Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PPT, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

8 Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PPT, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- SIX SIGMA
- ANOVA Introduction
- Synopsis Example
- Taguchi Injection Molding Process[1]
- 1000CR for GMAT
- mb0040
- An Ova
- Anova
- Analysis Of Variance Project
- Surface Roughness Prediction of AL2014T4 by Responsive Surface Methodology
- quantitative research artifact
- amusement park presentation
- l7_anova4
- Chapter 12.ppt
- ANOVA Defined.docx
- Analisis de Varianza (ANOVA)
- Minitab17 GettingStarted En
- Biodegradación de Tanino de La Pulpa de Café Por Penicillium Verrucosum
- Factors Influencing a Motorists Ability to Detect Deer at Night
- hemoragik nihss2

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 54

Zamriyah bt Abu Samah

A statistical method for making simultaneous

comparisons between two or more means.

test the hypothesis that the means among two or

more groups are equal, under the assumption that the

sampled populations are normally distributed.

among several means for significance without

increasing the Type I error rate.

• To begin, let us consider the effect of temperature on a passive

component such as a resistor.

resistors.

resistors before placing n resistors each in three different ovens.

resistors again after, say, 24 hours and analyze the responses, which

are the differences between before and after being subjected to the

temperatures.

there are three levels or settings of the factor Temperature.

Different types of ANOVA

A factor is an independent treatment variable whose settings

What is

(values) are controlled and varied by the experimenter.

a

factor?

The intensity setting of a factor is the level. Levels may be

quantitative numbers or, in many cases, simply "present" or

"not present" ("0" or "1").

The 1-way In the experiment, there is only one factor, temperature, and

ANOVA the analysis of variance that we will be using to analyze the

effect of temperature is called a one-way or one-factor

ANOVA.

The 2-way or We could have opted to also study the effect of positions in

3-way ANOVA the oven. In this case there would be two factors,

temperature and oven position. Here we speak of a two-way

or two-factor ANOVA.

effect of time. Now we deal with a three-way or three-factor

ANOVA.

4

You may use ANOVA whenever you have 2

or more independent groups

You must use ANOVA whenever you have 3

One-way ANOVA

1 factor-e.g. smoking status

(never,former,current)

Two-way ANOVA

2 factors-e.g. gender and smoking status

Three-way ANOVA

3 factors-e.g. gender, smoking and beer

consumption

• F(2,27) = 8.80, p < .05

◦ F = test statistic

◦ 2,27

2 =df between groups

27 = df within groups

◦ 8.80 = obtained value of F

◦ p < .05 = probability less than 5% that null

hypothesis is true

Reject the null hypothesis

Some of the group means differ significantly from

each other.

Example

◦ An apple juice manufacturer is planning to develop

a new product -a liquid concentrate.

◦ The marketing manager has to decide how to

market the new product.

◦ Three strategies are considered

Emphasize convenience of using the product.

Emphasize the quality of the product.

Emphasize the product’s low price.

Example continued

◦ An experiment was conducted as follows:

In three cities an advertisement campaign was

launched .

In each city only one of the three characteristics

(convenience, quality, and price) was

emphasized.

The weekly sales were recorded for twenty weeks

following the beginning of the campaigns.

Convnce Quality Price

529 804 672

Week 658

793

514

630

774

717

531

443

596

ly 663

719

679

604

602

502

711 620 659

sales 606

461

697

706

689

675

529 615 512

498 492 691

663 719 733

Wee

604

495

787

699

698

776

kly

485

557

572

523

561

572

353 584 469

sales

557

542

634

580

581

679

614 624 532

Weekl

y sales

In the context of this problem…

Response variable – weekly sales

Responses – actual sale values

Experimental unit – weeks in the three cities

when we record sales figures.

Factor – the criterion by which we classify the

populations (the treatments). In this problems

the factor is the marketing strategy.

Factor levels – the population (treatment)

names. In this problem factor levels are the

marketing strategies.

Solution

◦ The data are interval

◦ The problem objective is to compare sales in

three cities.

◦ We hypothesize that the three population

means are equal

• Solution

H0: µ 1 = µ 2= µ 3

hypotheses use the following notation:

If the null hypothesis is true, we would

expect all the sample means to be close to

one another (and as a result, close to the

grand mean).

If the alternative hypothesis is true, at least

some of the sample means would differ.

Thus, we measure variability between

sample means.

• The variability between the sample

means is measured as the sum of

squared distances between each

mean and the grand mean.

Sum of Squares for Treatments

In our example treatments are

represented by the different SST

advertising strategies.

k

SST= ∑ nj (xj − x) 2

j=1

j mean of sample j

one another, their distance from the grand

mean is small, leading to a small SST. Thus,

large SST indicates large variation between

sample means, which supports H1.

