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UNIT PROTECTION

Boiler Protections
• Loss of FSSS DC for > 2 Sec
• Both ID Fan Trip
• Both FD fan Trip
• Both Air Heater Trip
• Loss of all fuel
• Flame Failure
• Drum Level High / Low B o ile r Trip
• Furnace vaccum High / Low
• Boiler manual Trip
• ALL BFP’s Trip
• Turbine to Boiler Trip B o ile r
Lo cko u t

Turbine Protections
• Main Steam Temperature Low
• Axial Shift High
• Lub Oil Pressure Low
• ESV/IV Closed
Tu rb in e
• Turbine Manual Trip Lo cko u t
• HPH’s Level High High
• Loss of 6.6KV Voltage


Integrated Protections

B o ile r M a ste r Trip G e n e ra to r


Lo cko u t R e la y Lo cko u t

86GT 86B
Tu rb in e
Lo ck o u t 86T 86G
86Y
FCB
Contact
2/37 2/32
POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION
KEY ASPECTS

• Reliability
• Security
• Sensitivity
• Selectivity
• Zone over lapping
• co-ordination
• Primary & Back up Relays
• Speed


KEY ASPECTS
Reliability

• Probability that the system will
function correctly when

• required to act(for a fault in


• Security/Stability it’s zone)
• Refrain from unwanted operation in

• the absence of fault or fault


• Sensitivity out side it’s zone
• • Ability of the system to detect the

threshold value of an abnormal

• Protection zones condition to initiate protective
• action.
• Coordination • Regions of primary sensitivity


• Determination of graded settings

to achieve selectivity
• •
• Primary Relays

• Relays with in a particular zone
• that should operate for
• prescribed abnormalities with in
• Back up Relays that zone
• 



• Relays outside a given primary

protection zone, independently
of the primary Relays.
Generator Protection Requirement

Ø Generator faults are considered to be serious since they


may cause severe and costly damage to insulation,
windings, and the core may also produce severe
mechanical torsional shock to shafts and couplings.

Ø Fault current may continue to flow for many seconds even


after the generator is tripped, because of trapped flux
within the machine, thereby increasing the amount of
fault damage.

Ø As a consequence, for faults in or near the generator that


produce high magnitudes of short-circuit currents, some
form of high-speed protection is normally used to trip
and shut down the machine as quickly as possible in
order to minimize damage.
Ø

TRIP LOGIC OF GENERATOR PROTECTION

• TWO INDEPENDENT CHANNELS WITH INDEPENDENT CT/VT


INPUTS/DC SUPPLY/TRIP RELAY

 CLASS A TRIPS
• ALL ELECTRICAL TRIP
• TRIP TURBINE , FIELD, GENERATOR,GT,UT

 CLASS-B TRIP
• MECHANICAL TRIPS
• AVOID OVER SPEEDING OF TURBINE DUE TO STEAM ENTRAPPED
IN TURBINE. TURBINE TRIP SIGNAL IS GIVEN FIRST AND THE
ACTIVE POWER, SENSED BY THE LOW FORWARD RELAY (32G)
GIVES THE TRIP SIGNAL TO THE UNIT BREAKER & FIELD
BREAKER AFTER A TIME DELAY.
• IN GCB SCHEME, ONLY GCB AND FIELD IS TRIPPED,KEEPING UAT
CHARGED THROUGH GT
• IN NON GCB SCHEME, HV CB,FIELD,UT LCV CB ARE TRIPPED.
• Class C
• Trips only HV CB
Generator Protection
Ø Gen Stator Thermal Protection
Ø Field Thermal Protection
Ø Gen stator fault Protection
Ø Gen rotor field Protection
Ø Gen abnormal operating conditions
Ø System backup Protection
Ø Power transformer Protection
Ø
Generator Protection

 Stator Thermal protection


 Thermal protection for the generator stator core and


windings
Ø Generator overload
§ Winding Temperature
§ Over current
Ø Failure of cooling systems
§ RTDs Thermocouple
§ Flow and pressure sensor
Ø Localized hot spots caused by core
lamination insulation failures or by
localized or rapidly developing winding
failures
§ Generator Core monitor

Generator Protection

Turbine - generator short time thermal capability for balanced three - phase
loading
Generator Protection

Generator Field Thermal protection


ØThermal Protection
§ Direct rotor Body temperature
measurement not possible
§ Core Monitor may detect
overheating
ØProtection for field over excitation
§ IDMT/ Definite Time
§ Excitation limiters



