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50 Ohms
Output Standing Antenna
Transmitter Wave Matching
Ratio Unit
Meter
Antenna
Feeder

Receiver


 
 
  

  



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' Feeder types: Coaxial, Twin Conductors



Coax: Twin Feeder:


Inner Conductor is shrouded by dielectric, Two conductors kept at
with outer (braided) screen. constant separation by
insulation - no screen
For Amateur Radio 50r Coax is used
(whereas Video/TV uses 75r) Balanced Feeder is
available in 75-600 r

 
 
  

  



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' All Feeders have a Characteristic Impedance, Z0


(eg 50 or 75 Ohm Coax, 300 Ohm twin feeder etc)
' Z0 is based on the Ratio of A and B
B
(and the nature of the spacing dielectric)
A ' If correctly terminated by a resistive load then
Z0 determines the ratio of Vrms / Irms in the feeder

 
 
  

  



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' Coax is unbalanced - Inner has signal, Outer is at ground

' Twin Feeder is balanced - conductors have equal and opposite


voltages/currents/fields

' Mounting Twin Feeder near to conducting objects will cause an


imbalance in the conductors, a change in its Z0 and unwanted
radiation (or loss of immunity from external interference)

' Similarly, severe bends or crushing coax changes its Z0 and


causes internal mismatches

' Any mismatch within a feeder, or its termination, will result in its
input impedance no longer being its characteristic impedance


 
 
  

  



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' Oains and Losses may be expressed in dB¶s

' 3 dB is half steps, 6dB is quarter steps, 10dB is tenth

' You will need to remember this table for exam:

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å ( )A


*  

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Example: 3dB Oain doubles power, whilst 3dB Loss halves it



 
 
  

  



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' ALL feeders have loss - the longer the feeder the greater the loss.
Twin Feeder has a lower loss than Coaxial cable

' This loss affects both the Transmit and Receive paths

' For some standard cables the loss is:

Per 100m RO58 RO 13

10 MHz 4.8 dB .0 dB

30 MHz 8. dB 3. dB

144 MHz 1 dB 8.6 dB


 
 
  

  



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Ô 

' All Antennas have a feed point impedance.


' This is determined by the dimensions which will relate to the
wavelength of the applied signal and the height of antenna
' Dipoles are a half wave length long and are a resistive match at
only one frequency.
' If you replace the antenna by a resistor of the same value as
the feed point impedance the transmitter will not be able to tell
the difference
' Dipoles in theory are 73 ohms but in practice approx 65 ohms
so close enough to the nominal course value of 50 ohms


 
 
  

  



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' If the feed point impedance is incorrect then it will not match the
impedance of the feeder and some energy will be reflected back
down the feeder.

' When this reflected energy is returned to the Transmitter it is again


reflected back to the antenna and is radiated.

' The combined energy is known as the forward and reflected power
and gives rise to the Standing Waves on the feeder.
 ‰

0
1/4 WAVELENOTH 1/4 WAVELENOTH 1/4 WAVELENOTH 1/4 WAVELENOTH


 
 
  

  



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' If we have a mismatched antenna, energy is reflected back to the
Transmitter where it is again reflected back to the antenna and is
eventually radiated - Energy is not lost

' The combined forward and reflected power and gives rise to the
Standing Waves on the feeder.

' The reflected signal will change the input impedance of the feeder
so that it is no longer the characteristic impedance and the feeder
no longer presents the correct impedance to the transmitter.

' Antenna Matching Units transform this effective impedance back to


nominal so that the radio operates correctly
- even though the antenna remains imperfect


 
 
  

  



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x Electric
Field, E

y Direction of
z Propagation
Magnetic
Field, H

' Electromagnetic radiation comprises both an Electric and a Magnetic Field.


' The two fields are at right-angles to each other and the direction of
propagation is at right-angles to both fields.
' The Plane of the Electric Field defines the Polarisation of the wave.

 
 
  

  



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' Polarisation is the plane of the antennas radiating electric field.

' Common polarisations are Horizontal and Vertical.

' Transmitter and receiving antenna polarisation need to match for


optimum signal strength, especially at VHF/UHF

' Verticals (˜/4, 5˜/8) give vertical polarisation.

' Yagi and Dipoles antenna¶s may be either horizontal or vertical


depending on their mounting.


 
 
  

  



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Radiation Pattern for a Vertical Dipole:-


 
 
  

  



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Direction of
Radiation

Boom
Feeder Radiation Pattern

Directors
Reflector Driven
Element

Unwanted
Sidelobes


 
 
  

  



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