as understand
their role in conducting IPB as leaders.

13
IPB Definition

• IPB is a systematic, continuous


process of analyzing the threat and
the environment in a specific
geographic area.

14
Objective

• Answer the commander’s questions about:


– Terrain
– Weather
– Enemy Situation.

• IPB helps commanders selectively apply combat


power at critical points in time and space on the
battlefield by -
– Describing the environment and it’s effects.
– Determining the threat’s likely Course of Action (COA).
15
Who Conducts IPB?

• Conducted at all levels


– Different levels of detail are required

• S2/G2 is staff lead in IPB


• Everyone in the US Army conducts IPB
in some form

16
The Four Steps of IPB

1. Define the Battlefield Environment


2. Describe the Battlefield Effects
3. Evaluate the Threat
4. Identify Threat Courses of Action

17
The IPB Process

4 1

Determine Define The


Threat Battlefield
COAs Environment

Evaluate Describe The


The Battlefield
Threat Effects

3 2
Continuous Systematic
18
Define The Battlefield
Environment

• AREA OF OPERATIONS - The physical space


where your unit is authorized to conduct
operations. Given to you by your higher
headquarters.
• AREA OF INTEREST - The physical area where
enemy forces or their actions may affect your
unit’s mission. Determined by the S2 and
commander.
19
LOA
(PL Gold)

PL Zinc

XX
II

PL Silver

20
The IPB Process

4 1

Determine Define The


Threat Battlefield
COAs Environment

Evaluate Describe The


The Battlefield
Threat Effects

3 2
Continuous Systematic
21
Describe The Battlefield Effects

• Analyze the battlefield with regards to:


– Terrain
– Weather
• Describe the battlefield’s effects on threat /
friendly capabilities and broad courses of
action.
• Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay
(MCOO) is the ultimate product.
22
Describe The Battlefield Effects
(Terrain Analysis)

• Military aspects of terrain


(OCOKA / OAKOC)
• Lines of communications (roads, rail,
waterways)
• Cross-country movement overlay
• Drainage overlay

23
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)
OCOKA
• OBSERVATION - The ability of a force to see the
enemy either visually or through the use of
surveillance devices.
– From where can the enemy see me?
– Where can I see the enemy from here?
• FIELDS OF FIRE - An area that a weapon or
groups of weapons can effectively cover with fire
from a given position.
– From where can the enemy shoot me?
– Where can I shoot the enemy from here? 24
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)
OCOKA
• COVER - Physical protection from the effects
of both direct and indirect fires.
– Examples - Ditches, caves, hills, ravines, river
banks, shell craters, buildings, fighting positions,
and embankments.
• CONCEALMENT - Protection from
observation.
– Examples - Camouflage, weeds, underbrush, tall
grass, heavy vegetation, rocky outcrops.

25
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)
OCOKA
• OBSTACLES - Natural or man-made terrain
features that stop, impede, or divert military
movement.
– Obstacles are the foundation of an engagement area.
– Can I stop/slow the enemy here long enough to mass
fires upon him?
– Will the enemy stop/slow me here and try to mass fires
upon me?
– Use the MCOO to graphically depict obstacles. 26
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)
OCOKA
• KEY TERRAIN
– Any natural or man-made feature which gives the
force which controls it an advantage.
– Consider the following in analyzing terrain:
• Mission
• Level of Command
• Type of Unit.
– Does that piece of terrain aid me in the
accomplishment of my mission?
– Would it aid the enemy in the accomplishment of
his mission? 27
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)
OCOKA
• AVENUES OF APPROACH
– Air or ground route of an attacking force which
leads to the objective or key terrain within its
path.
– On the attack, ask - what route can I take to the
objective?
– In the defense, ask - what route could the
enemy take to get to me or the objective?
28
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)
• Always consider both mounted and dismounted
avenues of approach.
• Develop a MCOO (Modified Combined Obstacle
Overlay) to identify avenues of approach.
• Consider
– doctrinal distances
– formations
– speeds
– maneuver space.

