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DRIVES

OBJECTIVE

motor drives. Which can be used as Buck-Boost the

input voltage, minimizes the Harmonics, increases the

efficiency and reduces the cost.

Traditional Source

Inverters

• Current Source Inverter.

Voltage Source Inverter

Problems

• This inverter can be used only

for Buck operation.

• For application where the

required output voltage is high,

an additional dc-dc boost

converter is needed to obtain a

2

M1 M3 M5

2

D3

desired ac output.

1

1

1

• This inverter does not have

V1 2

50v C3

• additional power converter

M4 M2

2

M6

D6 D5 D4

1

lowers efficiency.

• It is immune to EMI noise.

B

A TO LOAD C

Current Source Inverter

Problems

• This Inverter can be used

for only Boost operation.

• The dc link Filter Inductor is

L6

1 2

2

M1 M3 M5

2

D3

Contributes to losses

1

1

1

V1

50v

noise is the major concern

M4 M2

2

M6

D6 D5 D4

1

• Can cause high voltage

spikes on motor terminals. B

A TO LOAD C

• Lower efficiency due to high

power loss

FEATURES OF Z – SOURCE INVERTER

• The impedance source inverter can provide Buck-Boost

operation.

• The output voltage range is not limited.

• It is less effected by EMI noise.

• This Inverter provide ride-through during voltage sags

• It reduces the harmonics therefore increase the power

factor and efficiency.

• The impedance source inverter cost is low.

• The impedance source inverter concept can be

applied in all ac-ac , dc-dc, ac-dc, dc-ac power

conversion

Proposed Z-Source

Inverter Unit

Block Diagram –Impedance

Source Inverter for A.C Drives

AC

Supply

IMPEDANCE Three Phase

AC To DC Motor

NETWORK Inverter

Rectifier

PWM

PWMTechnique

Thecni

Z – Source Inverter mainly consist of three

parts. They are

1. 3 – Φ Diode Rectifier

2. Impedance Network

3. 3 – Φ Inverter

• When an ac supply is given to the Diode Rectifier, it converts the ac voltage to dc

voltage.

• The diodes are numbered in order of conduction sequences and each diode

conduct for 120 degrees.

• The conduction sequence of diode is 16, 63, 32, 25, 54, and 41.

• The pair of diodes which are connected between that pair of supply lines having

the highest amount of instantaneous line-to-line will conduct .

applications.

shown In fig 2.

• Fig 3 shows a Two Port Impedance Network.

• These networks are used in filter sections and are also used as attenuators and

they are sometimes used in preference to ladder structure in some special

applications.

• This lattice network, L1 and L2 are series arms inductances,C1 and C2 are diagonal

capacitances and it consists of split inductors L1 and L2 and capacitors C1 and

C2 connected in X-shape.

• This network is coupled with the main circuits and the source.

Inductor and capacitor requirements:

• The Impedance source network is a combination of two inductors and two

capacitors.

• The impedance source network is the energy storage or filtering element for the

Impedance source inverter. This impedance source network provides a second

order filter.

• During Buck operation the two inductors (L1

and L2) approaches to zero and the

Impedance source network reduces to two

capacitors (C1 andC2) in parallel and

becomes traditional voltage source.

• Similarly, during Buck operation the two

capacitors (C1 and C2) approaches to zero,

the Impedance source network reduces

to two inductors (L1 and L2) in series and

becomes a traditional current source.

• The equivalent circuit of Impedance Network

is shown in Fig 4.

• When the obtainable dc voltage is given to the inverter it converts the dc

voltage to ac voltage.

• Basically, there are two possible schemes of gating the switches. In one

scheme, each switch conducts for 180o and in othe scheme, each switch

conducts for 120 degrees.

• Fig 5 shows a 3 – phase inverter.

• In both these schemes, gating signals are

applied and removed at 60 degree intervals

of the output voltage waveform.

• The operation of three phase inverter can

be understand by obeserving the

waveforms shown in Fig 6 and Fig 7.

• Switching sequence of inverter is

561 (V1) → 612 (V2) → 123 (V3) → 234

(V4) → 345 (V5) → 456 (V6) → 561 (V1)

The equations of 3 – phase inverter are

1. Vab = VaN - VbN

2. Vbc = VbN - VcN

3. Vca = VcN - VaN

Phase voltages.

Van = 2/3VaN – 1/3VbN –

1/3VcN

Vbn = -1/3VaN + 2/3VbN -

1/3VcN

Vcn = -1/3VaN - 1/3VbN +

2/3VcN

• When an ac supply is given to the

Diode rectifier. The Diode rectifier

operate in six possible conduction

intervals as shown in Fig 1.

at any instant of time , only two phase

may conduct , carrying current from ac

to dc line.

the two phases “a” and “b” is the largest

, diodes Dpa and Dnb conduct as a pair in

series with capacitor Ca.

• To explain the further operation of Z –

Source inverter one interval of Diode

rectifier is taken as an example as

shown in Fig 2.

• Each interval consist three modes of

operation. They are

a) MODE 1

b) MODE 2

c) MODE 3

•In this mode the Inverter bridge operates in one of the six traditional

active vectors , thus acting as a current source (Ii ) .

• The Z-Source circuit always forces diodes (Dpa and Dnb) to conduct and

carry the inductor current (ILd ) and Inverter dc current. (2ILd – Ii) as shown

in Fig 3

• The inverter bridge is operating in one of

shorting through either the upper or lower

circuit viewed from the Z-source circuit.

• The diodes ( Dpa and Dnb ) conduct and

carry currents. Fig 4 shows the circuit for

this mode.

• Again, under this mode, the two diodes

(Dpa and Dnb ) have to conduct and carry

the inductor current, which contributes to

the line current’s harmonic reduction.

• The inverter bridge is operating in one

of the seven shoot – through states.

During this mode, both diodes are off,

separating the dc link from the ac line.

The line current flows to the capacitor

(Ca). Fig 5 shows the resultant circuit.

• This is the shoot-through mode to be

used every switching cycle during the

traditional zero vector period generated

by the PWM control.

• Depending on how much a voltage

boost is needed, the shoot – through

interval or its duty cycle is determined.

Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM):

Inverter output voltage

Application

• Variable Speed Drives

• For Fuel Cells in motor vehicles.

• Variable speed drives.

• Uninterruptible power supplies.

• Induction heating.

• High voltage dc transmission lines

• The impedance source concept can be

applied in all ac-ac , dc-dc, ac-dc, dc-ac

power conversion

CONCLUSION

This project has presented a new ASD system based on the Z-source

inverter. The operating principle and analysis have been given .

Simulation and experimental results verified the operational and

demonstrated the promising features. In summary, the Z-source inverter

ASD system has several unique advantages that are very desirable for

many ASD applications.

• it can produce any desired output ac voltage, even greater than the

line voltage.

• provides ride –through during voltage sags without any additional

circuits and energy storage.

• minimizes the motor ratings to deliver a required power.

• reduces in-rush and harmonic current and improves the power factor.

• unique drives features include buck-boost inversion by single power-

conversion stage, improved reliability, and low EMI.

• the Impedance source technology can be applied to the entire

spectrum of power conversion.

Thank you

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