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Triaxial Stress State

τ
(+ve sense shown)
3D Principal – Triaxial Stress

σ max ≥ σ int ≥ σ min

σ 3 ≥ σ 2 ≥ σ1
3D Stress – Principal Stresses
The three principal stresses are obtained as
the three real roots of the following equation:

σ 3 − I1σ 2 + I 2σ − I 3 = 0
where

I1 = σ x + σ y + σ z
I 2 = σ xσ y + σ xσ z + σ yσ z − τ xy2 − τ xz2 − τ yz2
I 3 = σ xσ yσ z + 2τ xyτ xzτ yz − σ τ − σ τ − σ τ
2
x yz
2
y xz
2
z xy

I1, I2, and I3 are known as stress invariants


as they do not change in value when the axes
are rotated to new positions.
Stress Invariants for Principal Stress
I1 = σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3
I 2 = σ 1σ 2 + σ 2σ 3 + σ 1σ 3
I 3 = σ 1σ 2σ 3
Zero shear stress on
principal planes
I1 = σ x + σ y + σ z
I 2 = σ xσ y + σ xσ z + σ yσ z − τ xy2 − τ xz2 − τ yz2
I 3 = σ xσ yσ z + 2τ xyτ xzτ yz − σ τ − σ τ − σ τ
2
x yz
2
y xz
2
z xy
Mohr’s Circle?
• There is no Mohr’s circle solution for
problems of triaxial stress state
• Solution for maximum principal stresses
and maximum shear stress is analytical
• Either closed form solution or numerical
solution (or computer program) are used to
solve the eigenvalue problem.
Maximum Shear Stresses
Absolute max shear stress is the numerically larger of:
σ1 − σ 2 σ1 − σ 3 σ2 −σ3
τ max,3 = ± τ max,2 = ± τ max,1 = ±
2 2 2
τ y’z ’,
τ abs max

τ x’y’

τ y’z’
σ 1 σ 2 σ 3

Normal
Stress, σ
3D Mohr’s Circle – Plane Stress
A Case Study – The two principal stresses are of the same sign

σ 1 σ 2 σ 3

−σ

τ
3D Mohr’s Circle – Plane Stress
A Case Study – The two principal stresses are of opposite sign

σ 1 σ 2 σ 3

τ
Example:

For the following state of stress, find the principal and critical values.

y 80 MPa
 120 50 0
 
σ ij =  50 80 0 MPa 50 MPa
 
 0 0 0

Tensor shows that: 120 MPa


σ z = 0 and τ xz = τ yz =
0

x
The other 2 faces:

y 80 MPa x 120 MPa

0 MPa 0 MPa

0 MPa 0 MPa

z
z
3-D Mohr’s Circles
τ max = 77 MPa
80

60 H
40
Shear Stress, MPa

20
0

-20
-40
-60 V

-80
-25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175
Normal Stress (MPa)
Example: triaxial stress state, not
plane stress
• Determine the maximum principal stresses
and the maximum shear stress for the
following triaxial stress state. (+ve values as
defined in slide 1)

 20 40 − 30
σ=  40 30 25  MPa
 
− 30 25 − 10 
Solution
σ x τ xy τ zx   20 40 − 30
σ=  
τ xy σ y τ zy  =  40 30 25 
  MPa
τ zx τ yz σ z  − 30 25 − 10 
 

σ − I1σ + I 2σ − I3 = 0
3 2

I1 = σ x + σ y + σ z = 20 + 30 –10 = 40 MPa
I 2 = σ xσ y + σ xσ z + σ yσ z − τ xy2 − τ xz2 − τ yz2 = -3025 MPa
I 3 = σ xσ yσ z + 2τ xyτ xzτ yz − σ τ − σ τ − σ τ
2
x yz
2
y xz
2
z xy

= 89500 MPa
Solve
Solution to Exam ple
600000

400000
26.5 MPa
-51.8 MPa
200000
Sigm a (MPa)

0
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100

-200000
65.3 MPa

-400000

-600000

-800000
Stress (MPa)

Open the Exel Spreadsheet “triaxial stress.xls” for a template to


solve the cubic eqn.
Results

σ 3 = 65.3MPa
σ 2 = 26.5MPa
σ 1 = −51.8MPa
τ max = 1 / 2(65.3 + 51.8)
= 58.5MPa
Mohr’s circles
Shear (MPa)
τ y’z ’, τ abs max =58.5

σ 2=26.5

σ 1= -51.8 σ 3=63.5

Normal
Stress, σ (MPa)
Safety Factor?
If the stress state was determined on a steel crankshaft, made of forged SAE1045 steel
with a yield strength of 300 MPa, what is the factor of safety against yield?

1. Tresca Criterion: τ max = 58.5 MPa

Sy 300
FS = = = 2.6
2τ max 2(58.5)

2. Max Principal Stress Criterion: σ max = 63.5 MPa


Sy 300
FS = = = 4.6
2τ max 65.3
σ 3 = 65.3MPa
3. Von Mises Criterion: σ 2 = 26.5MPa
σ 1 = −51.8MPa

σe =
1
[ ]
(σ 1 − σ 2 ) + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) + (σ 3 − σ 1 )
2 2 2 1/ 2

2
σe =
1
[
(−51.8 − 26.5) + (26.5 − 65.3) + (65.3 − (−51.8))
2 2
]
2 1/ 2

2
=103.31 MPa

Sy 300
FS = = = 2 .9
σ e 103.3