29
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)
• Classify terrain as it pertains to maneuverability
into one of three categories:
– UNRESTRICTED. Free of any restriction to
movement. Units maneuver at doctrinal
speeds/distances. Nothing needs to be done to
enhance mobility.
– RESTRICTED. Terrain hinders movement. Units
must adjust doctrinal distances or speeds. Some
effort required to enhance mobility .
– SEVERELY RESTRICTED. Terrain severely hinders
movement. Units cannot travel at doctrinal distances
and speeds. 30
K9

II
AA3C

I
AA3B
LOA
II

II
(PL Gold)

II

II
K8
II

II
K7b
II
PL Zinc AA4A

K7a
II

II
II

XX K5
II

K6
X

K3 X AA4B
K2 K4 PL Silver
II

I
II
II

II

K1 31
II
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)
• OTHER ASPECTS OF THE BATTLEFIELD
• Examples include:
– Logistical Infrastructure (Sources of potable water, power
production facilities, natural resources, communications
system, transportation system)
– Population Demographics (Education levels, cultural
distinctions, religious beliefs)
– Economic Conditions
– Politics (Local, regional and international, treaties,
‘unofficial’ politics (gangs, warlords))
32
Summary
• Terminal Learning Objective
ACTION: Identify the role of intelligence in
the tactical Army.
• Enabling Learning Objectives
1. ACTION: Discuss the role of the Intelligence
soldier in Support to Situational Understanding
2. ACTION: Conduct IPB in as leader.

33
34
The IPB Process

4 1

Determine Define The


Threat Battlefield
COAs Environment

Evaluate Describe The


The Battlefield
Threat Effects

3 2
Continuous Systematic
35
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)

• MILITARY ASPECTS OF WEATHER

(FM 34-81-1)
– Visibility
– Winds
– Precipitation
– Cloud Cover
– Temperature and Humidity
36
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)
• VISIBILITY
– Light data (BMNT, EENT, Sunrise, Sunset,
Moon Phases)
– Laser range finding
– Poor visibility increases light infantry survivability
• WINDS
– Smoke / Chemical dispersion
– Decrease trajectory data and first hit probability
– Affects airborne, air assault, aviation operations
37
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)
• PRECIPITATION
– Degrades mobility
– Limits visibility
– Degrades weapons effectiveness
– Affects troop morale
• CLOUD COVER
– Heavy cloud cover limits illumination and solar heating of
targets
– Degrades many target acquisition systems
– Ceiling affects aviation operations

38
Describe the Battlefield Effects
(Military Aspects of Terrain)

• TEMPERATURE & HUMIDITY


– Extreme temperature reduces personnel
effectiveness
– Low temperature degrades ballistics of
weapons
– Temperature can affect vehicle performance
– High humidity decreases stamina of foot
soldier 39
The IPB Process

4 1

Determine Define The


Threat Battlefield
COAs Environment

Evaluate Describe The


The Battlefield
Threat Effects

3 2
Continuous Systematic
40
Evaluate The Threat

Do not underestimate your opponent!


• Doctrinal Template
• Description Of Tactics And Option
• Identify High Value Target
• Identify Threat Capabilities
• Operational Capabilities: Attack, Defend, Reinforce,
And Retrograde
• BOS Capabilities (Equipment and Capabilities)
41
Doctrinal Template
• Illustrate the deployment pattern and disposition
preferred by the threat's normal tactics when not
constrained by the effects of the battlefield
environment.
• Usually scaled graphic depictions of threat
dispositions for a particular type of standard
operation, such as a
– battalion movement to contact
– an insurgent ambush
– terrorist kidnapping.

42
DOCTEMP

I I

Fire Sac

43
Description Of Tactics And
Options
• Operations of the major units or elements
portrayed on the template
• Activities of the different battlefield operating
systems.
• Listing or description of options available to
the threat should the operation fail
(branches), or subsequent operations if it
succeeds (sequels).
44
Identify High Value Targets

• HVTS are assets the enemy commander


requires to accomplish his mission.
• High Payoff Targets are the targets (HVTS)
that belong to the enemy that we must kill
to be successful.

45
Identify Threat Capabilities
(Can the enemy dance?)
• Four tactical COAs open to military forces in
conventional operations:
• Attack.
• Defend.
• Reinforce.
• Conduct a retrograde.
• Broad COAs can be divided into a variety of more
specific COAs.
46
BOS Capabilities
(Equipment and Capabilities)
• Examples of these types of capabilities are--
– Use of NBC weapons.
– Use of supporting air assets.
– Intelligence collection.
– Electronic Warfare.
– Engineering operations.
– Air assault or airborne operations.
– Amphibious assaults.
– Psychological operations (PSYOP).
– Deception operations. 47
The IPB Process

4 1

Determine Define The


Threat Battlefield
COAs Environment

Evaluate Describe The


The Battlefield
Threat Effects

3 2
Continuous Systematic
48
Determine Threat COAs
(How the Enemy will Dance)
• Identify the threat's likely
objectives and desired end
state.
• Identify full set of COAs
available to the threat SITEMPs.
• Evaluate and prioritize each
COA.
• Develop each COA in the
amount of detail time allows.
• Identify initial collection
requirements. 49
Identify Threat's Likely
Objectives/Desired End State.