Generator Protection

Generator field short time thermal capability


Generator Grounding Practices

 It is common practice to ground all types of


generators through some form of external
impedance
Ø limit the mechanical stresses and
fault damage in the machine,
Ø to limit transient voltages during
faults, and
Ø to provide a means for detecting
ground faults within the machine.
 Typical Grounding practices
Ø Ungrounded
Ø Solid Grounding
Ø High-impedance grounding
Ø Low-resistance grounding
Ø Reactance grounding
Generator Grounding Practices

Ø High Impedance Grounding


– High resistance grounding
• The high-resistance grounding method utilizes a resistor
connected across the secondary of the distribution
transformer to limit the maximum ground fault
current.
• For a single-phase-to-ground fault at the machine
terminals, the primary fault current will be limited to a
value in the range of about 3 A to 25 A.
– Ground fault neutralizer grounding
ü The ground fault neutralizer grounding method utilizes a
secondary tunable reactor to limit the maximum
ground fault current.
Ø Low –resistance grounding
ü In this method, a resistor is connected directly between
the generator neutral and ground.
ü For a single-phase-to-ground fault at its terminals the
primary fault current will be limited to a value in the
range of about 200 A up to 150% of rated full-load
current.
ü Resistor cost and size usually preclude the use of
INTERTURN PROTECTION

Ø Current based system


– For generators with split neutrals with all six
terminals brought out on neutral side.
– Delayed low-set o/c relay which senses the current
in the connection between the neutrals of the
stator windings

• Voltage based system


– Relay compares the neutral NGT sec voltage and
Genertaor terminal open delta voltage.
– Balance during external E/F or normal condition
– During inter turn fault open delta voltage will be
developed and NGT sec voltage will be zero,
resulting in a differential voltage which makes the
relay operate.

 Typical setting

 Definite time type relays: minimum setting with 1 sec delay.



Inter turn protection

S p lit Ph a se
Pro te ctio n

V o lta g e B a se d

V
o
l
t
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE PROTECTION
Negative sequence
protection
• NEGATIVE SEQUENCE PROTECTION FOR GENERATOR PROTECTS
THE GENERATOR FROM EXCESSIVE HEATING IN THE ROTOR
RESULTING FROM UNBALANCED STATOR CURRENTS
• CAUSED DUE TO
– ONE POLE OPEN IN LINE
– ONE POLE OPEN OF A CIRCUIT BREAKER
– CLOSE IN UNCLEARED UNBALANCED FAULTS

• THE NEGETIVE SEQUENCE PROTECTION RELAYS SHALL BE SET TO


THE NPS CAPABILITY OF THE MACHINE WHICH IS
• K = I22X T

• TYP FOR 500 MW


 PERMISSIVE NEG SEQ CURRENT = 5 – 8 % OF STATOR CURRENT
 PERMISSIVE I22X T = 5 – 10

 SETTINGS ADOPTED FOR NTPC


 I2 = = 7.5 %
 I22XT = 8.3

NEGATIVE SEQUENCE PROTECTION
TYPICAL NPS CAPABILITY
Negative sequence protection
Loss of field protection
Loss of field protection
• ACTS AS AN INDUCTION GENERATOR
• INDUCED EDDY CURRENTS IN THE FIELD WINDING,
ROTOR BODY, WEDGES AND RETAINING RINGS
• MW FLOW IN TO THE SYSTEM/ MVAR FLOWS IN TO
THE MACHINE.
• THE APPARENT IMP TRAVELS TO THE FORTH
QUADRANT OF X-Y PLANE

• METHOD OF DETECTION:

 MINIMUM IMPEDANCE WITH U/V


 SOME RELAYS ARE SET IN THE ADMITTANCE


PLANE MATCHING WITH THE CAPABILITY CURVE OF
THE MACHINE

TRIP CHARACTERISTICS OF
LOSS OF FIELD PROTECTION
REVERSE /LOW FORWARD
POWER INTERLOCK
LOW FORWARD AND REVERSE POWER
INTER LOCK

• To allow entrapped steam in the turbine


to be utilized to avoid damage of the
turbine blade.
• To protect the machine from motoring
action
• Trip under class B after a short time
delay in case the turbine is already
tripped ( typ set at 2 sec)
• Trip under class A, after a long time
delayif turbine is not tripped
(typically set at 10 sec)
• Power setting typ 0.5 % of rated power

Rev power/ LFPR INTERLOCK
• STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

