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Every civilization has its unique characteristics, which it

represents. As the ancient Greek civilization was

characterized by glorifying the mind, the Roman
civilization was characterized by glorifying power and
influence, the Persian civilization was characterized by
interest in body desires, military power and political
domination, the Indian civilization was characterized by
being proud of spiritual power, the Islamic civilization
had its unique characteristics that are different from
those of former and subsequent civilizations. The
Islamic civilization was based on a divine message,
namely the message of Islam, which is characterized by
humanity, universality and belief in monotheism.
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The Islamic civilization is characterized by its wide horizon and universal
message. This is clarified in the Noble Qur'an when it declared the unity
of the mankind, despite the diversity of races, origins and places. The
Qur'an made the Islamic civilization like a necklace organized by the
geniuses of all peoples and nations, above which the banner of the
Islamic conquests hovered. The quality of universality consolidates and
establishes the values of right, goodness, justice and equality among all,
regardless of their color or race. It does not believe in the theory of
racial superiority or arrogance. So, the Prophet's message was mercy to
all creatures. Prophet Muhammad's traditions and deeds applied the
principle of universality of the message. He (peace be upon him)
declared the principle of universality since the first day of his call.

_ '   '  '  

    (' )              '
      *+[Ali ibn Burhan-al-Din Al-Halabi]
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) sent his
messengers to Caesar of Romans; Khosrau of Persians; Al-
Muqawqis, the ruler of Egyptian Copts; and the king of
Habashah (Ethiopia). This is Prophet Muhammad's letter
to Khosrau:
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       )  + [Al-Tabari: Tarikh Al-Umam
wal Muluk]
It is worth mentioning here that this openness to others was not blind, but it
was mostly in accordance with the values and principles of Muslims and what
was enshrined in their religion. They opened up to Hellenism, but they did not
take its laws nor did they translate the Iliad or the masterpieces of pagan Greek
literature. They sufficed themselves with learning how to codify books and
translate natural science. They also opened up to the Persian civilization, but
they avoided its destructive doctrines and benefited - for example - from the
Persian literature, and the administrative ranks of Persians. They also opened up
to the Indian civilization, but they avoided its philosophy and religions, and took
its calculation and astronomy, which they preserved and developed.
What Muslims benefited from other cultures is an advantage not a shame. This
means that Muslims are open-minded and willing to accept others. Contribution
to the march of humanity begins with the point at which others stopped. Then,
update should be introduced in order to complete the march which was initiated
in earlier civilizations. This is what we will see in next slide
It is defined to be an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of
culture science, industry, and government has been reached. Aided by their
division of labor and central government planning. These include
organized religion development in the arts, and countless new advances in science
and technology.

The ancient city of Mohenjo-Daro of the Ancient Indus valley civilization,

The Great Mosque of Kairouan the main centre
spanning India, Afghanistan and Pakistan is known to be one of the world's
of culture and education in the entire North
earliest cities.
Scholar Sulayman Al-Nadwi says:
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Hence, Muslims' belief in the oneness of their god, the creator and the mastermind
of the universe, has an obvious impact that reflected clearly on their culture and
their contributions to the march of humanity. This has been shown through the
following principles:

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°. theory prevailed in ancient times and civilizations, where rulers were believed to be created from a component that is
higher than that of humans. Muslims' disbelief in this theory resulted in the possibility of bringing a ruler to account
when he commits a mistake. Muslims do not deify their rulers. They fear only from Allah (be He Exalted), the absolute
ruler who enacted legislation and laws for people. His creatures should follow His orders and implement His revealed
legislation. In this one feels personal dignity, and that he is not subjugated to any of Allah's creatures. Thereby, he works
and thinks freely, seeking to satisfy his Lord by doing good and avoiding evil. Every verse of the Qur'an calls for
monotheism. Allah Almighty says: ‰  



2. no one belongs to a high class, while another belongs to a lower class; there is no human or clerical mediation. All
people were created by one god, who they worship. All people are equal like the teeth of a comb, not divided according
to their color, nation or others, but according to faith and piety, hence raising the status of man and liberating him from
the dominion of others. The Prophet (peace be upon him) announced this superior principle in his farewell address:  


