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m THE ROLE OF ALGORITHMS

m CHILDREN¶S USE AND UNDERSTANDING OF


ALGORITHM IN WHOLE NUMBER
OPERATIONS
m CALCULATORS AND ABACUS
m Algorithm originates from the name of an
Arab Mathematician name Al Khorizmi
m Pupils can be introduced to algorithm
after they have understand whole
number, place value and basic facts
m A rule for solving a problem in a certain
number of steps.
m Every step is clearly described
m They are use to solve a problem efficiently
m The most familiar algorithms are the
elementary school procedures for adding,
subtracting, multiplying, and dividing
m When we teach mathematics, should we make
decisions about how students learn best?
m Do we think students learn best when they are
actively constructing knowledge or when they
are following routines and procedures?
m How active, or passive, do we want our students
to be in their learning of mathematics?
(I) LONG METHOD (WORDS)

Ä = Ä TENS ONES
+  = TENS  ONES
7 TENS 11 ONES
= 8 TENS 1 ONES
(II) LONG METHOD (NUMBERS)
Ä = Ä +
+ = +
7 + 11
= (7 + ( 1 + 1)
= (7 + 1) + 1
= 8 + 1
= 81
(III) PARTIAL SUM
TENS ONES
Ä Ä
+  OR 
11 1 1
7 7 
81 8 1
(IV) CONVENTIONAL ALGORITHM

Ä
+ 
8 1
I EXPANDED NOTATION METHOD (words)
m The concept of subtraction can be shown using
words to identify the values in the arithmetic
problem. This method directly relates to the visual
method and can be used as a transition to a
method using numbers
I EXPANDED NOTATION METHOD (words)
È TENS and ONES È
 1 TENS and 7 ONES 17
2 TENS and 15 ONES 18
 1 TENS and 7 ONES
1 TENS and 8 ONES
II EQUAL ADDITION METHOD (alternate method)
m A subtraction problem that requires ³trading³ can be
worked by "adding" the same value to both the
minuend and the subtrahend to avoid ³trading".
This method only works under subtraction.
II EQUAL ADDITION METHOD (alternate method)
È + 3 = È8 È
 17 + 3 = Ä  17
18 18
III WRITING TWO-DIGIT NUMBER AS
SOMETHING PLUS A "TEEN" NUMBER

Subtract Ä from 7.
7=  + 7 = 4 + 17
Ä = ()Ä + 
7  Ä = Ä + 8 = Ä8
Notice that only 7 was put into something and
"teen" form.
IV USING BIGGER NUMBERS.
 ou simply have one or more extra zeroes at the
end

Subtract 1Ä from ÈÄ1


ÈÄ1 = È + Ä + 1 = È + 1 + 11
= Ä + 11 + 11
ÈÄ1 = Ä + 11 + 11
1Ä = () 1 + Ä + 
ÈÄ1  1Ä = 1 +  + Ä = 1Ä
I LONG MULTIPLICATION

ÄÈ 8ÄÈÈ
× 8È
 (= ÄÈ, 8,ÄÈÈ × )
71874 (= ÄÈ, 8,ÄÈÈ × È)
11 84 (= ÄÈ, 8,ÄÈÈ × 8)
+11711 (= ÄÈ, 8,ÄÈÈ × ,)
1È748È (= 1È,7,48,È)
II LATTICE OR SIEVE MULTIPLICATION
È4 X 1Ä

È 4 x
   1
È 4
  1 Ä
 8 
‰ 1 ‰

È4 X 1Ä = 414
III PEASANT OR BINAR  MULTIPLICATION Eg: È x 11
11 È

Ä 1Ä
1 Ä4

ÈÈ
Describing the steps explicitly:
11 and È are written at the top
11 is halved ( . ) and È is doubled (). The fractional portion is
discarded ( . becomes ).
is halved (Ä. ) and  is doubled (1Ä). The fractional portion is
discarded (Ä. becomes Ä). The figure in the left column (Ä) is even,
so the figure in the right column (1Ä) is discarded.
Ä is halved (1) and 1Ä is doubled (Ä4).
All notscratchedout values are summed: È +  + Ä4 = ÈÈ.
I SUBTRACTION PROCEDURE
1 ÷È= È 1
È ««««1

È««««..Ä

È««««..È

È«««««4
È
È«««««.

m An abacus, also called a counting frame, is a calculating
tool used primarily in parts of Asia for performing arithmetic
processes.
m Today, abacuses are often constructed as a bamboo frame
with beads sliding on wires
m Originally they were beans or stones moved in grooves in
sand or on tablets of wood, stone, or metal.
m The abacus was in use centuries before the adoption of the
written modern numeral system and is still widely used by
merchants, traders and clerks in Asia, Africa, and
elsewhere.
m The user of an abacus is called an abacist; he or she slides
the beads of the abacus by hand.[Ä