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j  JJ 
   Ô
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 $
u Ê      
  

 

        
  
 
  
 
 

 
    

  



  
 


  

 
     

 
   


  

 
   
  
   
    

  
 ½

 ½    ½½  

 
½½ 

  
 

  
   

       
  
      ! 
½
! 
½   
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  " 
  ½
"
  ½   
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½

½
  
½
  
½
 
u   
  
#$%·  
  
 
  #$%·

 
  
 

  
  
  & 

 á  
  



½
    ½ á


½ 
½á   á   á ½ 
 ½      
WHAT IS GRAMMAR?
- The science which treats of the principles of
language; the study of forms of speech, and
their relations to one another; the art
concerned with the right use and application of
the rules of a language, in speaking or writing.
- The art of speaking or writing with correctness
or according to established usage; speech
considered with regard to the rules of a
grammar.
- A treatise (luɪn thuyɼt) on the principles of
language; a book containing the principles and
rules for correctness in speaking or writing.
m   
 mm
Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, pronouns,
Demonstratives, Conjunctions, Prepositions,
Articles, Interjections
   
Sentences, Clauses, Phrases, Words,
Morphemes (morph, allomorph, text, inter-
inter-text)
  mm
Tenses, Aspects, Voices, Numbers,
Genders, Cases, Persons, Moods
mm m  

ÿ ?   
- w  and  

 
::
o  
    † 
            
†
      
† (p. 
 The  has a close general relation to µwhat
is being discussed¶ , the µ  
µ  ¶¶ of the sentence;
with the normal implication that something new
(the  
 is being said about a µsubject¶.
- The subject determines concord (p. 11); It
changes its position as we go from
statement to question (ex. P. 11)

ƒ Operator, auxiliary, and predication


- Auxiliary as Operator (as in the following
sentence) from what we may call the
predication

ƒ Range of operators
(operator = hoɞt t͑; predication = vʈ t͑/vʈ t͑
hóa))
hóa

%!"  
auxiliary  
as
 

He had given the girl an apple

Had he given the girl an apple?

 Ú     

 !


     '   
!()
%&' M&% ()#
€ w  V 
   
ADV A (w V   A)
 (w) carefully (A) searced (V) te r () [1]
e girl (w) is (V)  (A) a stude
se () a a large
ers (A) [2]
H brer (w) gre (V) er () gr (A) [3]

 (w) re (V) e (A)   (A) [4]
e (w)  ge (V) e g ()  e () () [5]
e (w) e (V)  () e c () ee e
(A) [6]
 We shall see in m     

that considerable variety is possible in
realizing each element of structure.
S, O, and A can themselves readily have the
internal constituents of Sentences:

          


  
†
       !   
    †
        "      

           
 † 
º w ºw
direct object (Od)
O T indirect (Oi)
OPLT subject complement (s)
object complement (o)
ohn carefully search —  (Od) [1]
He had given —  (Oi)
  (Od) [5]
The girl is now  — 
— (s) at a large university [2]
His brother grew  (s) gradually [3]
They made him —  
(o) every year [6]
He is  
(s)
º w  
ë TE SëE, EXTE SëE A  ë TRA SëTëE verbs
Sentence † and † have   and all
  . The latter are
other sentences have   .
w if as in: ë   
 
# they
ë   
 
# they
do not permit any of the four object and complement
types so far distinguished. Extensive verbs are
otherwise w.
(ëntensive verbs = đӝng tӯ kӃt chӫ/tұp trung; extensive
verbs = đӝng tӯ kӃt đӝng/phân tán
tán
All transitive verbs take a direct object; some, like 
in †

†
, permit an indirect object, and these will be
distinguished as „   E E (ngoҥi
ngoҥi đ đӝ
ӝng ttӯ
ӯ song
tân. A few verbs, like $ in † † , take an object
complement (º (º ?
     (ngoҥ
(ngoҥii đ
đӝ
ӝng ttӯ
ӯ
phӭc tân. The rest are   w (ngoҥi ngoҥi đ đӝ
ӝng
tӯ đơn tân.
The


 of the µprogressive¶ and µnon- µnon-
progressive¶:
John carefully searched the room † 
or John was carefully searching the room
But, it is impossible for †
† to be like the † 
             
†
w
ëf the word or phrase following a verb is a noun, a
preposition or an adjective and it tells us something
about the subject of the sentence, then that sentence's
verb is called "intensive":

(a Max became a doctor


doctor.. (noun
=> "a doctor" tells us who Max is.

kitchen. (preposition
(b The cat is in the kitchen.
=> "in the kitchen" tells us where the cat is located.

happy. (adjective
(c Sam seems happy.
=> "happy" describes Sam's state of being.
ote, "intensive" means, to cover a fixed area
(similar to agricultural term "intensive farming" i.e., to
work the same, fix plot of land, whereas "extensive"
means, to cover a wider area.

  are concentrated to one, fixed


structure. Words or phrases following an intensive
verb function as subject complements; i.e., they
complement the subject (they tell us about the
subject, they work with the subject, not the verb.

  are not concentrated to a fixed


structure. Words or phrases following an extensive
verb function as the verb's object; they work with the
verb, not the subject.
- All transitive verbs take a direct
object; some like  in [5], permits
an indirect object, and these will be
distinguished as „ITRANSITIVE
„ITRANSITIVE..

- A few verbs, like make in [6], take an object


complement and are referred to as
TRANSITIVE. The rest are
COMPLEXT TRANSITIVE.
MONOTRANSITIVE.. (p 14)
MONOTRANSITIVE
(transitive v. = đt cɪp vɪt; intransitive v. = đt
bɢt cɪp vɪt; ditransitive v.= đt ngoɞi đ͙ng
song chuyʀn; complex tran.v. đt ~ phͩc
chuyʀn; monotransitive v. đt ~ đơn chuyʀn)
chuyʀn)
5 Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
5 „epending on the type of object they take,
verbs may be transitive, intransitive, or
linking..
linking
5 The meaning of a transitive verb is
incomplete without a direct object,
object, as in the
following examples:
5 INCOMPLETE
L The shelf `olds
5 COMPLETE
L The shelf `olds three books and a vase of
flowers.
5 INCOMPLETE
L The committee named
5 COMPLETE
L The committee named a new chairperson.
5 INCOMPLETE
L The child broke
5 COMPLETE
L The child broke the plate.
5 An intransitive verb,
verb, on the other hand,