3. the elimination of all manifestations of idolatry, whether in its old form, which means statues and idols, or in its modern
form, which means deification of the ruling state and worship of persons. Therefore, people of this civilization are not
subjugated to any of Allah's creatures. Rather, they devote their worship and slavery to Allah (be He Exalted).
4. How humans came into being, the universe creation, meaning what was the purpose and what is its fate, how everyone
of us are accountable for everything and anything that we do on the day of resurrection causing us to understand what
we do and creating the sense understanding in the life
For the first time in human history, Muslims adopted the principle of openness to other
civilizations and borrowing from the efforts of ancients. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon
him) advocated the approach of openness, and he had an unbigoted view. This was reflected
clearly on the history of Muslims thereafter. When Muslims left their Arabian peninsula to
spread the message of Islam, which they were authorized to spread in the east and west, they
came across various civilizations. They did not hush up or destroy these civilizations. Rather, they
were interested in studying them and benefiting from them. They took from these civilizations
what benefited them and what was approved by their religion at a time when Greek civilization
addressed its people only and took from nobody but its scholars as was the case in the Persian,
Indian and Chinese civilizations. Perhaps this was kept until recently in some of these
civilizations, such as the Chinese and Indian civilizations.
The peoples of the world who embraced Islam were an important factor that
enriched the human civilization, openness to the cultures of previous nations and
taking advantage of them were also of the most important fundamentals of the
Islamic civilization and a factor of its development.
Sa'd ibn Abu Waqas narrated: I suffered from an illness. The Messenger of Allah
(peace be upon him) came to pay a visit to me. He put his hand between my chest
and I felt its coolness at my heart. He said:


  3   !    .   ,    !
     !    '      -      
Splendidly enough, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) urged Zayd ibn Thabit to learn Syriac! Zayd learnt it in sixty days
time, and he also learnt Persian and Roman languages.
As muslim empire flourished politically and economically, it began inheriting foreign science
from the Persians, the Romans and others after their countries demised resulting intellectual
movement. Many books of old civilizations translated into Arabic. This was considered an
important event in terms of civilization, as it opened a window for Arab and Muslim scientists to
oversee for the first time the knowledge and science of others. Experimental sciences had an
important share from among these translated sciences. Medicine came on top of all. In the
beginning of that period, Islamic medicine was based on the instructions of the Prophet (peace
be upon him), herbs, medicinal plants, cauterization, phlebotomy, cupping, circumcision and
some minor surgical operations. As Muslim and Arab doctors began to recognize the Greek
medicine through the schools of Alexandria and Jundaisapur, they were keen to translate
medical books into Arabic. In this regard, Jewish doctor Masirjuweh, who was one of the most
prominent translators, a Greek medical encyclopedia called "Al-Kunnash was translated by his









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 The timeless civilization of Islam came to strike
a balance between the requirements of spirit and the requirements of material, or between
materialism and spiritualism. Thus, polite spiritualism has become the basis of polite
materialism. That, man would enjoy; will, freedom, thinking, and the fruit of efforts and work
within a framework of faith and morality based on justice, security, stability, compassion and
This balance is meant to achieve harmony between human nature, ideas, imaginations, will and intentions.

          Islam establishes its noble civilization on the methods
of science, knowledge, reason, research, experiment and induction. Islam appreciates the
vitality of science in building the state and society. In this regard, Islam praises science and
scientists in various fields. These fields include every understanding that helps man accomplish
his mission in life, namely reconstructing the earth and taking advantage of its wealth and
treasures. Perhaps Muslims͛ contributions and innovations in life sciences, presented earlier, are the best expression of this combination.