• What does the enemy seek to do to us?

• How does the enemy define success?

• How can we deny him success?

50
Identify Full Set of COAs
Available to the Threat.
• Develop as many potential COAs as time allows.
• Criteria for each COA
– suitability
– feasibility
– acceptability
– uniqueness
– consistency with doctrine.
• Situation templates are graphic depictions of
expected threat dispositions should he adopt a
particular COA
51
I
I I
Enemy SOP
Fire Sac (Threat Model)

Environment
(Terrain Weather)

I I
I Enemy COA
Fire Sac
(SITEMP)

52
Develop Each COA in the
Amount of Detail Time Allows.

• WHAT
• WHEN
• WHERE
• HOW
• WHY

53
IPB for Special Staff and Support
Units
4 1
Determine Define The
Threat Battlefield
COAs Environment

Evaluate Describe The


The Battlefield
Threat Effects

3 2
Continuous Systematic

• The products will be slightly different, but


• THE PROCESS REMAINS THE SAME! 54
55
Situation Development
• The act of quickly compiling, displaying, and
analyzing the current battle as it relates to the
enemy and friendly forces.
• Based upon the collection effort and the unit’s
effort to answer the Commander’s Critical
Information Requirements.
• Determines which COA the enemy has adopted
• May identify some HVTs not initially named
during IPB process
• Based on the Priority Intelligence Requirements.
• Helps the commander make decisions.
56
Patrols

Since the success of Battalion, Brigade… will


frequently depend on the conduct of one
small patrol. The patrols must be carefully
picked, instructed, and given a clear definite
mission. These three things play a vital part
in the borderland between success and
failure.
George C. Marshall
Infantry in Battle
57
Force Protection

• Determines if
friendly forces are
– under threat of
enemy action
– in proper security
posture
– informed of the
threat

58
Enabling Learning Objective #3

• Action: Identify elements of Subversion


And Espionage Directed Against The
U.S. Army (SAEDA)
• Conditions: With the use of references.
• Standard: Identify the elements of
SAEDA, the threat to Fort Benning, and
how to respond to and report any
SAEDA incidents.

59
Definitions

• SUBVERSION - Sabotage or terrorist


acts.
• ESPIONAGE - Spying (Internal and
External)

60
COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
MEASURES
• The enemy must not get information about
US operations.
• This means that you and your fellow
soldiers must:
– Practice camouflage principles and
techniques.
– Practice noise and light discipline.
– Practice field sanitation.
– Use proper radiotelephone procedure.

61
Counterintelligence Measures

– Do not take personal letters or pictures into


combat areas.
– Do not keep diaries in combat areas.
– Be careful when discussing military affairs (the
enemy may be listening).
– Report anyone who tries to get information
about US operations.
– Discuss military operations only with those
persons having a need to know the
information.
– Remind fellow soldiers of their
counterintelligence responsibilities

62
What Defines A SAEDA Incident?

• Attempts by unauthorized personnel to obtain


classified information.
• Attempts by unauthorized personnel to obtain
unclassified, yet FOUO information.
• Acts of espionage or treason by Army personnel.
• Contact with persons known or suspected to be a
foreign agent or terrorist.
• Missing classified documents.
• Discovery of surveillance devices near sensitive
areas.

63
What If I Am Approached?
• Don’t play James Bond
• Don’t make any deals, agreements or think about anything.
• Don’t try to apprehend or be your own SWAT team
• Simply stay calm, get info, and buy time then report.