— take a direct object:


L This plant has thrived on the south window sill.
5 The compound verb "has thrived" is
intransitive and takes no direct object in this
sentence.. The prepositional phrase "on the
sentence
south windowsill" acts as an adverb
describing where the plant thrives.
L The sound of the choir carried through the
cathedral.
5 The verb "carried" is used intransitively in
this sentence and takes no direct object. The
prepositional phrase "through the cathedral"
acts as an adverb describing where the
sound carried.
L The train from ontreal arrived four hours late.
5 The intransitive verb "arrived" takes no
direct object, and the noun phrase "four
hours late" acts as an adverb describing
when the train arrived.
n grammar
grammar a    ! is a verb
which takes a subject and two objects
objects..
According to certain linguistics
considerations these objects may be called
direct and indirect
indirect or rimary and
secondary.. his is in contrast to
secondary
monotransitive verbs
verbs which take only one
direct object.
ƒ wome verbs are followed by two phrases but they
have a different order and function from VD (verb
requires direct object) verbs:
ƒ (16)
16) y grandpa calls [teenagers]
teenagers] [blithering
[blithering idiots
chi!! ngu].
= chi
ƒ n (16
(16) ) we have two
s after the verb but
notice that the relationship between the two is not
what we saw with ditransitive verbs. he first

teenagers is not receiving idiots.
idiots. t's not an
indirect object at all. n fact it's the direct object
of calls (the thing that's being named). he
second
isn't receiving anything either. t's
renaming the direct object.  that sounds similar
to what an
ater a linking verb does that's no
accident.
Ñ his too is a complement but since it reers to the
object we will sensibly enough call it an object
complement. An object complement renames or
deines a quality o the direct object. ike subject
complements object complements can also be
adjective phrases:
Ñ (17) wome linguists consider [ oam homsky]
[mistaken].
Ñ ust as linking verbs are a type o intransitive verb
with complex predication these verbs are a orm
o complex predication or transitive verbs. We will
label such verbs V (verb requires complement).
ÑA    ! is a verb that takes
two arguments: a subject and a single direct
object.. For example the verbs bu
object bu bite
bite break
break
and eat are monotransitive in nglish.
Ñ Verbs are categorized in terms o transitivity (i.
e. how many and which types o syntactic
arguments (tham tô tô)! they may cooccur with)
the basic distinction being between transitive
verbs (taking two or more arguments) and
intransitive verbs (taking one argument). he
transitive category is urther divided into
subclasses.
Ñ he ollowing examples show
monotransitive verbs in sentences (the
direct object is in boldace):
Ñ Yesterday boght a at
a at..
Ñ he cat bt á
ázz
Ñ He b e th toothpick
th toothpick..
Ñ he che e his ow wat á o soup.
his ow wat á o soup.
Ñ raditionally transitivity patterns are assigned to
the verb as lexical inormation but recent
research in construction grammar has argued that
this is actually a wrong conception since the same
verb very oten appears in dierent contexts o
transitivity.. onsider:
transitivity
Ñ he man bought his wie a ring. (ditransitive
ditransitive))
Ñ Stop me beore I buy again. (intransitive;
antipassive construction)
Ñ he cat bit him in the arm. (complex transitive)
Ñ an you bite me a piece o banana? (ditransitive)
Ñ he vase bro e. (intransitive; middle voice
construction)
Ñ e e b e. (intnitie; middle ice
cntuctin)
Ñ Cn u be me me ttic  f m mdel
ctle? (ditnitie)
Ñ Se b e te ttic int tin iece. (cmlex
tnitie)
Ñ Nt n I'm eting. (intnitie; ntiie
cntuctin)
Ñ u in !mmticl
gmmticl cntuctin te
te,
mntnititi i i!ned t , ic
i" e "emti"
te f !mmti"l "ntu"tin
"ntu"tin,, te tn t te
eb.
Ñ nitiit i u!l nnmu it
ub"te!iztin.
ub"te!iztin.
Ñ etieed fm
"tt://en.i iedi.!/i i/ ntnitie_eb"
i/ ntnitie_eb"
wºw  
erbs in English can be classified into two
categories:  verbs and
 verbs.
!
 (sometimes referred to as "action
verbs" usually describe actions we can take, or
things that happen; 
  usually refer to a
state or condition which is not changing or likely to
change. The difference is important, because
stative verbs cannot normally be used in the
continuous (BE + ë  forms.
(Stative verbs = đӝng tӯ tĩnh trҥng; ynamic verbs =
đӝng tӯ hành đӝng
đӝng
5 There are many types of dynamic verbs,
but most of them describe activities or
events which can begin and finish. Here are
some examples:
5 Play (activity)
5 w    —

  
w    
—

  —

5 elt (process)

 
—  

 
 —
 —

5 Hit
(momentary action)
 

 — 
—  

  
 —    — 


 
 

  ——

— 
 
  
 —  
 —    —
  
Stative verbs usually refer to a state or
condition which is quite static or unchanging.
They can be divided into verbs of  —


—
(which refer to things in the
mind), or verbs of  —
(which describe
the relationships between things). Here are
some examples:
5 Hate (perception)
ë —  —
5 elieve (perception)
w  
! 
5 ontain (relation)
 
— 
"#
$  
5 Own (relation)


— —% 
5 In nglish language there are verbs that are
not normally used in the ontinuous Tense,
because they describe rather state than an
action. They are called state verb (stative
verbs,, non
verbs non--progressive verbs ).
verbs).

The verbs that can be used in the


ontinuous Tense are called
action verbs (dynamic verbs).
verbs).

Some verbs can be both state and action


verbs depending on their meaning.
Here are some verbs that are not
normally used in the ontinuous Tense.

