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Transmission Media
O Physical Infrastructure components that carry data
from one computer to another .
O The physical path that is used to carry a signal
between a signal transmitter and a signal receiver is
called the transmission medium.
O There are two types of transmission media:
1. Guided
2. Unguided (Wireless)

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Transmission Media
O Communication is in the form of electromagnetic
waves.
O Characteristics and quality of data transmission are
determined by characteristics of medium and signal.
O In guided media, medium characteristics is more
important, whereas in unguided media, signal
characteristics is more important.

ë
Guided Media
O The three most common types of guided
media include twisted-pair cable, coaxial
cable, and fiber optic cable.

G
|  
 
O | 
 wiring - a type of cable composed of
two (or more) copper wires twisted around each
other within a plastic sheath.
O The oldest, least expensive, and most commonly
used media.
O The wires are twisted to reduce outside electrical
interference.
O Up to 2ΠkHz analog and few Mbps digital
signaling ( for long-distance point-to-point
signaling).

Œ
Cont͛d
O Increasing the number of turns per foot
reduces the noise interference.
O To further improve noise rejection, a foil or
wire braid shield is woven around the twisted
pairs.
O Twisted pairs are of the following kindsJ
[  (r  
 ),
[  (   
 )


hielded Twisted Pair ( TP)

 
hielded Twisted Pair ( TP)

(FTP)
]
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

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Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

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Cont͛d
O J most common medium; used in:
[ Telephone network
[ Between house and local exchange (subscriber loop)
[ To private branch exchange (PBX)
[ For local area networks (LAN)
[ Ethernet at 1 Mbps or 1 Mbps
O Advantages :
[ cheap
[ easy to work with (to install on walls)
O Disadvantages :
[ susceptible or unresistant to EM interference and noise
[ need for amplification (order of kilometers)
[ crosstalk

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Coaxial Cable
O  - cable that can carry a wide range of frequencies with low
signal loss.
O Consists of 2 conductors. The inner conductor is held inside an insulator
with the other conductor woven around it providing a shield. An
insulating protective coating called a jacket covers the outer conductor.


 
 
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Cont͛d
O Most versatile medium
ͻ LANs, Cable TV, Long-distance telephones, VCR to-TV
connections
O Noise immunity is good
O Very high channel capacity
ͻ few 1 MHz / few 1 Mbps
O Coaxial cable is divided into two different types:
a |  - similar to the cable used by cable
television companies
 |  - similar to thinnet except that it is
larger in diameter


ptical Fiber
O V   (or "  ") - the technology associated with the
transmission of information as light impulses along a glass or plastic wire
or fiber.
O The typical optical fibre consists of a very narrow strand of glass called
the Core. Around the Core is a concentric layer of glass called the
Cladding. A typical Core diameter is 2.Πmicrons Typically Cladding has a
diameter of 12Πmicrons. Coating the cladding is a protective coating
consisting of plastic, it is called the Jacket.

å   
1G
Advantages
O Extremely high bandwidth: capable of upto
2Gbps
O Very high noise immunity, resistant to
electromagnetic interference.
O Does not radiate energy/cause interference.
O Very light in weight.
O Very difficult to join
ͻ Better security


Light Propagation Modes

tep-index multimode

Graded-index multimode

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Light Propagation Modes
ingle mode


Guided Cable ummary

 


C   

pen Cable - ΠMHz


Twisted Pair -1 MHz
Coaxial Cable - MHz
ptical Fiber - 2 GHz

1]
Unguided Media
O Unguided media, also called as wireless
communication, transmitting electromagnetic
waves without using a physical conductor.
O Examples include microwaves, infrared light
waves, and radio waves

1m
(Terrestrial) Microwave
O Typically used where laying a cable is not Practical.
O Parabolic dish shaped antenna ( approx 1 ft diameter)
transmits/receives electromagnetic waves in the 2-G GHz
range.
O Travels in a straight line (line-of-sight propagation)
O High data rates: 1 ͛s Mbps
O Repeaters spaced 1 - 1 km apart
O Used for Long-distance telephone communication

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(Terrestrial) Microwave

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atellite Microwave
O atellite communication is similar to the terrestrial microwave,
except that the satellite acts as one of the stations.
O ource transmits signal to satellite which amplifies or repeats it,
and retransmits down to destinations.
O ptimum transmission in 1 - 1 GHz range;
O Bandwidth of 1 ͛s MHz
O ignificant propagation delay approx 2  ms
O Applications:
ͻ Long-distance telephones
ͻ Television distribution
ͻ Private business networks
O GP
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Cont͛d

r 
 

Cont͛d
‰  (‰ery mall perture ystem)
O For business data applications requiring high data
rates for short periods of time (National Weather
ervice, news services, credit card verification,
automatic tellers, car rental agencies, ͙)
O Commonly connects a central location with many
remote ones.
O Communication between two sites is via a satellite
and allows a low-cost small antenna dishes
( Approx Πft)

2G
V AT

(Broadcast) Radio
O Electromagnetic wave in the range
ë MHz ~1GHz
O mnidirectional i.e. broadcast radio does not
require dish-shaped antennas.
O Less attenuation than microwave.

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Infrared
O For short-range communication
ͻ Remote controls for TVs, VCRs, and stereos
ͻ Indoor wireless LANs
O Do not pass through solid walls
ͻ Better security and no interference (with a
similar system)
O No government license is needed


TRAN MITTING AND RECEIVING DEVICE ʹ the
hardware
O Network adapters
O Modems
O Repeaters
O Wiring concentrators, hubs, and switches
O Bridges, routers, and gateways
O Microwave transmitters
O Infrared transmitters
O Cellular transmitters
O Wireless LAN transmitters

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THXDIE

2m