• E/F CURRENT IS LIMITTED TO 10A


• THIS MINIMIZES THE DAMAGE
• FIRST FAULT LESS CRITICAL
• NEEDS CLEARANCE AS
 IT MAY DEVELOP INTO A PH TO PH FAULT
 SECOND FAULT WILL RESULT IN VERY HIGH
CURRENT
• TWO TYPES:
• 100 % E/F
• 95 % E/F

EFFECT OF STATOR E/F
95 % Stator Earth
Fault

Ø Results In Voltage Shift Of Gen Neutral W.R.T


Ground.
Ø
Ø Detected By Voltage Relay Connected Across
Grounding Resistor Or From The Generator
Terminal Through Open Delta VT
Ø
Ø Protect Approx 95% Of Stator Wdg

Ø Typical Setting:
– For Definite Time Delay Type: 5%of
110 V Ie, 5.5 V At 1 Sec

EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

Three ways of providing E/F


protection:
• Voltage relay connected across
grounding resistor
• A current relay connected to CT
provided in grounding transformer
• Voltage relay connected to open
delta in generator VT

05/08/11 PMI Revision 00 32


05/08/11 PMI Revision 00 33
100 % Stator E/F Protection

• Third Harmonic Principle


• Relay responds to the reduction of
the 3rd Harmonic Component
• For a Stator Phase-to-ground fault at
or near the Generator Neutral, there
will be an increase in third Harmonic
Voltage at The Generator Terminals,
which Will Cause Relay Operation.

100% SEF based on third harmonics
measurements

Disadvantages

Due to design variations, certain generating


units may not produce sufficient third
harmonic voltages.

This method does not protect the machine


during stand still conditions.
100% stator earth fault protection
(Low freq. injection principle)

Ø Detects the ground faults


by injecting a low frequency
signal (say 20 hz) at the
neutral earthing transformer
and monitor the earth
max. 20 Hz current in the winding.
200 V
RE
I
COMPARISION BETWEEN E/F PROTECTIONS
ROTOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

• FIRST ROTOR E/F DOES NOT CAUSE IMMEDIATE


DAMAGE
• SECOND E/F RESULTS IN A WDG SC OF ROTOR
• CAUSE MAGNETIC UNBALANCE/MECH FORCES
/DAMAGE
• METHODS OF DETECTION
– POTENTIOMETER METHOD
• A CENTRE TAPED RESISTOR IS CONNECTED
ACROSS THE MAIN FIELD WINDING
• THE CENTRE TAP IS CONNECTED TO EARTH
THROUGH A VOLTAGE RELAY
• AN EARTH FAULT ON THE FIELD WINDING
WILL PRODUCE VOLTAGE IN THE RELAY,
MAXIMUM VOLTAGE OCCURRING FOR END
FAULTS
• A BLIND SPOT EXISTS AT THE TAPPING
POINT, TO AVOID THIS , THE TAPPING
POINT IS VARIED WITH A PUSH BUTTON
OR SWITCH , AND IS TESTED
PERIODICALLY TO DETECT BLIND ZONE
ROTOR E/F PROT (contd)
§LOW FREQUENCY INJECTION METHOD
MODERN ROTOR EARTH FAULT PROT ECTION RELAY OPERATES ON THE
PRINCIPLE OF LOW FREQUENCY INJECTION INTO THE FIELD WINDING VIA
CAPACITORS.
CORRESPONDING CURRENT OR RESISTANCE DURING E/F IS SENSED
TYP SETTING (500 MW)
ALARM 40 K OHM TIME = 10 SEC
TRIP 5 K OHM TIME = 1 SEC
ACTUAL VALUES OF SETTING SHALL BE DECIDED AT
SITE DURING COMMISSIONING TO ACCERTAIN THE
HEALTHY VALUE OF THE PARTICULAR M / C .
n
Under and Over
Voltage Protection:
27/59
B a cku p to g e n e ra to r’ s
AV R
Tim
V < : Pro te cts a g a in st e
sta llin g o f a u xilia ry
co o lin g fa n s o r p u m p s
a t lo w vo lta g e V> V o lta g
1 e
V > : Pro te cts in su la tio n Id m t cu rve
fro m d a m a g e fo r (V > 1 )
su sta in e d o ve rvo lta g e s t = k / ( M -1 )
V < 1 & V > 1 : ID M T o r D T
o p e ra tio n M = M u ltip le o f
V < 2 & V > 2 : D e fin ite se ttin g
tim e d e la ye d k = Tim e
m u ltip lie r
MiCOM-P340-40
V/Hz Overfluxing
Protection (24)
V α KΦ
f