@  @ @ 



 
@     
   @
5 §   $ — —

—  
 


 
  
 


— 



5 ë— 
%    — %
— 
%&

ë — 
%
  — 

— 
%&
—  
5 ë —  
&   

ë  

 

& —

5 ë  
$
—


&—
—

ë  — 



w&
 —

º
"  #
  
º
"  #
 
The girl is
 a student —  
 —
í
The girl is a student —  
 —
The girl is a student
The girl is
 a student
The girl is —  
 —
but we cannot say *The girl is

We may say that
 and —  

 — are adverbials but belong to
different classes (time & place) (p. 15)
5  $  in the following case can be
replaced by many others:
carefully
slowly
ohn searched the room noisily
sternly
without delay

ut if these same adverbials were inserted in


stative verb sentences, these sentences would
become unacceptable (p. 15). x.
*   
  — 
— $ 
w wºwº $%

 Se   L (w) [1]


 Se   e ( L) (w) [2]
  e e ex (m  "e)
(we e w "kg e ) [3]
 ee (gy) be"me
m ( e)
(g e e Age) [4]
- 
   (hungrily (in their hut
(that night †

-   (her    
(politely (outside the hall † 
- 
   
(without argument (in
Washington (this morning †
-     (quietly
(at the station (before
We noticed it †
A place †† 
s †
intens
stat ext & tras: Od †

S intens: s †  (A (A
momo: Od †
 place time
trans di: (O  Od †  (A
dyn complex: Od o † proc
ext intransitive †
M& * M+, &+- &.%
($ (/
$ (/))

Ñ wenten"e elements "an be realized by linguisti"


stru"tures o very dierent orm.
Ñ he verb element is always a verb hrase.
hrase.
Ñ he verb element may be Ɲiniteƞ (showing tense,
ase"t, and voi"e
mood, ase"t, voi"e)) or Ɲnon-
Ɲnon-initeƞ (not
showing tense or mood but still "aable o indi"ating
ase"t and voi"e
voi"e).
).
Ñ onsider the three tyes o non
non--inite verb hrase
un"tioning as the V element in the itali"ized o
o
iit clauss
iit clauss
Ê
 †  (v    ( s  
 
(A (Od.
†!
(A  (    (Od (A,
o     
†Ê  (v   ( o 

 (A
(A,   


я  


  


ÿ The    ( in English has a
noticeably different structure, since the
information it carries about  #  #
 
#  , and   is quite different
  
#  ,
from the information carried by a 
 . The verb phrase has two functional
parts,    ,
, a grammatical morpheme
carrying information about mood, tense,
modality, and voice; and the  
 ,, a
lexical morpheme carrying its lexical
information and, usually, an inflection.
The  system in English is divided into four
subcategories.
ÿ w 

ÿ The subjunctive is used in a number of fixed
phrases,, relics from an older form of the language
phrases
where it was much more common. Some could be
misconstrued as the imperative mood.
mood. ommon
examples are:
ÿ    (nӃu cҫn
ÿ    (nӃu có thӇ nói như vұy / cӭ y như là vұy
ÿ  ë 
%  ë
 (giá như tôi là bҥn
ÿ     
(cӭ cho nó là như vұy
ÿ &   
' ( húa phù hӝ ngài
ÿ   Ê  
 
# ( (khi thӭ Hai đӃn
ÿ    
(cho dù xҧy ra điӅu gì
ÿ      (or  
  (còn lâu mӟi liên quan đӃn tôi
ÿ     (cho đên khi cái chӃt chia lìa chúng ta
ÿ  ), &   ,
&     ),   , & $  
  , &  
 
 ,
    ,  
 
 , etc.
ÿ    *   (lҥy trӡi đӯng có chuyӋn đó
ÿ   (đành vұy thôi
ÿ    
(đӫ đӇ nói rҵng
ÿ     (chӟ có làm mà chӃt
ÿ   
 (sӵ thanh thҧn sӁ đӃn vӟi bҥn
ÿ    $ (Hoàng đӃ vҥn tuӃ
ÿ   (a synthesis of   
  ,, i.e.     
   (mһc
dù, dүu
ÿ    (thұt tình mà nói
ÿ   
(sӁ có lúc phҧi hӕi tiӃc
ÿ   
ÿ   

ÿ      (giá mà mӑi viӋc khác đi


ÿ     (an nghӍ ӣ chӕn vĩnh hҵng/ an giҩc ngàn thu
ÿ  
   $  (hãy đӇ mӑi ngưӡi cùng biӃt
ÿ ((( 
((( (duy nhҩt cҫn
ÿ Ê
     (ngưӡi giӓi nhҩt sӁ thҳng

ÿ "May the best man win" is an example of the


subjunctive. ëf may were used as a modal such as in
"the best man may win", this would not be the
subjunctive. Other ëndo
ëndo--European languages use the
subjunctive in this same form such as in Spanish
"que les vaya bien" (lit. may you go well and "que
sea de alta prioridad" (lit. may it be of high priority.
The subjunctive is used in this formula in Spanish
just as it is in English.
Mike all phrases, the constituents of the
English noun phrase can be analyzed into
both functional constituents and formal
constituents. From a functional point of view,
the noun phrase has four major components,
occurring in a fixed order:
ÿ the ½  ,, that constituent which
determines the reference of the noun phrase
in its linguistic or situational context;
ÿ ½  ,, which comprises all the
modifying or describing constituents before the
head, other than the determiners;
ÿ the  ½, around which the other constituents
cluster; and
, those which comprise all
ÿ ½ ,
the modifying constituents placed after the
head.
x. w 
 —%   

—
'.

—
'.
w  @ (determiner/hɞn đʈnh t͑/); 
  (premodifier/tiɾn điɾu biɼn t͑);
 (head/chͧ t͑); 

 @
 (postmodifier/
postmodifier/hɪu điɾ
điɾu biɼ
biɼn t͑)
*modifier = điɾ
điɾu bi
biɼ
ɼn t͑
t͑; gi͛
gi͛i đʈ
đʈnh tt͑
͑
ƒ Modifier may refer to:
ƒ Grammatical modifier,
modifier, an adjective or
adverb that 
 the meaning of a
noun, pronoun, or verb ; @   the
meaning
w wº  &
5 The structures realizing sentence elements
are composed of units which can be referred
to as — $  (p18).
(a)
… noun L o
  
… adjective L  — 

… adverb L —  — 
… verb L     
(b)
… article L — 

… demonstrative L — —— 
… pronoun L — 

 
… preposition L $ —
—  —
 —$
… conjunction L
— — 
 —  
… interjection L      
º@  
º@
Set (b) comprises what are called µclosed-
µclosed-system¶
items (các đơn thʀ µđóng¶); set (a) comprises
µopen--classes¶ (µđơn thʀ/l͛p tͫ m͟¶)
µopen
w    
roadly speaking, nouns and adjectives can be
characterized naturally as µstative¶;  
—  ,, or abstract like  