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Islam did not ask a Muslim to be a monk in a monastery, or a worshiper in an isolated place,
praying all night and fasting during the daytime, with no chance or luck in life. Rather, Islam
asked a Muslim to work in this world, reconstruct it, and seek livelihood in it. Thus, sons of the
Islamic civilization work for this world and the hereafter as well, seeking good and happiness in
        mne of the features of balance that characterized the Islamic
civilization is the combination of idealism and realism in a perfect and wonderful form. Islam is an ideal and
realistic religion at the same time. It always seeks perfection and ideals for its followers, but it urges them to
do everything they could and does not place much burden on people. Therefore, it was difficult to separate
idealism from realism in Islam. Both are an integrated piece of legislation for human beings, leading them to
good, and showing them the rules of conduct and transactions. As far as idealism is concerned, the Islamic
civilization is keen to enable man to reach the highest possible level easily, comfortably and tranquilly. In
realism, Islamic civilization takes into account the condition and nature of man, the limits of his capacity, the
nature of his composition, and the reality of his life. Imaginary idealism has no existence but in the world of
Striking a balance between idealism and realism, Islam has made a minimum level of perfection that should
not be exceeded, as this level is necessary to form the character of a Muslim reasonably, and this is the least
for a Muslim to be considered as Muslim. This level was set in a way that enables the people less willing to
do good, keep away from evil to reach it. This level consists of obligatory duties and forbidden taboos.
Reaching this high level needs great efforts that not all people can exert. It has to do with special talents and
special willingness that a few people have. So, Islam does not impose this ideal level on everyone, but it
draws it for them
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   1 [Al-Baqarah].

 The Islamic civilization believes that every right of an individual or
a group is a duty on others. The rights of the governed are duties of rulers; the rights of tenants are duties of
owners; the rights of children are duties of parents, and so on. Through performing duties, rights are
preserved. Islam tended to strike a balance between rights and duties of individuals and groups in order to
make a balance between individualism and social interest. Man is not an independent unity of life that is
isolated from the rest of society. Rather, man must live within the circle of society, share benefits and
interests, and establish relationships.
The Islamic civilization was then the outcome of the various Muslim peoples, including the
peoples of Persia, Roman Empire, Greece, India, Turkey, and Andalusia. All these nations
accepted Islam and formed the powerful source of this gigantic civilization, increasing the
effective role of its heritage, civilization, and wide history all over the world of this civilization.
Islam declared clearly and explicitly the union of humankind of all nations
regarding the human rights, goodness, and dignity. In pursuit of achieving
these objectives and in the wake of the Islamic conquests, Islam absorbed
various nations involving several races and different peoples. Each of them
had its heritage and voluminous cultural and scientific experience. This
contributed to the emergence of a unique civilization with variety of talents
and natural and human powers. It was the Islamic civilization that composed
the contributions of different nations. This variety of Muslim nations was then
seen as a resource of enriching the Islamic civilization and an essential
component of its rise.
When Persia was conquered, the Persian mixed with Muslims and knew so much about the
merits and tolerance of Islam; it is the religion of fraternity, equality, mutual affection and
kindness, love and altruism. They accepted Islam in unison and endeavored to learn Arabic, the
language of the new religion, which they loved and accepted, to help them understand and
reflect upon it.
Their love of the faith of Islam and its language was the cause of their care for them. No sooner
had they converted to Islam than they contributed to the scientific and writing movement to the
extent that they proved talented in these fields. The Islamic civilization then had many
significant benefits as a result:
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Each civilization may boast of its genius people that belong to one race and nation except the
Muslim civilization, because it boasts of great figures, who built its edifice of all nations and
people where Islam gained land and leadership. Those of Arabia contributed to it beside those
of Persia, Greater India and so many others who were of different races but all were Muslim
scholars through whom the Islamic civilization set forth the most wonderful production of the
sound human thought.
With these characteristics, the Islamic civilization has
unique features. It is universal and based on absolute
oneness of Allah, the Lord of the worlds. It is
characterized by balance and moderation. It is also
characterized by ethical characters. Therefore, it is not a
national or racist culture, nor is it against human nature.
These unique characteristics of Islamic civilization stem
the quality of permanence and continuity from the
principles of the Islamic religion. Thus, these
characteristics are like precious stones which do not
change even if circumstances changed or developed.