Primary function to detect overfluxing during machine run-up

Alarm : Definite time characteristic to initiate corrective action

Trip : IDMT or DT characteristic to clear overfluxing condition

Settings
Pick-up 1.5 to 3i.0.e. 110V x 1.05 = 2.31
50Hz
DT setting range 0 to 100 seconds
MiCOM-P340-41
Typical Over Fluxing Withstand
Capability
O/V PROTECTION

 .
 TYP SETTINGS OF A 3 STAGE O/V RELAY IS AS FOLLOWS
 ALARM 110 % 2 SEC
 TRIP 120 % 1 SEC
 140 % INSTANTANEOUS

 U/F O/F PROTECTION


 TYPICAL SETTING:
 U/F O/F
ALARM - 47.8HZ 1 SEC 51 Hz 1 SEC
TRIP - 47.4 HZ 2 SEC 51.5Hz 2.5 SEC
SETTING NEED TO BE CO-ORDINATED WITH THE
RESPECTIVE GRID AGENCY AND THE ISLANDING
SCHEME SETTINGS AND THE M/C CAPABILITY.

NTPC Vindhyachal

ca l B re a k e r B a ck u p P ro te ctio n ( L B B G T - 5 0 Z ) :

lth e p ro te ctio n s o f th e G e n e ra to r tra n sfo rm e r a n d u n it a u xilia ry tra n sfo rm


a lly o p e ra te th e G e n e ra to r m a ste r trip re la y. T h is m a ste r trip re la y issu e s
p p in g co m m a n d to G e n e ra to r b a y b re a ke r. In th e e ve n t, th e G e n e ra to r
e a ke r d o e s n o t o p e n w ith in p re se t tim e sa y 2 0 0 m s, th e LB B sch e m e is
e rg ize d .
Backup impedance
protection

Ø For uncleared system fault


Ø
Ø The backup protection is time delayed to
coordinate with the zone 3 setting of lines
Ø Detected by
– over current
– impedance
– Impedance type preferred as the line is
provided with distance relays
Ø Setting should be made to cover the GT imp and
the longest line impedance.
Ø Setting should take care of the infeed from other
generators connected to the same bus also.
Ø Time setting 1.5 –2 sec
Stator fault Protection

Ø High Speed Differential protection


– Will detect Phase to Phase Faults, Double phase
faults involving earth
– Single phase to Earth will not be detected due to
limited earth fault current available.

Ø Two types of high-speed differential relays
are commonly used for stator phase fault
detection:
– High-impedance differential
– Biased differential


High Impedance Differential Relay
Ø Use two sets of identical dedicated CTs.
Ø PS class CT with stringent parameters to be
used
Ø This scheme has higher sensitivity than the
percentage differential relay.
Ø Through fault stability achieved by using
stabilising resistors in the relay circuit.
High Impedance Differential
Equipment to be protected
I1 I1 I2

i1 i1’
i1 – i1’ i2
Stabilising i1 + i2
Resistance

Operating
relay
Biased Type Diff Relay

Ø Less stringent CT parameters. CTs can be shared with other
protections.
Ø Through fault stability achieved through biasing.
Ø CT mismatch (typ of the order of 1:5 ) can be accommodated.
Ø More suitable for numerical integrated protection systems as the
CTs can be shared for many functions.
Ø Modern numerical relays have flexible settings for



Low Impedance Differential
Equipment to be protected
I1 I1 I2

i1 i1’
i2
Biasing/Restraining i1 – i1’
element
i1 + i2
Differential
element
Overall Differential Protection:
. This protection is provided to detect the faults of
Generator, Generator transformer, unit auxiliary
transformer.
•This is three winding type biased percentage
differential
relay.
•In case of any fault within the Generator neutral
to
switchyard the unbalance will be created in the relay
and relay will operate.
•This relay is fast operating (20ms) and is
considered as primary protection of Generator unit
protection system.
•Operation of this relay isolates the set from the
system.
•The relay should have immunity to 2nd and 5th
harmonic to avoid operation due to magnetizing in
GT OVERALL DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTIION

50Z
Igt

Iuat1 GT Iuat2

GENERATOR
Ig
87 GT

05/08/11 PMI Revision 00 52


NUMERICAL RELAYS

• These relays combine several type


of Protections into one relay.
• These are micro processor based
and can perform various type of
calculation by programming.

S.K. Singhal 53
Numerical Relays
• They also display values of Current,
Voltage, Power factor at the time of
fault as well as during normal
running.