—  
On the other hand, verbs and adverbs can be equally
naturally characterized as µdynamic¶: most obviously,
verbs, which are fitted (by their capacity to show  
and  
 ,, for example to indicate action, activity,
and temporary or changing conditions. These relations
between the open classes can be summerized thus:
STATëE noun adjective

 AMë verb adverb


 But some verbs such as $  can can be regarded as
 ; some nouns like    (kҿ hay gây
phiӅn toái is not stative at all; 
or   (xҩc
láo, láo xưӧc are not  but rather


..
And sin"e be (when used to make predi"ation having
any noun or adje"tive as "omplement) "an be used
dynami"ally in the progressive when the
"omplement is dynami":
a nuisan"e
He is being again
naughty

t is essential to realized that these primary distin"tions


are in the nature o general "hara"teristi"s rather than
immutable (không thӇ thӇ biӃ
biӃn đә
đәi đưӧ
đưӧ")
") truths (p. 21).
21).

 w '
 '

() *) "+

ohn sear"hed the big roo and the sall one [1]
he an invited the little Sedish girl be"ause
he like her [2]
ary is in London and ohn is there too [3]
ary arrived on uesday and ohn arrived
then too [4]
[4
ohn sear"hed the big roo very "arefully
and the sall one less so [5]
She hoped that he ould sear"hed the roo
"arefully before her arrival but he didnƞt do so [6]
(
. 22
22))
Sentence

subject predicate

auxiliary predication (vʈ t͑)


as
operator

«he would search the room carefully«


«he didn¶t do so
A He didn¶t  
 .

 . : Yes, he  [7]
They suggested that he had 
 

 and he 


.. [8]
]%&+- 0  &+-
--questions
Ñ  (were wo wom wat
wen)
Ñ Yes
Yes--no questions ( s Did Had) (p. 23&24)


  1

  1 
assertion ƛ positive and de"larative
wenten"e positive
interrogative negative
non--assertion
non
negative
w w w , 
 
MEXë AM  $# #  
# 
# (

rimary # # 
AUXëMëAR Modal # 
#  # 
  # #   #   (
 #   #    #  # 

-. 

 
  

-. 


  ½  


Many English verbs have five forms:
5the AS, the -S FOR, the PAST, the Lë(
PARTIIPL, and the -) PARTIIPL
5 (1) ase:  
% — (a) all the present
tense except 3rd person singular:
I/YO/W/THY   every day
(b) imperative: all at once!
(c) subjunctive: He demanded that she  
and see him
(d) the bare infinitive´ He may  
 ;; and the
—**infinitive: He wants her — 
—

5 (2) Ls form:   


%  — (3rd person
singular presents) (p. 27)
&2 -*2-M-. -3 M4+' M 5*6%
€ Úe! exc eb
Úe! exc eb he the oown! om:
V Aw c  e t
V-n! #
#--
AÚ 
 cn!  n! tn!
V- -w FÚ c  e te
V-ed
Aw/
AÚ 
 ced  ed ted
€ he ƛn! nd ƛ om (p. 28)
€ he ƛn! om   t!htowd ddton ( n
ph ~ phn!; eep ~ eepn!
eepn!))
€ wbc // cee to be bc beoe the
necton ( n w!!e, w!!n! = һһn ҽ
ҽo)
The L   is also predictable from the
base. ët has three realizations: /iz/, /z/, and
/s/ and two spelling, + and +
… ronounced /iz/ after bases ending in
voiced or voiceless sibilants (âm xuýt: s, z,
í, í , í
í,, íí:  ,  #
íí:
, # , #
 ,  #  ,  #
  ,  
ronounced /z/ and spell ±s after bases
ending in other voiced sounds:  , #
 ,  #  , 
… ronounced /s/ and spell ±s after bases
ending in other voiceless sounds:
cut~cuts, lock~locks, sap~saps (nhӵa
cây (p. 
 
  ½
½½  
The past ( (+ - and the ±ed participle ((
+ . of
regular verbs (spell+
(spell+ unless the base ends in
L have three realizations:
/id/ after bases ends in /d/ and /t/. Eg.
 ,  ,
/d/ after bases ends in voiced sounds other than
/d/. Eg.  ,   , 
/t/ after bases ends in voiceless sounds other
than /t/. Eg.  ,  $,$ (
./
3
 @  @ @@ @
Final base consonant (except X) are doubled
before inflections beginning with a vowel
letter when the preceding vowel is stressed
and spelled with a singular letter:
   
  
— ——
 ——
There is no doubling when the vowel is
unstressed or written with two letters:

—
—

—
  
 
XPTIOS:
(1) ase ending in certain consonants
are doubled also after single
unstressed vowels: -g í Lgg
gg--,
-c í ck
ck--:
   
  
— $$— $$%
— $$%
(b) r, as distinct from Am, breaks the
rule with respect to certain other
consonants also: -l í -ll, -m í -mm, -p í -
pp--:
pp

 

 
 ½ *

 


 ½ +
   
  ½ *
   
  ½
+
 
 
  
*
 
 
  
+
),-./
&   7
&   7
(a) n base ending in a "onsonant +y the ollowing
"hanges o""ur beore inle"tions that do not begin with
i: "arrry ~"arried but "arry ~"arrying
he past o the ollowing two verbs has a "hange y í i
also ater a vowel: la ~lai a ~ai
(b) n bases i ƛie the ie is relae b  beore the ƛ
in! inle"tion: ie ~in! lie ~lin!
0   We
Final We is regularly dropped beore the Wing and Wed
inle"tion: -ee: agree agreeing agreed
-ye: dye dyeing dyed
-oe: hoe hoeing hoed
-ge: singe singeing singed (thui)
" 
 