Reporting Procedures
• Recall as many details as possible as SOON as possible.
Make notes of what occurred.
• Contact your S2 / security manager.
• Inform as few people as possible, generally only two (your
commander and the S2)
• If outside US, report it to nearest military authority or US
Embassy/Consulate. 64
65
Summary
• Terminal Learning Objective
ACTION: Identify the role of intelligence in
the tactical Army.
• Enabling Learning Objectives
2. ACTION: Conduct IPB in as leader.
3. ACTION: Identify elements of Subversion And
Espionage Directed Against The U.S. Army
(SAEDA)

66
67
68
The Four Intelligence Tasks

2. Support to Strategic Responsiveness

69
Enabling Learning Objective #4
• ACTION: Discuss Intelligence Personnel
Support to Strategic Responsiveness.
• CONDITION: With the aid of References.
• STANDARD: The student will correctly
identify the role of intelligence personnel
and leaders in preparing soldiers to act in
any operational environment as well as
identify the challenges posed by the
variables of the Contemporary Operational
Environment
70
Operational Environment

• A composite of all the conditions,


circumstances, and influences that
affect the employment of military forces
and bear on the decisions of the unit
commander.

• IN SHORT: The factors and variables


that affect where soldiers will live, work,
and fight.
71
Enabling Learning Objective #5

• ACTION: Identify the Critical Variables in

the COE

• CONDITION: With the aid of References

• STANDARD: Identify and define the 11

Critical Variables of the COE


72
Critical Variables

Operational
Information Environment Nature &
Stability of
the State

Economics Technology

Makeup of Alliances &


Population Coalitions
Military
Capabilities
Time National Will

Physical External
Environment Organizations

73
Physical Environment
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Military forces are optimized


for certain environments.
• Less complex and open
environments favor the US.
• Enemies will use urban
environments and other
complex terrain to their
advantage.

74
Nature/Stability of State
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Who is in charge - where the real


strength is.
– Political leadership
– Military
– Police
• How strong or how shaky.
• Nature and aims of military campaign.

• Kinds of threat present.


75
Makeup Of Population
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Cultural, religious, ethnic.


• Failed and failing states.
• Devotion to a cause/hatred of
another group
• Refugees and displaced
persons.
• Urban environments (cities).
76
Makeup Of Population
(Operational Environment Factors)

• ROE has to Address


• Difficulty distinguishing
friend from foe.
• Presence of children/
women.
• Short ranges of contact/
time to react.
• Involvement of
civilians from

both sides.
77
Alliances And Coalitions
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Political, economic, military, or cultural.


• Regional or global.
• Opponents can influence our coalitions.
• Add to military capability and broaden
scale of military operations.
• Unpredictability.
• Nonaligned states.

78
Military Capabilities
(Operational Environment Factors)

• The most critical and most complex factor.


• Foreign views:
– US has overall technological advantage.
– Others use this as guide to optimizing their own
capabilities and negating ours (asymmetric focus).
• Conventional against local or regional actors.
• Adaptive (asymmetric) when US becomes
involved.

79
Military Capabilities
(WMD in Third World States)

• Negate US advantages
• Threaten higher casualties
• Complicate military planning
• Perception of military strength
• Interfere with force buildup / early entry
• Complicate operations
• Require protective measures
80
Who Has Nuclear Weapons

• Nuclear
– US, UK, France, Russia, Pakistan, India,
China, North Korea, Israel???
• Suspected to have Nuclear Weapons
– Libya, Iran

81
Technology
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Symmetric capabilities.
– Level the playing field.
– A few systems that are more advanced.

82
Technology
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Asymmetric counters to
our high-tech systems.
– Less advanced systems in
complex/urban settings.
– Selected niche areas.
– Low-cost, high-payoff new
technologies.
– Upgrades and hybrids.
– Precision munitions.
• Technological surprise.

83
Information
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Information-based
society and information
technology.
– Computers.
– Other information systems.
• Information warfare.
– Information systems attack.
– Psychological warfare.
?
– Deception.

84
Information
(Operational Environment Factors)
• Media and global information
flow.
– Transparency (access to data).
– Sway public and political
opinion.
• Many factors to take into
consideration.
• Very short time to react.
• Strategic implication of the
tactical incident- the strategic
corporal (he works for you). 85
86
External Organizations
(Operational Environment Factors)
• International humanitarian assistance.
– Manmade and natural disasters.
– Disease, hunger, and poverty.

• Growing in influence and power.


• Willingness to become involved in crisis situations.
• Stated and hidden interests/objectives.
– Favorable to US and provide assistance.
– Adverse to US or create conflict.
– Make mistakes. 87
National Will
(Operational Environment Factors)

• People, government, and military.