Solution – continued

Calculate SST

x1 = 577.55x2 = 653

.00 x3 = 608

.65

k

SST = ∑nj (xj −x)2

j=1

=

he grand mean is calculated by 20(577.55 - 613.07)2 +

n1x1 + n2x2 + ...+ nkxk + 20(653.00 - 613.07)2 +

X= + 20(608.65 - 613.07) 2

=

n1 + n2 + ...+ nk

= 57,512.23

Large variability within the samples

weakens the “ability” of the sample

means to represent their corresponding

population means.

Therefore, even though sample means

SST must be judged relative to the

“within samples variability”.

The variability within samples is

measured by adding all the squared

distances between observations and their

sample means.

Sum of Squares for Error

SSE

our example this is the

m of all squared differences

tween sales in city j and the

mple mean of city j (over all

e three cities).

Solution – continued

Calculate SSE

k nj

SSE = ∑∑ (xij − x j ) 2

j =1 i2=1+ (n -1)s 2

= (n1 - 1)s12 + (n2

-1)s 2 3 3

(20-1)8,670.24

= 506,983.50

To perform the test we need

to calculate the mean

squares as follows:

SST SSE

MST = M S E=

k −1 n− k

57 ,512 .23 5 0 9,9 8 3.5 0

= =

3 −1 6 0− 3

= 28 ,756 .12 = 8,8 9 4.4 5

MST

F=

MSE

28 ,756 .12

=

8,894 .45

Required Conditions: = 3.23

1. The populations tested

are normally distributed.

with the following degrees of freedom:

2. The variances of all the

populations tested arev1=k -1 and v2=n-k

equal.

And finally the hypothesis test:

H0: µ 1 = µ 2 = …=µ k

H1: At least two means differ

Test statistic:

MST

R.R: F>Fα ,k-1,n-k F=

MSE

MST

F=

MSE

Ho: µ 1 = µ 2= µ 3 28,756.12

=

H1: At least two means differ 8,894.17

=3.23

Test statistic F= MST/ MSE= 3.23

Since 3.23 > 3.15, there is sufficient

evidence

to reject Ho in favor of H1, and argue

that at least one

of the mean sales is different than the

Anov a: Single Factor

SUM MARY

G roups Count Sum Average Variance

Conv enience 20 11551 577.55 10775.00

Q uality 20 13060 653.00 7238.11

Price 20 12173 608.65 8670.24

ANO VA

Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit

Between G roups 57512 2 28756 3.23 0.0468 3.16

W ithin G roups 506984 57 8894

Total 564496 59

Fixed effects

◦ If all possible levels of a factor are included in our

analysis we have a fixed effect ANOVA.

◦ The conclusion of a fixed effect ANOVA applies only to

the levels studied.

Random effects

◦ If the levels included in our analysis represent a

random sample of all the possible levels, we have a

random-effect ANOVA.

◦ The conclusion of the random-effect ANOVA applies to

all the levels (not only those studied).

In some ANOVA models the test statistic of the

fixed effects case may differ from the test

statistic of the random effect case.

Fixed and random effects - examples

levels of the marketing strategies were included

◦ Random effects - To determine if there is a difference

in the production rate of 50 machines, four machines

are randomly selected and there production recorded.

Example

◦ Suppose in the Example, two factors are to be

examined:

The effects of the marketing strategy on sales.

Emphasis on convenience

Emphasis on quality

Emphasis on price

The effects of the selected media on sales.

Advertise on TV

Advertise in newspapers

Solution

◦ We may attempt to analyze combinations of levels,

one from each factor using one-way ANOVA.

◦ The treatments will be:

Treatment 1: Emphasize convenience and advertise in TV

Treatment 2: Emphasize convenience and advertise in

newspapers

…………………………………………………………………….

Treatment 6: Emphasize price and advertise in

newspapers

Solution

◦ The hypotheses tested are:

H0: µ 1= µ 2= µ 3= µ 4= µ 5= µ 6

H1: At least two means differ.

• Solutio

– In each one of six cities sales are recorded

nfor ten

weeks.

– In each city a different combination of

marketing

City1emphasis

Convnce

City2

Convnce

and

City3media

Quality

City4usage

Quality

is employed.

City5 City6

Price Price

TV Paper TV Paper TV Paper

Solution

City1 City2 City3 City4 City5 City6

Convnce Convnce Quality Quality Price

Price

TV Paper TV Paper TV

Paper

• We conclude that there is evidence that differences

exist in the mean weekly sales among the six cities.

These result raises some questions:

◦ Are the differences in sales caused by the

different marketing strategies?

◦ Are the differences in sales caused by the

different media used for advertising?

◦ Are there combinations of marketing strategy

and media that interact to affect the weekly

sales?

The current experimental design cannot

provide answers to these questions.

A new experimental design is needed.