(. -
-

  ½  
$
,$
/in stative sense ( ë haven¶t/don¶t have (AmE
any books.
ën dynamic senses (# $# 0
(# $# 0,, etc,
lexical have in both AmE and BrE normally has the
do--construction:
do
+ 1  he  coffee with his breakfast?
+ 1 you  any difficulty in getting here?
The -construction is required in such expression as:
- 1 you  a good time?
1 you
There is also the informal —
—,, where 
is constructed as an auxiliary, which is frequently
preferred (especially in r) as an alternative to
.. It is common in negative and interrogative

sentences:
I 
+—— any books; I  no books
no
â Be
[a] Aren¶t I is widely used in r; Ain¶t is
substandard in r and is so considered by
many in Am (p. 36)
[b] The lexical verb  may have the **
construction in persuasive imperative
sentences and regularly has it with negative
imperative: ), —- )
+— -
T`e modal auxiliaries (p. 37)
[a]  
+— is restricted to r, where it is rare.
[b] w
+— is rare in Am.
[c]   — regularly has the ——**infinitive, but Am
often has the bare infinitive in negative
sentences and in questions (although  
is commoner in both cases);
-    —
+— %   ;
-   —  %   ?
Marginal modal auxiliaries
always takes the —
! always
!  —--infinitive and occurs
only in the past tense. It may take the  **
construction, in which case the spelling 
+—
— and 
+—  — both occur.
he interrogative "onstru"tion use he to is
espe"ially r; i he use to is preerre in both
Am an r.
Dare an nee "an be "onstru"te either as
moal auxiliaries (with bare ininitive an with no
inle"te Ws orm) or as lexi"al verbs (with to
to
ininitive an with inle"te Ws orm).
Dare an nee as auxiliaries are probably rarer in
Am than in r.
-0 M 4+M+ *. M4+' M 5*6
'-%&*'&+- '-%&*'&+-

positive He ees to go ow


egative He ee$t go ow He oes$t ee to go ow
terrog. Nee he go ow? Does he ee to go ow?
eg--iter. Nee$t he go ow? Does$t he ee to go ow?
eg

[a] No-
No-assertive orms are ot "oie to overtly
egative a/or iterrogative sete"es but "a also be
preset i averbials eg. He ee o it oly uer
ths "ir"umsta"es.. He ee ot o it but o"e.
ths "ir"umsta"es o"e. 
etermiers eg. He ee have o ear
ear.. No solier are
sobey; i proous eg. No oe are prei"t.
sobey; prei"t.
[b] les o the two "ostru"tios are wiely a""eptable i the
"ase o are
are:: e o ot are spea (p. 38)
 


 w
( . Finite verb phrases have tense distinction:
-    *   m  
- ( Finite verb phrases occur as the verb
element of a clause. There is person and number
concord between the subject and the finite verb (p. 
( Finite verb phrase have mood (indicative,
interrogative, imperative; exclamatory, conditional and
subjunctive
(  The non
non--finite forms of the verb are the infinitive ((
(( 
, the L participle ( 
 ,
 ( ,
, and the L
participle. on on--finite verb phrases consist of one or
more such items.
3++& 5*6 2* % -1
% -1 3++& 5*6 2* %
He  e heavily   e li e that ut be
dangeru
He i r ing und hi r ing
He had been Having been ended
ended bere bere he a enitive

he dal pere"tive prgreive auxiliarie


ll a tri"t rder in the "plex verb phrae
(p. 39)
'  8     !  
(p. 39 & 40)
(a) Vce
Vce nvlvng the actve-
actve-passve relatn as n
- A dctr ll exane the applcants.
~ he applcants ll be exaned by a dctr.
(b) Qestns reqrng sbject veent nvlve the se 
an axlary as peratr:
- hn ll sng ~ ll hn sng?
- hn sang ~ Dd hn sng?
(c) Negatn akes analgs s  peratrs as n
- hn ll sng ~ hn n$t sng
- hn sang ~ hn ddn$t sng
(d) Ephass
Ephass hch s reqently carred by the peratr as
n
- hn  sngz
- hn D %
% % sngz
(e) peratves
peratves as n G he hn
hn;; Y g he hn
peri-
peri- 
phrasti"
primary m

auxiliary auxiliary verbs aspe"tual m


passive
 !
""#$
$
$ !
modal %#&'( !&'!
verbs auxiliary 
!
"

$
!
!
semi--auxiliary verbs
semi m) m *

%+),)
lexi"al verbs  m
m m)m  
ÿ Time is a universal concept with three divisions:

AST TëME RESE T TëME FUTURE TëME

The units of time are extra-


extra-linguistic: They exist
independently of the grammar of any particular
language. ën our use of language, however, we make
linguistic reference to these extra-
extra-linguistic realities
by means of the language-
language-specific category of tense.
(. .
ƒ y tense we understand the
correspondence between the form of the
verb and our   ..
í Aspect concerns the manner in which
the verbal action is experienced or
regarded (for example completed or
in progress ).
progress).
í Mood relates verb action to such
conditions as certainty, obligation,
necessity, possibility (p40).
í In fact, however, to a great extent
three categories impinge on each
other; in particular, the expression
of time present and past cannot be
considered separately from —
—,,
and the expression of future is
closely bound up with  (p.40)
&%

nglish has two tenses:



w   w and
Aw  w
í We "onsider resen and as enses in
relaion o he ro!ressie and erfe" ase"s
ase"s..
Ɲ ƦƦƦƦ..wih a se"ial enƞ fill he blank wih a
hrase hain! he erb base wrie.
wrie.
%+M '-M4
!ee
eent wte am wtn! eent
wa wtn! at
efecte
at wte hae wtten (eent
(eent
efect))
efect
had wtten (a.
(a. ( 
 )
!ee
hae been wtn! (.
ef.)
had been wtn! (a.
ef)
(. 41
41))
 
(a Timeless: ë (always  with a special pen
(p. 
(b Mimited: ë         ^
ë    ^ 
 
-  
  
-   




 

 
  

 

(c ënstantaneous, expressed with either the


simple (especially in a series or the
progressive form:
Watch careful now: first ë  with my ordinary
pen; now, ë  with a special pen.
As you see, ë    the stone into the
water.

