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SPUTUM

CREATED BY :
1. CHERLINA IKA FIRANA PUTRI
2. FARAH DILA
A. DEFINITION OF SPUTUM

SPUTUM (PHLEGM) IS THE MATERIAL THAT IS REMOVED FROM THE LUNGS AND
TRACHEA BY MOUTH. ALSO CALLED THE ECPECTORATORIAN (DORLAND, 1992). SPUTUM,
PHLEGM, OR RIPPLES ARE SECRETIONS THAT ARE COUGHED UP AND COME FROM THE
THROAT, NOSE OR MOUTH. THIS DIFFERENCE SHOULD BE EXPLAINED TO THE PATIENT
WHOSE SPUTUM IS BEING EXAMINED.
B. TYPES OF SPUTUM EXAMINATION

• 1. DYE GRAM
• 2. SPUTUM CULTURE
• 3. SENSITIVITY
• 4. ACID-RESISTANT BACILLI (BTA)
• 5. CYTOLOGY
• 6. QUANTITATIVE TESTS
C. SPUTUM EXAMINATION

SPUTUM EXAMINATION INCLUDES EXAMINING:


•1.
GRAM STAIN, USUALLY THIS EXAMINATION PROVIDES SUFFICIENT INFORMATION ABOUT THE ORGANISM THAT IS
SUFFICIENT TO ESTABLISH A PRESUMPTIVE DIAGNOSIS.
•2.
SPUTUM CULTURE IDENTIFIES THE SPECIFIC ORGANISM FOR DEFINITIVE DIAGNOSIS. FOR THE PURPOSES OF THIS
EXAMINATION, SPUTUM SHOULD BE COLLECTED BEFORE ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY AND AFTERWARDS TO DETERMINE THE
EFFICACY OF THE THERAPY.
•3.
ACID-RESISTANT BASIL (BTA) DETERMINES THE PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS, WHICH AFTER
STAINING THESE BACTERIA DOES NOT EXPERIENCE COLOR CHANGE BY ACID ALCOHOL.
D. POINTS TO PAY ATTENTION TO IN SPUTUM INSPECTION

ANOTHER TECHNIQUE FOR REMOVING SPUTUM IF THE SPUTUM CANNOT BE SPUTUM,


SPUTUM CAN BE TAKEN BY:

• A. TRANSTRACHEAL ASPIRATION (TRANSTRACHEAL ASPIRATION OR TRANSTRACHEAL


WASH).

• B. BRONCHIAL LAVAGE (BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE)


• C. LUNG BIOPSY
E. SPUTUM EXAMINATION INTERPRETATION
CLASSIFICATION OF SPUTUM FORMATIONS AND THEIR POSSIBLE CAUSES:

• 1. THE SPUTUM THAT IS PRODUCED WHEN YOU CLEAR THE THROAT, PROBABLY COMES FROM THE SINUSES, OR NASAL

PASSAGES, NOT FROM THE LOWER AIRWAY.

• 2. SPUTUM THAT FORMS SLOWLY & CONTINUES TO INCREASE → A SIGN OF BRONCHITIS / BRONCHHIECTASIS

• 3. SPUTUM YELLOWISH → INFECTION PROCESS.

• 4. GREEN SPUTUM → PUS ACCUMULATION PROCESS.

• 5. PINK & FROTHY SPUTUM → SIGNS OF ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA.

• 6. SPUTUM MUCUS, STICKY, GRAY / WHITE → A SIGN OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS.

• 7. FOUL SMELLING SPUTUM → A SIGN OF LUNG ABSCESS / BRONCHHIECTASIS.


CONCLUSION

SPUTUM (PHLEGM) IS THE MATERIAL THAT IS REMOVED FROM THE LUNGS AND
TRACHEA BY MOUTH. USUALLY ALSO CALLED THE ECPECTORATORIAN. SPUTUM
EXAMINATION IS NECESSARY IF LUNG DISEASE IS SUSPECTED. THE MUCOSAL MEMBRANES
OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT RESPOND TO INFLAMMATION BY INCREASING THE OUTPUT OF
SECRETIONS THAT OFTEN CONTAIN DISEASE-CAUSING MICROORGANISMS.

TAKING SPUTUM SHOULD BE DONE IN THE MORNING, WHERE IT IS MORE LIKELY TO GET
INNER SPUTUM. THE SPUTUM RELEASED BY A PATIENT SHOULD BE EVALUATED FOR ITS
SOURCE, COLOR, VOLUME, AND CONSISTENCY BECAUSE THE SPUTUM CONDITION USUALLY
SHOWS A SPECIFIC PATHOLOGICAL EVENT IN THE FORMATION OF THE SPUTUM ITSELF.
• THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION..☺☺☺

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