Factor A: Marketing strategy

Convenience Quality Price

Advertising media

sales sales sales

Factor B:

Newspapers sales sales sales

caused by different marketing strategies?

Test whether mean sales of “Convenience”,

“Quality”,

and “Price” significantly differ from one

another.

Calculations are

H0: µ Conv. =µ Quality =µ Price

based on the sum of

square for factor A

SS(A)

Factor A: Marketing strategy

Advertising media

TV sales sales sales

Factor B:

Newspapers sales sales sales

caused by different advertising media?

st whether mean sales of the “TV”, and “Newspaper

nificantly differ from one another.

the sum of square for factor B

H1: The means differ SS(B)

Factor A: Marketing strategy

Advertising media

Factor B:

sales sales sales

Newspapers sales sales sales

caused by interaction between marketing

strategy and advertising medium?

Test whether mean sales of

certain cells are different than

the level expected.

Calculation are based on the sum of

square for interaction SS(AB)

a

∑

SS(A) = rb

i=1

(x[A]i − x)2 (10(2){(xconv. − x) 2 + ( xquality − x) 2 + ( x price − x) 2 }

∑

SS(B) = ra

j=1

(x[B]j − x)2 (10 )(3){( xTV − x) 2 + ( x Newspaper − x ) 2 }

a b

SS(AB) = r∑ ∑ (x[AB]ij − x[A]i − x[B]j + x)2

i=1 j=1

a b r

SSE = ∑∑∑

i =1 j =1 k =1

( xijk − x[ AB ]ij ) 2

Test for the difference between the levels of the main

factors A and B

SS(A)/(a-1) SS(B)/(b-1)

MS(A) MS(B)

F= F=

MSE MSE SSE/(n-ab)

Rejection region: F > Fα ,a-1,n-ab F

> Fα , b-1, n-ab

• Test for interaction between factors A and B

MS(AB) SS(AB)/(a-1)(b-1)

F=

MSE

Rejection region: F > Fα,( a-

1)(b-1),n-ab

1. The response distributions is normal

2. The treatment variances are equal.

3. The samples are independent.

Convenience Quality Price

TV 491 677 575

TV 712 627 614

TV 558 590 706

TV 447 632 484

TV 479 683 478

TV 624 760 650

TV 546 690 583

TV 444 548 536

TV 582 579 579

TV 672 644 795

Newspaper 464 689 803

Newspaper 559 650 584

Newspaper 759 704 525

Newspaper 557 652 498

Newspaper 528 576 812

Newspaper 670 836 565

Newspaper 534 628 708

Newspaper 657 798 546

Newspaper 557 497 616

Newspaper 474 841 587

Example – continued

◦ Test of the difference in mean sales between the

three marketing strategies

H0: µ conv. =µ quality =µ price

ANOVA

Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit

Sample 13172.0 1 13172.0 1.42 0.2387 4.02

Columns 98838.6 2 49419.3 5.33 0.0077 3.17

Interaction 1609.6 2 804.8 0.09 0.9171 3.17

Within 501136.7 54 9280.3

Total 614757.0 59

Example – continued

◦ Test of the difference in mean sales between

the three marketing strategies

H0: µ conv. =µ quality =µ price

MS(A)/MSE

F = MS(Marketing strategy)/MSE = 5.33

infer that differences in weekly sales exist

among the marketing strategies.

Example - continued

◦ Test of the difference in mean sales between

the two advertising media

H0: µ TV. = µ Nespaper

H1: The two mean sales differ

ANOVA

Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit

Sample 13172.0 1 13172.0 1.42 0.2387 4.02

Columns 98838.6 2 49419.3 5.33 0.0077 3.17

Interaction 1609.6 2 804.8 0.09 0.9171 3.17

Within 501136.7 54 9280.3

Total 614757.0 59

Example - continued

◦ Test of the difference in mean sales between

the two advertising media

H0: µ TV. =µ Nespaper

MS(B)/MSE

F = MS(Media)/MSE = 1.42

Fcritical = Fα, a-1,n-ab = F.05,2-1,60-(3)(2) = 4.02 (p-value = .2387)

evidence to infer that differences in weekly

sales exist between the two advertising media.

Example - continued

◦ Test for interaction between factors A and B

H 0: µ TV*conv. =µ TV*quality =…=µ newsp.*price

ANOVA

Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit

Sample 13172.0 1 13172.0 1.42 0.2387 4.02

Columns 98838.6 2 49419.3 5.33 0.0077 3.17

Interaction 1609.6 2 804.8 0.09 0.9171 3.17

W ithin 501136.7 54 9280.3

Total 614757.0 59

Interaction AB = Marketing*Media

Example - continued

◦ Test for interaction between factor A and B

H 0: µ TV*conv. =µ TV*quality =…=µ newsp.*price

F = MS(Marketing*Media)/MSE = .09

evidence to infer that the two factors

interact to affect the mean weekly sales.

