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Objective & Contents


This presentation is to refresh the electric motor related

knowledge and understand the different aspects for
which motor protection Relays are used.


‡ General things about Electric Motors including its

working and starting.
‡ Reasons of Motor failures
‡ Discussions on different types of failures including
Overload, Single phasing etc.
2ome Common Questions

‡ What is Pulsating magnetic field & Rotating magnetic field?

‡ Why starting current is very High?

‡ How motor behaves after it is started?

‡ What is the effect of phase sequence?

‡ Typical connections of Star / Delta Starter

Electric Motor

‡ An | |
uses electrical energy to
produce mechanical energy,
very typically through the
interaction of magnetic
fields and current carrying

‡ The reverse process,

producing electrical energy
from mechanical energy, is
accomplished by
an Alternator or dynamo.
Categorization of Motors


‡ Stepper Motor
½  ‡ Servo Motor
AC motors ± single /three Phase
Induction Motors 
‡ Squirrel cage Motor Extremely small
‡ Slip ring motor Small (FHP) up to 3 HP
‡ Sychronous motor Medium 3 to 10 HP
Large 10 to 100 HP
 Very large >100HP
Series wound
Shunt wound 

Compound wound Brushless or Brushed
‡ Motors which our Relays protect are mainly
induction motors.

‡ About 70% to 80% of the Industrial Load is

because of the induction motors.

‡ Motors are rated in HP and 1 HP is 746

Rotating Magnetic Field

The windings of the three

phases are distributed in
space in such a manner
that vector sum of the three
magnetic fields (each set by
an individual phase voltage)
will create a rotating
magnetic field.
3 !


‡ Current will reduce

as the speed picks up.

‡ Torque Vs speed
2tar Delta 2tarter

Cy star contactor, Cǻ is Delta contactor

and CN is Main contactor
Connection of Motor in 2tar Delta Circuit

For star Delta connections, 6 terminals of the motor

must be on the terminal strip
Reason of Motor Failures

1. Overloads 30% +'

2. Contamination of
winding 19%
1. Single phasing 14% *'
2. Bearing Failure 13%
)( |
3. Old age Rotor $½%|

Failure 10% )'

1. Miscellaneous 9% (

[[ $½%|½||½  ) * + [ ( ,
Over load

Excessive current may be: -

Due to either mechanical overload on the motor
Due to electrical system,
unbalance supply voltage
single phasing
defective starter
defective motor itself.
In either case it is essential that the supply should be
disconnected before any damage is done to the motor.
An overload device thus usually operates by releasing
the latching-in device by disconnecting the supply to no-
volt coil or in contactor starters by operating the
operating coil circuit.
Over load & Over Temperature

‡ Insulation breakdown is a common reason for motor


‡ Windings in the motor are insulated with organic

materials including epoxy and paper. Insulation
degradation occurs when winding temperature
exceeds its rating.

‡ The National Electrical Manufacturers Association

(NEMA) states that the time-to-failure of organic
insulation is halved for each 10°C rise above the
motor insulation class rating
aalf Life Rule

‡ Allowing Motor to reach and operate at a

Temperature100 C above its maximum temperature
rating will reduce motor¶s expected life by 50%.

‡ This reduction in expected life of the motor repeats

itself for every 100 C.

‡ There is no industry standard that defines life of the

motor but it is generally considered 20 years.
Locked Rotor or 2tarting Torque

‡ The  " |

- or 
- is the
torque the electrical motor develop when its starts at
rest or zero speed.

‡ A high Starting Torque is more important for

application or machines hard to start- as positive
displacement pumps, cranes, Escalators, lifts etc. A
lower Starting Torque can be accepted in applications
as centrifugal fans or pumps where the start load is
low or close to zero.
Motor Over load Protection

‡ The National Electric Code (NEC) defines ³Motor

Overload Protection´ as that which is intended to
protect motors, motor-control apparatus, and
motor branch-circuit conductors
excessive heating due to motor overloads and failure
of the motor to start.
‡  !  is also commonly
referred to as ARunning Protection .
Insulation Classes

‡ Class µA¶ Insulation 1050 C

‡ Class µB¶ Insulation 1300 C
‡ Class µF¶ Insulation 1550 C
‡ Class µH¶ Insulation 1800 C
‡ Class µN¶ Insulation 2000 C
Thermal Overload Relay
Overload protection for single and three-phase AC
motors in the small (above 1 horse power) and
medium horse power
range is typically provided by one of two
O ! 

Over load Protection

Overload protection for large three-phase motors is

sometimes provided by O ! 
are connected to Current Transformers (CT¶s).
most new installations utilized micro-controller based
motor protective relays which can be programmed to
provide both overload and short-circuit protection.

These protective relays often also accept inputs from

Resistance Temperature Devices (RTD¶s) imbedded in
the motor windings(usually two per phase) and the
relays are capable of displaying the winding and motor
bearing temperatures, and provide both alarm and trip
Over load Relays

‡ Electro-magnetic overload relays are old type which is

not in use recent days that's why I am giving details
about Thermal Overload relay. These are mostly used in
Air Compressor now a days.

‡ This may be bi-metal strips or solder pot elements and in
either case as the action is due to their heating up,a time
element is always present. The action of bi-metal strips
over load release depends on the movement resulting
from the different rates of expansion of the two metals
forming the combined strip when heated.
3inding Contamination

‡ Winding contamination is identified by comparing the

pattern of impedance and inductance. Impedance will
decrease, and fall towards inductance, as the insulation
system begins to degrade due to contamination.
‡ In most cases, the insulation life may be extended by
removing the motor from service, cleaning, dipping and
baking (re-insulating) for a limited time after detection.

