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IMPEDENCE - SOURCE

INVERTER FOR MOTOR


DRIVES
OBJECTIVE

To implement an Impedance Source Inverter for


motor drives. Which can be used as Buck-Boost the
input voltage, minimizes the Harmonics, increases the
efficiency and reduces the cost.
Traditional Source
Inverters

• Voltage Source Inverter.


• Current Source Inverter.
Voltage Source Inverter
Problems
• This inverter can be used only
for Buck operation.
• For application where the
required output voltage is high,
an additional dc-dc boost
converter is needed to obtain a

2
M1 M3 M5

2
D3

desired ac output.

1
1

1
• This inverter does not have
V1 2

50v C3

ability to provide ride-through 1

during voltage sags .


• additional power converter
M4 M2

2
M6
D6 D5 D4

stage increases system cost and

1
lowers efficiency.
• It is immune to EMI noise.
B

A TO LOAD C
Current Source Inverter
Problems
• This Inverter can be used
for only Boost operation.
• The dc link Filter Inductor is
L6
1 2

large, costly and

2
M1 M3 M5

2
D3

Contributes to losses

1
1

1
V1

50v

• The open circuit by EMI


noise is the major concern
M4 M2

2
M6
D6 D5 D4

1
• Can cause high voltage
spikes on motor terminals. B

• Usually not possible to use


A TO LOAD C

with more than one motor.


• Lower efficiency due to high
power loss
FEATURES OF Z – SOURCE INVERTER
• The impedance source inverter can provide Buck-Boost
operation.
• The output voltage range is not limited.
• It is less effected by EMI noise.
• This Inverter provide ride-through during voltage sags
• It reduces the harmonics therefore increase the power
factor and efficiency.
• The impedance source inverter cost is low.
• The impedance source inverter concept can be
applied in all ac-ac , dc-dc, ac-dc, dc-ac power
conversion
Proposed Z-Source
Inverter Unit
Block Diagram –Impedance
Source Inverter for A.C Drives

AC
Supply
IMPEDANCE Three Phase
AC To DC Motor
NETWORK Inverter
Rectifier

PWM
PWMTechnique
Thecni
Z – Source Inverter mainly consist of three
parts. They are

1. 3 – Φ Diode Rectifier
2. Impedance Network
3. 3 – Φ Inverter
• When an ac supply is given to the Diode Rectifier, it converts the ac voltage to dc
voltage.
• The diodes are numbered in order of conduction sequences and each diode
conduct for 120 degrees.
• The conduction sequence of diode is 16, 63, 32, 25, 54, and 41.
• The pair of diodes which are connected between that pair of supply lines having
the highest amount of instantaneous line-to-line will conduct .

• It is commonly used in high power


applications.

• A 3 – Φ Diode Rectifier is shown in Fig 1.

• The waveform of 3 – Φ Diode Rectifier is

shown In fig 2.
• Fig 3 shows a Two Port Impedance Network.
• These networks are used in filter sections and are also used as attenuators and
they are sometimes used in preference to ladder structure in some special
applications.
• This lattice network, L1 and L2 are series arms inductances,C1 and C2 are diagonal
capacitances and it consists of split inductors L1 and L2 and capacitors C1 and
C2 connected in X-shape.
• This network is coupled with the main circuits and the source.
Inductor and capacitor requirements:
• The Impedance source network is a combination of two inductors and two
capacitors.
• The impedance source network is the energy storage or filtering element for the
Impedance source inverter. This impedance source network provides a second
order filter.
• During Buck operation the two inductors (L1
and L2) approaches to zero and the
Impedance source network reduces to two
capacitors (C1 andC2) in parallel and
becomes traditional voltage source.
• Similarly, during Buck operation the two
capacitors (C1 and C2) approaches to zero,
the Impedance source network reduces
to two inductors (L1 and L2) in series and
becomes a traditional current source.
• The equivalent circuit of Impedance Network
is shown in Fig 4.
• When the obtainable dc voltage is given to the inverter it converts the dc
voltage to ac voltage.
• Basically, there are two possible schemes of gating the switches. In one
scheme, each switch conducts for 180o and in othe scheme, each switch
conducts for 120 degrees.
• Fig 5 shows a 3 – phase inverter.
• In both these schemes, gating signals are
applied and removed at 60 degree intervals
of the output voltage waveform.
• The operation of three phase inverter can
be understand by obeserving the
waveforms shown in Fig 6 and Fig 7.
• Switching sequence of inverter is
561 (V1) → 612 (V2) → 123 (V3) → 234
(V4) → 345 (V5) → 456 (V6) → 561 (V1)
The equations of 3 – phase inverter are