• Objectives and duration of a conflict.
• Victory often depends on will.
• Attack the opponent’s national will and
try to preserve your own.
• US national will as a vulnerability—a
strategic center of gravity.

88
Time
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Time drives decision making and


operations.
• Opponents see time as being in their
advantage.
– Adjust the nature of the conflict.
– Control US entry.
– Dictate the tempo.
• Outlast the US will to continue.

89
Economics
(Operational Environment Factors)

• “Haves” and “have-nots.”


• Economic vs military superiority.
• Ability to buy military technology or to
conduct prolonged operations.
• Regional and global relationships can
result in military or political assistance.

90
11 Variables

I T and ECONOMIC NATURE


WILL MAKE EXTERNAL ALLIED
MILITARY PHYSICAL in TIME

Please Never Make Any


MILTIARY I T Excuses Near The
End
91
Threat

• Any specific foreign nation or


organization with intentions and military
capabilities that suggest it could be
adversarial or challenge the security
interests of the United States, its
friends, or allies.

• IN SHORT: A potential adversary to the


United States.
92
Enabling Learning Objective #6

ACTION: Categorize actors.

CONDITION: In a classroom with aid of


references

STANDARD: Correctly categorize nation states


as Core States, Transition States, Rogue
States, Failed or Failing States and Non-
nation actors as rogue actors, third-party
actors. 93
Actors

• Who are the actors


(participants)?
– Nation-states
(countries).
– Non-nation actors.

94
Nation-state Actors
• Categories of nation states
– Core States (Major Powers).
– Transition States (Want-to-be).
– Rogue States (Hostile).
– Failed or Failing States (Instability).

• Fluid definitions based on:


– Economics
– Politics (Internal and External)
– Expeditionary Military
95
Core States (Major Powers).
• Dominate World Politics.
• Most conflict with global consequences
will involve the core states.
Transition States (Want-to-be)
• Larger, industrialized countries that
want to be Core States.
– China
– India
– Indonesia
– Russia 96
Rogue States (Hostile).

• Countries hostile to their neighbors


• Weaker countries, but still a threat.
• Seek weapons of mass destruction.
• Support and sell arms to terrorists.
– North Korea
– Iran
– Cuba
– Libya

97
Other Areas of Concern
(SatireWire)

Axis of Just as Evil? Axis of Somewhat Evil?


• Libya • Cuba
• China • Sudan
• Syria • Serbia

98
Failed or Failing States
(Instability).

• Weaker countries
falling apart.
• Revolution
• Economic collapse

99
Countries Can Switch Categories
• Iran - long time ally of U.S. became rogue
nation
• Soviet Union/Russia - once a world power -
now is a collection of transition and failing
states.

Multinational Alliances and Coalitions


• NATO • OPEC
–Belgium, Czech Republic, France, – Algeria, Indonesia, Iran,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya,
The Netherlands, Spain, Turkey, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi
United Kingdom, United States, Arabia, the United Arab
Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, Emirates, Venezuela
Canada, Poland
100
Non-nation Actors

• Rogue actors

• Third Party Actors

101
Rogue Actors

– Terrorist.
– Drug-trafficking.
– Criminal.

102
Third Party Actors

– Media
– External Orgs
– Civilians

103
Indication and Warnings
SO WHAT???

• Analysis of
situation
development.
– What does this mean?
– Why would the enemy
do this?
• Determines enemy’s
future intentions

104
Summary
• Terminal Learning Objective
ACTION: Identify the role of intelligence in the
tactical Army.
• Enabling Learning Objectives
4. ACTION: Discuss Intelligence Personnel Support to
Strategic Responsiveness.
5. ACTION: Identify the Critical Variables in the COE
6. ACTION: Categorize Actors
 Nation State
 Core, Transition, Failed or Failing, Rogue
 Switch categories & may one day face multinational
coalition
 Non-Nation
 Rogue
 Third Party 105
106
107
The Four Intelligence Tasks

3. Conduct Intelligence, Surveillance and


Reconnaissance

108
Enabling Learning Objective #7

• ACTION: Discuss the conduct of Intelligence,


Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) in a
collection planning and management
framework.
• CONDITION: In a classroom with the aid of
references.
• STANDARD: Students must understand that
Intelligence personnel plan and synchronize
collection assets and the role of platoon leaders
in the collection process. 109
Conduct Intelligence, Surveillance,
And Reconnaissance (ISR)
With staff participation, the intelligence officer
synchronizes intelligence support to the ISR effort by
focusing the collection, processing, analysis, and
intelligence products on the critical needs of the
commander. The operations officer, in coordination with
the intelligence officer, tasks and directs the available ISR
assets to answer the commander’s critical information
requirements (CCIRs). Through various detection methods
and systematic observation, reconnaissance and
surveillance obtains the required information. A continuous
process, this task has four subtasks: perform intelligence
synchronization, perform ISR integration, conduct tactical
reconnaissance, and conduct surveillance

110
111
ISR

• The CCIR (PIR and FFIR).