The verbs $ (  ,   have a similar
,
function to the normal progressive auxiliary may
be:
John $
asking silly questions
  


(  As having taken place at a particular point of time;
( or over a period; if the latter, the period may be seen
as (a extending up to the present, or (b relating only to
the past; if the latter, it may be viewed as (i having been
completed or as (ii not having been completed
ast resent Future
( 

(a

(bi

(bii
(1) I — my letter of 16 une 1972 with a
special pen
(2a) I ——
with a special pen since 1972
(2bi) I — with a special pen from 1969 to
1972
(2bii) I  —
 poetry with a special pen.
Habitual activity can also be expressed with
simple past; used to or (less commonly would)
may be used:
- He —.  write with a special pen
*** µhistoric present¶ (p. 43)
43)
T`e past and t`e perfective
- ohn  in Paris for ten years
- ohn  in Paris for ten years (p. 43)
43)
he "hoi"e o pere"tive perspe"tive is asso"iated with
timeƛ
time ƛorientation and "onsequently also with various
time--indi"ators (lately,
time (lately, sin"e, so ar, et") (p. 43)
yesterday (evening) sin"e last a.
worked throughout anuary up to now
ë have worked
on uesday lately
already
today
worked
this month
have worked or an hour
*** ote
here is some tenden"y (espe"ially in Am) to use the
past inormally in phrase o the pere"t, as in Ɲ saw it
already$ (= Ɲ have already seen it$) (p 44).
  

ast
resent Future
relevant point

( say now [present


[present]] that) when met him [relevant
[relevant
point in the past]
past] ohn had lived in
aris or ten years.
n some "ontexts the simple past and the past pere"t
are inter"hangeable; eg.
- ate my lun"h ater my wie "ame/had "ome home
rom her shopping.
 here is no inter"hangeability when the past

pere"t is the past o the pere"t (p.45).
  ww
01º $%
(  Activity vbs:  #  $# #  # $# Ê
#  $# #  # $# Ê
( rocess vbs: #  #  # Ê
# Ê
( erbs of bodily sensation: #  # # 
#  # # Ê Ê
(  Transitional event verbs: # #  #  # Ê

(
 Momentary verbs: # 2# $$# $ $#  # Ê
# Ê
01w
(  erbs of inert (trì trӋ perception and cognition:
abhor, adore,
astonish, desire, detest, dislike, feel, forgive, guessÊ
( Relational verbs: apply to (everyone, be, belong to,
concern, consist of, cost, depend on, deserve (p. 
  $2
Ñ There is   #    in English
corresponding to the time/tense relation for
present and past (p.  .
.
ënstead there are several possibilities for denoting
future time.
3
,,   
,
3
 
, and   are closely related,
and #    is rendered by means of modal
auxiliaries or semi- auxiliaries,, or by simple
semi-auxiliaries
present forms or progressive forms.
forms.

  



Ñ " "3 #   
This construction denote µfuture fulfillment of the
present¶.
ët has two more specific meaning (a µfuture of present
intention¶: - When  you      ?,
 you   ?, and (b
µfuture of present cause¶: - She is     a baby;
.
ët¶s    .
Ñ   " 
The pres. progressive refers to future happening
anticipated in the present. ëts basic meaning is µfixed
arrangement, plan, or programme¶: 3   
4  ..
We can say: - They are washing the dishes  * .
* .
The present progressive is especially frequent
with dynamic transitional verbs like 

 — — — —:: -   
 — %
$$

 — — — —  
 — %
$$
—/"0..  1 
— 

—/"0 1 
— 
 —— !—  
%
Simple present (p 49)
The simple present is regularly used
in subordinate clauses that are conditional
(introduced by $

$
 ,, etc) or temporal (
(

 $ 
,
, etc): -  —  
$ë
$ë 
   2 L    — 
%
  (p. 49)
$—  
Be to + infinitive
(a) arrangement: -  —  

(b) command: -   — %30+%


(c) contingent future: - ë$  —  
.
 —% .
Be about to + infinitive
This construction expresses near future, 
immutable fulfillment:
-  —— .
 —   
   —— .
3uture time in t`e past
(1) Auxiliary verb construction with  
 ..
-  — 
—$ $$ 
  
  —
  
.
—   
.
(2) be !! t + tve (te the sese 
Ɲuullled tetƞ: - Yu ee !! t !ve me yu
addess.
(3)
ast p!essve: - as meet! hm  deaux
the ext day.
(4) be t + tve (mal = Ɲas destedƞ Ɲas
aa!edƞ): - He as late t e!et hs de"s.
(5) be abut t (Ɲ the pt ƞ): - He as abut t ht
me..
me
(p. 50)
&2 %69'&+5
Ñ (a) the  0 &+5 %69'&+5 in that- that-"lauses
Has only one orm the base (V). his subjun"tive "an be
used with any verb in subordinate that-
that-"lauses when the
main "lause "ontains an expression o re"ommendation
resolution demand and so on ((e
e demand require
move insist su!!est as  et" thatƦ).
thatƦ).
+ he use o this subjun"tive (ormal style) (Am);
* ess ormal "ontexts: to + ininitive or should +
ininitive.
- t is/was ne"essary that every member inorm himsel
o these rules
(should inorm; to inorm)
inorm)
(b) &    !"
- ome what may
- #od save the Queenz
- e that as it may (
(") & !"
& !" w 
w 
*-  she were/was to do something like thatƦ
- He spoke to me as i were/was dea.
- wish were/was dead. 6
were is used in ƝAs it wereơ (= so to speak)
 were

* Was less ormal than were (p. 51).
 
* t is the past tense that "onveys the impossibility
- tƞs time you ee in bed
- He behaves as though he as/ee a millionaie
- tƞs not as though e ee poo
- ust suppose/imagine someone as/ee olloing us
- ƞd athe e had dinne no
-  only had listened to my paentsz
* neal meaning in the past time is in past time is
indi"ated by had plus the Wed pati"iple
pati"iple::
-  he had listened to me he ouldnƞt have made the
istakes. (p.338)
 ww  w
A / OUM
MA/MëHT
SHAMM/SHOUM
WëMM/WOUM
MUST
OUHT TO
THE TE SE OF MOAM
THE MOAMS A  ASE T
(