Line to line voltages.


1. Vab = VaN - VbN
2. Vbc = VbN - VcN
3. Vca = VcN - VaN

Phase voltages.
Van = 2/3VaN – 1/3VbN –
1/3VcN
Vbn = -1/3VaN + 2/3VbN -
1/3VcN
Vcn = -1/3VaN - 1/3VbN +
2/3VcN
• When an ac supply is given to the
Diode rectifier. The Diode rectifier
operate in six possible conduction
intervals as shown in Fig 1.

• In the operation of the Diode rectifier


at any instant of time , only two phase

having the largest potential difference


may conduct , carrying current from ac
to dc line.

• When the potential difference between


the two phases “a” and “b” is the largest
, diodes Dpa and Dnb conduct as a pair in
series with capacitor Ca.
• To explain the further operation of Z –
Source inverter one interval of Diode
rectifier is taken as an example as
shown in Fig 2.
• Each interval consist three modes of
operation. They are
a) MODE 1
b) MODE 2
c) MODE 3
•In this mode the Inverter bridge operates in one of the six traditional
active vectors , thus acting as a current source (Ii ) .
• The Z-Source circuit always forces diodes (Dpa and Dnb) to conduct and
carry the inductor current (ILd ) and Inverter dc current. (2ILd – Ii) as shown
in Fig 3
• The inverter bridge is operating in one of

the two traditional zero vectors and


shorting through either the upper or lower

three devices, thus acting as a open


circuit viewed from the Z-source circuit.
• The diodes ( Dpa and Dnb ) conduct and
carry currents. Fig 4 shows the circuit for
this mode.
• Again, under this mode, the two diodes
(Dpa and Dnb ) have to conduct and carry
the inductor current, which contributes to
the line current’s harmonic reduction.
• The inverter bridge is operating in one
of the seven shoot – through states.
During this mode, both diodes are off,
separating the dc link from the ac line.
The line current flows to the capacitor
(Ca). Fig 5 shows the resultant circuit.
• This is the shoot-through mode to be
used every switching cycle during the
traditional zero vector period generated
by the PWM control.
• Depending on how much a voltage
boost is needed, the shoot – through
interval or its duty cycle is determined.
Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM):
Inverter output voltage

When vcontrol > vtri, VA0 = Vdc/2

 When vcontrol < vtri, VA0 = -Vdc/2


Application
• Variable Speed Drives
• For Fuel Cells in motor vehicles.
• Variable speed drives.
• Uninterruptible power supplies.
• Induction heating.
• High voltage dc transmission lines
• The impedance source concept can be
applied in all ac-ac , dc-dc, ac-dc, dc-ac
power conversion
CONCLUSION
This project has presented a new ASD system based on the Z-source
inverter. The operating principle and analysis have been given .
Simulation and experimental results verified the operational and
demonstrated the promising features. In summary, the Z-source inverter
ASD system has several unique advantages that are very desirable for
many ASD applications.
• it can produce any desired output ac voltage, even greater than the
line voltage.
• provides ride –through during voltage sags without any additional
circuits and energy storage.
• minimizes the motor ratings to deliver a required power.
• reduces in-rush and harmonic current and improves the power factor.
• unique drives features include buck-boost inversion by single power-
conversion stage, improved reliability, and low EMI.
• the Impedance source technology can be applied to the entire
spectrum of power conversion.
Thank you