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# m THE ROLE OF ALGORITHMS

## m CHILDREN¶S USE AND UNDERSTANDING OF

ALGORITHM IN WHOLE NUMBER
OPERATIONS
m CALCULATORS AND ABACUS
m Algorithm originates from the name of an
Arab Mathematician name Al Khorizmi
m Pupils can be introduced to algorithm
after they have understand whole
number, place value and basic facts
m A rule for solving a problem in a certain
number of steps.
m Every step is clearly described
m They are use to solve a problem efficiently
m The most familiar algorithms are the
subtracting, multiplying, and dividing
m When we teach mathematics, should we make
decisions about how students learn best?
m Do we think students learn best when they are
actively constructing knowledge or when they
are following routines and procedures?
m How active, or passive, do we want our students
to be in their learning of mathematics?
(I) LONG METHOD (WORDS)

Ä = Ä TENS ONES
+  = TENS  ONES
7 TENS 11 ONES
= 8 TENS 1 ONES
(II) LONG METHOD (NUMBERS)
Ä = Ä +
+ = +
7 + 11
= (7 + ( 1 + 1)
= (7 + 1) + 1
= 8 + 1
= 81
(III) PARTIAL SUM
TENS ONES
Ä Ä
+  OR 
11 1 1
7 7 
81 8 1
(IV) CONVENTIONAL ALGORITHM

Ä
+ 
8 1
I EXPANDED NOTATION METHOD (words)
m The concept of subtraction can be shown using
words to identify the values in the arithmetic
problem. This method directly relates to the visual
method and can be used as a transition to a
method using numbers
I EXPANDED NOTATION METHOD (words)
È TENS and ONES È
 1 TENS and 7 ONES 17
2 TENS and 15 ONES 18
 1 TENS and 7 ONES
1 TENS and 8 ONES
II EQUAL ADDITION METHOD (alternate method)
m A subtraction problem that requires ³trading³ can be
worked by "adding" the same value to both the
minuend and the subtrahend to avoid ³trading".
This method only works under subtraction.
II EQUAL ADDITION METHOD (alternate method)
È + 3 = È8 È
 17 + 3 = Ä  17
18 18
III WRITING TWO-DIGIT NUMBER AS
SOMETHING PLUS A "TEEN" NUMBER

Subtract Ä from 7.
7=  + 7 = 4 + 17
Ä = ()Ä + 
7  Ä = Ä + 8 = Ä8
Notice that only 7 was put into something and
"teen" form.
IV USING BIGGER NUMBERS.
ou simply have one or more extra zeroes at the
end

## Subtract 1Ä from ÈÄ1

ÈÄ1 = È + Ä + 1 = È + 1 + 11
= Ä + 11 + 11
ÈÄ1 = Ä + 11 + 11
1Ä = () 1 + Ä + 
ÈÄ1  1Ä = 1 +  + Ä = 1Ä
I LONG MULTIPLICATION

ÄÈ 8ÄÈÈ
× 8È
 (= ÄÈ, 8,ÄÈÈ × )
71874 (= ÄÈ, 8,ÄÈÈ × È)
11 84 (= ÄÈ, 8,ÄÈÈ × 8)
+11711 (= ÄÈ, 8,ÄÈÈ × ,)
1È748È (= 1È,7,48,È)
II LATTICE OR SIEVE MULTIPLICATION
È4 X 1Ä

È 4 x
   1
È 4
  1 Ä
 8 
 1 

È4 X 1Ä = 414
III PEASANT OR BINAR  MULTIPLICATION Eg: È x 11
11 È

Ä 1Ä
1 Ä4

ÈÈ
Describing the steps explicitly:
11 and È are written at the top
11 is halved ( . ) and È is doubled (). The fractional portion is
is halved (Ä. ) and  is doubled (1Ä). The fractional portion is
discarded (Ä. becomes Ä). The figure in the left column (Ä) is even,
so the figure in the right column (1Ä) is discarded.
Ä is halved (1) and 1Ä is doubled (Ä4).
All notscratchedout values are summed: È +  + Ä4 = ÈÈ.
I SUBTRACTION PROCEDURE
1 ÷È= È 1
È ««««1

È««««..Ä

È««««..È

È«««««4
È
È«««««.

m An abacus, also called a counting frame, is a calculating
tool used primarily in parts of Asia for performing arithmetic
processes.
m Today, abacuses are often constructed as a bamboo frame