--

-% *--% 0 &2
6 %+' - 2* %
ƒ he basi" noun phrase (p. 59)
(a) he !ir
(b) he pre !ir
(") he pre !ir is in he "orner is ar wmih
() he pre !ir ho be"ame an!r
(e) whe
he
pi"a un"ions as subje" obje"
"ompemen o senen"es an as "ompemen in
preposiiona phrases.
ƒ oun "asses
ƒ oun "lasses (p. 59)
ƒ
roper nouns
ƒ ommon nouns
ƒ ount--noun
ount
ƒ on--"ount nouns
on
'-& -
-11'-&
ƞve had many dffce Heƞ no ha mch dffcy
Heƞ had many h job reqre exerence
odd exerence
y an evenng neaer Wra he arce n bron aer
whe a a beay n whe had beay n her yoh
her yoh
he a   a e ace d e a
n
ar
here ere brgh gh gh rave faer han ond
and ond
he amb ere eang qey here  amb on he men
(. 61)
(tҩt đӏ
(six "lasses) (tҩ
0   (six
0   đӏnh tӕ
tӕ/tҩt đӏ
/tҩ đӏnh tӯ
tӯ)
'-& -
-11'-&

w # A be

A fe
be
[A] e
ƹ ƹ
ee (, 
,, e".)
ƹ
"(ee),
e, "( ee), 
((ee)
ee)
e (ee
ee))
wee 4.92 f
 (ee
ee))

[] ze "e (  Ɲe ee fe
feƞ)
ƞ)
ƹ e (ee
ee))
ƹ  (ee
ee))
e!
'-& -
-11'-&

w # A be
fe

A be

[] ƹ 
ƹ 

[D] ee
ƹ e
'-& -
-11'-&

w # A boe
e

A boes

[] ƹ a(n)
ee
eac
ee
nee

[F] ƹ c

oe: e book ~ Ee o e books


Hs ee wod (= Ɲea" o s wodƞ) (p. 62)
   (p. 
  (p.
All, both, half

Së UMAR OU T OU S

 e
f
,  b O OU T/MASS OU S

 e, ,Ʀ b f e, ,Ʀ


, 

MUMAR OU T OU S

f e, ,Ʀ í r"e

ee, e
e

b í r"e
Ñ , and   have of-
 #  , of-constructions, which
are optional with nouns and obligatory with personal
pronouns:
-  (of the meat
 (of   it
- both (of the students both of them
-   (  the time  it
   it
Ñ With a qualifier following, the of- of-construction is
preferred (especially in AmE:
-    


Ñ 

 45
  45

# # 4
The fractions  ++ #  + # 
 # ++"
etc used with non-non-count and with singular and
plural count nouns can also be followed by determiners,
and have the alternative --construction (p.
.
]
 #  (Mưӧng tӯ
Ñ many, (afew, several
Ñ much (alittle
a few biscuits (= several
He took few biscuits (= not many
a little butter (= some
little butter (= not much
(a little  the homonymous adjective: A little birdÊ
(b Many and few can be used predicatively in formal
style: His faults were 

..
Many an ambitious students (= many ambitious
students
 Enough can be used with both count and non- non-count
nouns (p. .
Ñ  

6
 #  (Mưӧng tӯ kӃt ngӳ
- plenty of, a lot of, lots of ( (non-
(non-count and plural count
 lots (chiefly informally
a great/good deal of money
a large/small quantity/amount of money
a great/large/good number of students (p. 
two pieces/a bit/an item of news/information/furniture
a slice of cake; a roast of meat; a few loaves of bread; a
howl of soup; a bottle of wine
a pine of beer; a spoonful of medicine; a pound of
butter
Ñ #
   (p. 
+ Specific/generic reference
- A lion and two tiger are sleeping in the cage (specific
- Tigers are dangerous animal (generic
    2  &      2 (
Ñ  m   $    5
Ñ  m      $  


(p. .
+ onon--count and plural count nouns
Ñ He likes wine, wood, music, lakes, games
Ñ He likes the wine(s, the music, the lakes of France
Ñ enetian glass
the glass of enice
Mrs elson adores the glass of enice
(p.  glass from enice
ƒ Number
ƒ w  

ƒ    

ƒ
           

      



plurals!    - 
ƒ Irregular plurals!

 -    -  


         
  -           


ƒ
   
          
    
  w $77
(  They do not admit determiners
( They often have an objective case
( They often have person distinction
(  They often have overt gender contrast
(
 Singular and plural forms are often not
morphologically related
(p. 
We can broadly distinguished between
items with $ reference and those
with more 
$
— reference
personal
central reflective
reciprocal
possessive
specific relative
interrogative
demonstrative
universal
assertive
indefinite partitive non-
non-assertive
negative
general
quantifying enumerative
Personal: I, we, you, he, she, it, they
Personal:
Reflective:: myself, ourselves, yourself, himself,
Reflective
herself, itself, themselves
Reciprocal:: each other (with two antecedents),
Reciprocal
one another (more than two are
involved)
Possessive:: my, our, your, his, her, its, their
Possessive
(determiner function)
mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, theirs
Relative:: who, whom, which, whose, that, zero is
Relative
used identically to that
Interrogative:: whose, which, who, what
Interrogative
„emonstrative:: this, that, these, those
„emonstrative
niversal: each, everybody, everyone,
niversal:
everywhere, all, every week
Assertive:: - partitive pronoun:
Assertive
something/some, anything/any,
nothing/no
- non
non--assertive: anyone, anybody,
anything, either, any
- negative: no one, nobody nothing,
nowhere, none, neither
General:: many, much, few, a few, little, a
General
little
numerative:: many, much, few, little,
numerative
several, enough
ºw
ommon case ( ( 


enerative ( ( 
3 

3 
… Subjective: ë, we, he, she, they, who
… Objective: me, us, him, her, them who(m
… enitive: my, our, his, her, their, whose
 o inflected or ±s genitive with demonstratives
or with the indefinites except in -one, -body
(p.  
w 
í st person
í nd person
í rd person
ote: The use of  (a umerical one (p. 
(b Replacive one (p. , (c ëndefinite one (p.