• To compare 2 or more means in a single test we use ANOVA

FACTORS in the experiment

difference and gives no information on which mean(s) are

different

further information on which mean(s) are different

errors

why not just do them and forget the ANOVA? – Well of course

that is their choice BUT the ANOVA may return a result of no

sig diff. In one test, saving a lot of time and effort AND

pairwise testing increases the probability of false results

Thank You

- SIX SIGMAHochgeladen vonSaurabh Gupta
- ANOVA IntroductionHochgeladen vonlavaniyan
- Synopsis ExampleHochgeladen vonRishi Mishra
- Taguchi Injection Molding Process[1]Hochgeladen voncbesne
- 1000CR for GMATHochgeladen vonAbhishek Dutta
- mb0040Hochgeladen vonjobin
- An OvaHochgeladen vonGanesh Iyer
- AnovaHochgeladen vonDiya Kar
- Analysis Of Variance ProjectHochgeladen vonTanner Phillips
- Surface Roughness Prediction of AL2014T4 by Responsive Surface MethodologyHochgeladen vonIJIRST
- quantitative research artifactHochgeladen vonapi-253262741
- amusement park presentationHochgeladen vonapi-253520672
- l7_anova4Hochgeladen vonPrasad Raikar
- Chapter 12.pptHochgeladen vonToto Amuro
- ANOVA Defined.docxHochgeladen vonVipin Rawat
- Analisis de Varianza (ANOVA)Hochgeladen vonCarlos J. Montero Gil
- Minitab17 GettingStarted EnHochgeladen vonBramantiyo Eko P
- Biodegradación de Tanino de La Pulpa de Café Por Penicillium VerrucosumHochgeladen vonPilar Salazar Gallego
- Factors Influencing a Motorists Ability to Detect Deer at NightHochgeladen vonPaul Beavis
- hemoragik nihss2Hochgeladen vonOdi MQuraish Shihab
- NDT NABLHochgeladen vonPrabir Kumar
- eps14drHochgeladen vonJerome Ventura Balgos
- In vitro Propagation of Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de WildeHochgeladen vonIJEAB Journal
- Water Reg Article2PHochgeladen vonArifin R Hidayat
- After the Collection of DataHochgeladen vonyogesh gupta
- Job satisfactionHochgeladen vonRakesh Raki
- Chapter 3 sample methodologyHochgeladen vonAngelica Rose Acedera
- Critical Review-strategi EkspansiHochgeladen vonSri Devi
- AB1202-Lect-08Hochgeladen vonxthele
- Document 1Hochgeladen voncielo

- My Signals NotesHochgeladen vonSaed Mami
- MBAN-603DE - Decision Making Methods & ToolsHochgeladen vonJeremy Jarvis
- For CastingHochgeladen vonVictoria Terry
- Ch 6 Math NotesHochgeladen vonJ
- 1997 AP Calculus AB ExamHochgeladen vonthemadhatter106
- Statistical Process Control & Software Reliability Trend an Analysis Based on Inter Failure Time DataHochgeladen vonNavneet
- Absolute Value FunctionHochgeladen vonMuhammad Imran
- gPCAHochgeladen vonwaitlong75
- Numerical Calculus With ExcelHochgeladen vonkim law
- 2010 TPJC Prelim Paper 1Hochgeladen voncjcsucks
- gftffftftffHochgeladen voncubil9
- Inequalities MarathonHochgeladen vonGuilherme Rocha
- Calc15.6Hochgeladen vonJeoff Libo-on
- Statistics Ch 3 Exercise SolutionHochgeladen vonMuhammad Usman
- 2013_GOF in PLSPM.pdfHochgeladen vonRashmi Vaishya
- 04-Panel Methods(Theory and Method)Hochgeladen vonlarasmoyo
- RD LectureHochgeladen vondeba_econ
- Soalan Kbat Add Math Form 5Hochgeladen vonEric Mooi
- OlsHochgeladen vonAlina Ciabuca
- Elements of Infinitesimal CalculusHochgeladen vonKarina Yesenia Salinas
- Eas254 - SDM Part 3 - No Sidesway (1)Hochgeladen vonNasrul
- Complex and Gradient OperatorHochgeladen vonjimmie doyle
- FourierSeries.pdfHochgeladen von1balamanian
- trig function graphs lesson planHochgeladen vonapi-204970231
- ComplexHochgeladen voneradat67
- BIOSTATISTICSHochgeladen vonorangegirl002
- Statistical Signal ProcessingHochgeladen vonchegu.balaji
- courseofmodernan00whit_bwHochgeladen vonEvo Zen
- 10_DCT.pdfHochgeladen vonHàNgọcAnh
- Inductive and Deductive ReasoningHochgeladen vonBehranne Obd

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.