• A prioritized list of the remaining
intelligence requirements.
• Evaluated ISR assets and resources.
• All of the assigned ISR tasks.

112
Surveillance and Reconnaissance

• Surveillance involves continuously observing


an area to collect information. Wide-area and
focused surveillance provides valuable
information.

• Reconnaissance assets collect information


and can validate current intelligence or
predictions. Reconnaissance units, unlike
other units, are designed to collect
information. 113
Surveillance and Reconnaissance

• Orient the reconnaissance asset on the


named area of interest (NAI) and/or
reconnaissance objective in a timely
manner
• Report all information rapidly and
accurately
• Complete the mission not later than (NLT)
the time specified in the order
• Answer the requirement that prompted the
task. 114
Collectors Must Ask 4 Questions
of an NAI

• Why is it important to look there?


• What do we expect to see?
• When should we expect to see it?
• How long do we need to look?

• FM 34-8

115
How Do I Contribute as a LT?

Reporting!!!
Salute Report

SIZE
ACTIVITY
LOCATION
UNIT / UNIFORM
TIME
EQUIPMENT

117
The Five S’s

SEARCH
SILENCE
SEGREGATE
SAFEGUARD
SPEED TO THE REAR

118
The Unapproved Five S’s

SUBDUE BY FORCE
SLAP DOWN
SHAKE UNTIL BLUE
SLAM HEAD INTO WALL
SCAR WITH BAYONET

119
Search
• Search PWs as soon as
they are captured.
• Take weapons and
papers, EXCEPT
identification papers and
protective masks.
• Give them a written
receipt for any personal
property and documents
taken.
• Tag documents and
personal property to show
which PW had them.

120
Captured Equipment Tag

• Before evacuating a
PW, attach a tag to him.
You can make these
tags yourself.
• The battalion S2 should
be able to supply these
tags.

121
HANDLING CAPTURED
DOCUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT

• Enemy documents and • Give them to your


equipment are good leader quickly.
sources of information. • Tag each item using
• Documents may be official the form shown on the
(maps, orders, records, next slide.
photos) or personal • If the item was found
(letters or diaries). on a PW, put that PW's
• If such items are not name on the tag.
handled properly, the
information in them may
become lost or outdated.

122
Segregate

• Segregate PWs
– By Sex
• And Into Subgroups Such As
– Enlisted Personnel
– Civilians
– Political Figures.
• This keeps the leaders from promoting
escape efforts. Keep the groups
segregated as you move them to the rear.
123
Silence

• Silence PWs
• Do not let them talk to each other.
• This keeps them from planning
escape and cautioning each other on
security.
• Report anything a PW says or does.

124
Speed

• Speed PWs to the rear.


• Turn them over to your leader.
• He will assemble them and move
them to the rear for questioning by
the S2.

125
Safeguard
• Safeguard PWs when taking them to the
rear.
• Do not let anyone abuse them.
• Watch for escape attempts.
• Do not let PWs bunch up, spread out too
far, or start diversions (Such conditions
may create a chance for escape).
• If a PW is wounded and cannot be
evacuated through normal channels, turn
him over to medical personnel to be
evacuated through medical channels.
126
127
The Four Intelligence Tasks

4. Provide Intelligence Support to Effects

128
Enabling Learning Objective #8

• ACTION: Discuss The Support Of Intelligence To


Targeting, Information Operations and Combat
Assessment
• CONDITION: In a classroom with the aid of
references
• STANDARD: Students must understand that
Intelligence personnel interact with all other staff
elements in support of ongoing operations and
planning for future operations.
129
Provide Intelligence Support
To Effects
The task of providing the commander
information and intelligence support for
targeting of the threat’s forces, threat
organizations, units and systems through
lethal and non-lethal fires to include
electronic attack and information operations.
This task includes three subtasks:

4. Provide Intelligence Support To Targeting


5. Provide Intelligence Support To Information Operation
6. Provide Intelligence Support To Combat Assessment
130
Provide Intelligence
Support to Targeting
• Provide Intelligence Support to Target Development -
is the systematic analysis of the enemy forces and
operations to determine HVTs, systems, and system
components for potential attack through maneuver, fires, or
information.
• Provide Intelligence Support to Target Detection -
establishes procedures for dissemination of targeting
information. The targeting team develops the sensor /
attack system matrix to determine the sensor required to
detect and locate targets. The intelligence officer places
the following requirements into the integrated ISR plan

– Requires reconnaissance and surveillance operations to identify,


locate, and track high-payoff targets (HPTs) for delivery of lethal or
non-lethal effects.
– Includes employing fires, offensive IO, and other attack capabilities
against enemy C2 systems as part of the unit’s FS plan and IO
objectives. 131
Information Operations
• IO are actions taken to affect adversary
information, influence other’s decision making
processes and information systems while
protecting one’s own information and information
systems. Overall operational continuity and
mission success requires close, mutual
coordination and synchronization of intelligence
plans and operations with IO elements and
related activities.
• This task has three subordinate tasks:
– Provide Intelligence Support to Offensive IO.
– Provide Intelligence Support to Defensive IO.
– Provide Intelligence Support to Activities Related to IO.
132
Combat Assessment

• Determines if desired effects were achieved on


targets that were engaged.
– Conduct Physical Damage Assessment
– Conduct Functional Damage Assessment
– Conduct Target System Assessment

• Re-attack Recommendation.
• Part of collection plan.

133
Targeting Process

• Decide • IPB
– HVTs identified
– HVTs depicted in
different COAs on
• Detect SITTEMPS
– Specific areas identified
where enemy actions will
occur
• Deliver • Situation Development
– Collection plan based on
EVENTTEMP
– Collection assets
• Assess refocused after targets
are engaged
134
Asymmetric Warfare

• Avoid your opponent’s strengths.

• Use whatever advantages you may


have against his weaknesses.

• The enemy will not fight you at the


tip of the spear.

Is terrorism asymmetric warfare?


135
Summary
• Terminal Learning Objective
ACTION: Identify the role of intelligence in the tactical Army.
• Enabling Learning Objectives
1. ACTION: Discuss the role of the Intelligence soldier in Support to
Situational Understanding
2. ACTION: Conduct IPB in as leader.
3. ACTION: Identify elements of Subversion And Espionage Directed
Against The U.S. Army (SAEDA)
4. ACTION: Discuss Intelligence Personnel Support to Strategic
Responsiveness.
5. ACTION: Identify the Critical Variables in the COE
6. ACTION: Categorize Actors
7. ACTION: Discuss the conduct of Intelligence, Surveillance and
Reconnaissance (ISR) in a collection planning and management
framework.
8. ACTION: Discuss The Support Of Intelligence To Targeting,
Information Operations and Combat Assessment 136
Summary
• Four Intel Tasks
2. Support to Situational Understanding
3. Support to Strategic Responsiveness
4. Conduct Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance
5. Provide Intelligence Support to Effects

• 5 S’s
– Search, Silence, Segregate, Safeguard, Speed To The Rear
• Captured Equipment
– Tag and ship
• SAEDA
– Simply stay calm, get info, and buy time then report.

137
What is the IPB ?

IPB is a systematic, continuous process of analyzing


the threat and the environment in a specific
geographic area.

What are the four steps of the IPB ?


1. Define the Battlefield Environment
2. Describe the Battlefield Effects
3. Evaluate the Threat
4. Identify Threat Courses of Action

138
What is the purpose of the MCOO ?

Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay – A Graphical


depiction of all Military Aspects of terrain

What is a Doctrinal Template ?

A scaled graphic depiction of threat dispositions for a


particular type of standard operation

139
•What are the 11 Critical variables of the COE?
– Physical Environment
– Makeup of Population
– Nature/Stability of State
– Military Capabilities
– Technology
– Information
– Alliances & Coalitions
– External Organizations
– National Will
– Time
– Economics 140
• Which is the most complex Variable?
– Military Capabilities

• What is meant by Asymmetric Warfare?


– Avoid your opponent’s strengths.
– Use whatever advantages you may have against his
weaknesses.
– The enemy will not fight you at the tip of the spear.

141