‡ As the fault progresses, it will graduate to an insulation

to ground fault or winding short. The progress is,
normally, insulation degradation, changes to the failure.
aow winding contamination
Affects life of the motor?

‡ 0/

‡ Statistically, it is found that the mean time to failure after

fault detection progressed by a simple natural log
If µm¶ is the Winding Contamination Multiplier
e-m * Hb where Hb = Base Hours

The multiplier µµ is based upon the ambient conditions .

Environmental Conditions

‡ ""

ambient temperature <250 2
‡ 1
 Conditioned air with ambient
temperature < 250C 2
‡ "1
 Variable ambient
temperatures and humidity. 2 3
‡ &
 Variable ambient
temperatures and humidity. Enclosed motors in exterior
environments. 2 
‡ 4
 High humidity, high ambient
and/or Acidic/basic environment. Includes motors
mounted in cooling towers.  0
earing Failures

Motor bearing failures are more because of over

greasing rather than under greasing !
Effects of Improper lubricants

Înder lubrication can cause a bearing to wear

out prematurely. On the other hand, applying too
much lubricant can often lead to catastrophic
results to the bearing (grease churning and
overheating) or long-term damage to motor coils
and windings.
2ervice Factor

‡ Standard Motors are designed to withstand the

temperature rise produced within the Motor when
delivering rated horse power and added to the industry
standard 400 ambient temperature rating , will not exceed
the safe winding insulation temperature limit.

‡ Electric motors feature a service factor, which indicates

how much over the nameplate rating any given electric
motor can be driven without overheating.

‡ The 
/ 1
for the electric motor is defined as a
multiplier which, when applied to the rated Horse power
indicates a permissible horse power loading which may
be carried out at permissible conditions including rated
voltage and frequency.
3hy under current protection is required?

‡ Îndercurrent protection is required by some codes as

a safety measure.

‡ A water pump that cavitates can be dangerous. The

water typically provides pump cooling. Without the
cooling water, case temperature can reach an
extremely high value.

‡ If valves are opened under these conditions and cold

water is allowed to reach red-hot metal parts, the
resulting steam pressures can destroy the pump and
pose a serious personnel hazard.
Motor Jogging

‡ NEMA designed motors are rated for two starts from

cold and one start from hot per hour.
Motor jogging refers to excessive starts and can
cause overheating. The motor may not get up to full
speed and the forced air cooling is not effective.

‡ Since the thermal model accurately tracks the

motor¶s used thermal capacity at all times, including
during starts and between starts, the starts-per-hour
feature may not be required.
Ñoltage Unbalance

‡ The NEMA standard for Electric motors and Generators

recommends that maximum voltage unbalance be
limited to 1%

‡ It is recommended that if there is unbalance then the

motor load should be reduced to avoid unacceptable

voltage unbalance 1% 98% load

voltage unbalance 2% 95% load
voltage unbalance 3% 88 %load
voltage unbalance 4% 82% load
voltage unbalance 5% 75% load
Effect of Under & Over Ñoltage

‡ Over voltages cause insulation stress and

premature breakdown.

‡ Înder voltages, such as those caused by

brownouts, can lead to increased motor heating.
Torque developed by an electric motor changes as
the square of the applied voltage. A 10% reduction
in voltage results in a 19% reduction in torque. If the
motor load is not reduced, the motor will be
2ome Causes of unbalanced voltage

‡ Înequal single phase loads

‡ Open delta connections

‡ Transformer connection open

‡ Tap settings of the transformers not proper

‡ Transformer impedance is not equal

‡ Power factor correction capacitors are not the same

2ingle Phasing

‡ The term single phasing means one of the phase is

open. This condition subjects the motor to the worst
case of voltage unbalance.

‡ The phase current will increase by ¥3 times

‡ Nothing can prevent or eliminate single phasing

Typical Causes of 2ingle Phasing

‡ Damaged Motor starter(most likely to occur on

automatically started equipments like compressors,
air conditioners.
‡ Damaged switch or circuit breaker on the main
‡ Open Fuse
‡ Open cable caused by overheated lug
‡ Open connection in wiring
‡ Open winding in the motor
‡ Any open circuit in any phase between secondary of
the transformer and Motor

‡ Winding-to-winding and winding-to-ground failures

inside the motor are difficult to detect using the
phase and ground-fault CTs due to low magnitudes
of current.

‡ Differential protection in high-end motor protection

relays use multiple CTs to compare the current
entering and leaving the winding. If there is a
difference in currents then leakage is occurring. This
sensitive protection is used on very large motors.

‡ Typical motor protection scheme
Protection and control Related
‡ Thermal model biased with RTD and negative
sequence current feedback
‡ Phase and ground TOC and IOC
‡ Start supervision and inhibit
‡ Mechanical Jam
‡ Current Phase Reversal
‡ Acceleration Time
‡ Îndercurrent / Înderpower
‡ Starts per Hour
Monitoring and metering related

‡ Current Metering
‡ RTD Temperature
‡ Event Recorder: 256 events with 1ms time
‡ Oscillography with 32 samples per cycle and
digital states
‡ IRIG-B clock synchronization
‡ Motor health diagnostics
‡ Security audit trail
Communication Related
‡ 4 X20 character LCD display
‡ Control panel with 12 LED indicator
‡ Front ÎSB and rear RS485 serial
‡ Multiple Communication Protocols:
RTÎ, DNP 3.0, IEC60870-5-104,
Security related
‡ Access control
‡ Intrusion detection
‡ Auditing and reporting