• They can record and store number of


faults and events.


S.K. Singhal 54
DISADVANTAGE OF NUMERICAL RELAYS

• Failure of one relay can make a number of


protections inoperative.
• Except changing of cards, no maintenance is
possible
• Become obsolete very fast and manufacturers are
not able to provide services for a long time.
• Requires cleaner and humid free / dry
environment as compared to conventional
relay.


S.K. Singhal 55
GENERATOR PROTECTION SYSTEM
UAT Ref. Gen. Trf. O/A (87GT)
UAT Diff. Protection
Protection To Excit.
P2 P1 P1 P2 TrfTo
. PT Ckt.
(64 Ref.)
52U
UAT Ref. LK
Protection
P2
(64 Ref.) 5
Gen. Diff. Prot. 9
Over Voltage
Relay
Gen. Trf. O/A (87GT) 87G)(Auto)
(AVR
7
Diff. Protection P1 8
Out OF Step
Relay

UAT O/C (50/51) Gen. 8


1 Under/ Over
Protection P2 Freq. Relay
Core-4 Metering
Gen. Diff. Protection (87G) Field Failure Prot. (40)
Core-3 Neg. Phase Seq. (46)
Gen. O/A Diff. Protection (87G) Core-2 Back Up Imp. Prot. (21G)
Reverse Power Prot.
Core-1 (37G)
P1 6
4
G

Resist
or 100% Stator
S.K. Singhal E/F Protection 56
• Differential Protection
 Current differential relaying can be used to protect
network transformers. The relays are connected to current
transformers on the high side and low side of the network
transformer. The net operating current to the relays is the
difference between input and output currents to the network
transformer zone of protection. Differential relaying provides a
clearly defined zone of protection.

• Biased type with adjustable bias setting of 10-50%


• Triple pole
• Harmonic restraint feature
• No of bias wdgs as applicable
• Operating current setting of 15% or less

• Over current protection


– Given on LV side as primary protection
– On HV side as back up protection
– IDMT or def time as applicable
– Need to be co-coordinated ( for time and current)with
down stream protection
 Directional if the power flow is bi-directional

• Back up earth fault protection
– Single pole
– Def time /IDMT As applicable
– Time delay 0.3 – 3 sec for def time relay
– Standard curves for IDMT
– Setting ranges to suit the application
• Over fluxing
– Operate on V/F principle
– Inverse characteristics to suit the transformer o/f
withstand capability
– Shall have alarm and trip stages

n Restricted earth fault
Protection
nSingle pole
nGenerally high impedance type
preferred
nSetting rage of 5-20% 0r 10 – 40 %
nStable for through faults
nInclude stabilizing resistor for
through fault stability
NTPC
Vindhyachal
Generator Out of Step ( Pole slip ) Protection:

This relay is connected between Generator


neutral C.Ts. and phase side P.T.
When there is sudden increase or decrease of load in power system may be
due to fault, switching ON/OFF of large loaded lines which disturbs the
balance of power of the system causing oscillations is called power
swing. If the system recovers immediately, stable operation is resumed and
generating set can sustain such small swings. However, if the system is
not recovered within say few seconds power swing become so large that
synchronism between gen. and system is lost (which is called pole slip).
The pole slip is detected by the impedance relay. It detects the locus of
the machine and system impedance and its residence time in the reactance
diagram. Generally if the impedance remains more than 25 ms in the
impedance diagram it is considered as pole slip. The relay should not
operate on normal recoverable power swings. This protection is very
important for the mechanical protection of the machine as the power
swings causes severe pulsating stress on the T.G. set shaft. It is
necessary to isolate the machine on unrecoverable power swings.
GENERATOR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
SYSTEM

LA

Core-3 G.T. O/A Diff. Protection (87


GT)

Core-2 G.T. Ref. Protection (64 R)

Core-1 Link Line Diff. Protection (87


LL)
G.T. Ref. Protection (64 Ref.)

P2 P1

S.K. Singhal 62
STANDARD PROTECTIONS USED FOR
TRANSFORMERS

• Differential
• Over current
• Earth fault
• Restricted earth fault
• Over fluxing
• Mechanical protection
 buchholtz
 pressure relief device
• Temperature protection
 WTI/OTI

GENERATOR Xer
PROTECTION
• REF Protection
• Back-up Earth Fault Protection
• Overfluxing Protection
• Differential Protection
• Oil & Wdg Temperature Protection
• Buckholtz Protection
• PRV Protection