09'&+5% 0 05*%
% tactic uctios o adjctivs
í tt i!utiv:: the betf pntng
tt i!utiv
í   adje"tive: (a) subje"t "omplement:
"omplement:
-Your daughter is prett
(b) !"  
!"  ::- He made his wie happ (p.
115).
í hey "an be "omplement to a subje"t whi"h is
a inite "lause:-
"lause:- Whether he will resign is un"ertain
or a non-
non-inite "lause:-
"lause:- Driving a bus isnƞt easy
easy.. wimilarly
adje"tive "an be "omplement to "lauses:
what he did
"onsider oolish
playing so hard
í he un"tioning as an obje"t "omplement oten
expressed the result o the pro"ess by the verb:
He pulled his belt tight
He pulled the window open
í
ostpositive (indeinite pronouns Wbody, one,
thing, where "an be modiied only postpositively
 want something (that is) larger

ostposition is obligatory (p. 116)


 he president ele"t  the ity o ondon proper
í he house (whi"h is) ablaze is next door to mine
í  an adje"tive is alone or pre
pre--modiied merely by an
intensiier postposition normally is not allowed:
- he rather timid soldiers approa"h their oi"er
- *he soldiers (rather
(rather)) timid
í However i the noun phrase is generi" or
indeinite "oordinated adje"tives or adje"tives with a
"lause element added "an be post post--posed
- woldiers timid or "owardly donƞt ight well
- A man usually honest will sometimes "heat (p. 116)
í ore "ommonly we ind
- imid or "owardly soldiers donƞt ight well
- woldiers who are timid or "owardly
í 2     $ ((:#
í Adje"tives "an oten un"tion as heads o noun
phrases (most "ommonly su"h adje"tive have personal
reeren"e:
- he extremely old need a great deal o attention
- We will nurse your si" and eed your hungry (p.
118 & 119)
í 5 !  "  
- An adje"tive (alone or as head o an adje"tive
phrase) "an un"tion as a verbless "lause:
- (B then)
then) nervous
nervous the man opened the letter
- he man (b
(b then)
then) nervous
nervous opened the letter
- he man opened the letter (b
(b then)
then) nervous
í '-&+& 09'&+5 'M %
 Ec
Ec ey mke good de (= We
ecƦ) (p. 120)
í 8  " 
  ! f &
í %  !   "
(1) both attri!utiv and prdicativ
prdicativ eg.: a hng
man ~ the man is hng
(2) attri!utiv onl: an tte ool
(3) prdicativ onl: the woman is loath to admit it
í  !  :  rien (p. 121)
  !  :
í +&%+3.+ 09'&+5%
(emphasizers and ampliiers) (p. 121 & 122)
í Emphasizers are attributive only: a  winner
í Amplifier: a    victory
ºw
í Mimiter adjectives particularize the reference of a
noun: the  reason the 
occasion

occasion

 w
í my   friend ~ formally my friend
í an    visitor
 visitor ~ occasionally (p. 

 º 8 (


 9"
í ! law ~ law concerning law
! law
 
 !:: He is  (p.  
 
 !
í w
  



# 
 #
 
†A Static/dynamic: Adjectives are characterized as
stative, but many can be seen as dynamic. ën particular,
most adjectives that are susceptible to subjective
measurement are capable of being dynamic (p/  :
$ # #  #   #  6 
†B radable/ non
non--gradable:   #   
ënherent/non--inherent (p. 
.
†  ënherent/non

í w
   

 

  #!4  

  #!4  
 
 4 :
4

"4 4

4 
 !
(a intensifying adjective: a   hero
(b pos--determiner, and limiter adjective: the 
pos
student, the  occasion
(c general adjectives susceptible to subjective
measure: ,
, 
(d general adjectives susceptible to objective measure,
including those denoting size or shape:  
  
(e age: ½
(f colour: ½  
(g material: 
(h provenance or style: a  ship, a ?   dress
(p. 

Ñ Opinion : an  book
Ñ imension: a  apple
Ñ Age: a  car
Ñ Shape: a   box
Ñ olor: a  hat
Ñ Origin: an   car
Ñ Material: a ½ box
º

   #

í The most common characteristics of adverb is
morphological (-
(-ly (two types of syntactic function, but
an adverb need have only one of these:
(  adverbial
( modifier of adjective and adverb.
í Adverb as adverbial
í Three classes of adverbials are establish: adjuncts,
disjuncts, conjuncts
… AJU TS (gia ngӳ/phө ngӳ, trҥng ngӳ cӫa vӏ tӯ
Ñ An adjunct is part of a  and modifies the
 to show time, manner, place, frequency and
degree. Eg: ët is nearly done. (' early' describes
Ñ ën linguistics
linguistics,, a    is a type of adverbial
adjunct that expresses information that is not
considered essential to the sentence it appears
in, but which is considered to be the speaker's
or writer's attitude towards, or descriptive
statement of, the propositional content of the
sentence. For instance:
 
, ë didn't do it.
Ñ   
,
Ñ 3 
 
, , ë have it right here.
Ñ ë 
 , , the green one is better.
Ñ ën linguistics
linguistics,, the term   has three
distinct uses:
Ñ A   is an adjunct that adds information
to the sentence that not considered part of the
propositional content (or at least not essential
but which connects the sentence with previous
parts of the discourse
discourse.. Rare though this may
be, conjuncts may also connect to the following
parts of the discourse.
Ñ #   3 
ë  ( 
ë  ( #   3  (
Ñ ë  ( #   3 
ë  (  #   3  (
Ñ ë  
( §#  
   (
ë  
( § #  
   (
Ñ O     $( 
$( # ë
# ë 
   
    
(
Ñ A coordination structure connects two words,
phrases or clauses together, usually with the
help of a coordinating conjunction:
conjunction:
Ñ †  and 
" 
"  bought †  
†  ,,
" , and !


;  " , !
..
Ñ 
;5#   and 
     ".

     ".
&2 %+M %&' $ (//#

ƒ '   


… %    8 
    5 !#  -!"#  
      
    $ (//#$
ƒ '   
… %     $ (//#$
ƒ 3        c u
    c u

 c u t uctu 
c u t uctu   
ttt  t u !t  tc 
 t c u  c t  c$
ƒ + t  t ct      
t    tc
!  
t    tc 
tt  tc ct
  
c u $ (//#$
%   5  - 

"# % 5 

+ ;    !      

%!   

%    


%< =#
(1) SVA S Vintens Apla"e
ary is in the house
(2) SVC S Vintens Cs
ary is kind/ a nurse
(3) SVO S Vmonotran Od
Somebody "aught the ball
(4) SVA S V"omplex trans Od Apla"e
put the pla"e on the table
(5) SVOC S V"omplex trans Od Co
We have proved him wrong/a ool
(6) SVOO S Vditrans Oi Od
She gives me expensive present
(7) SV he "hild laughed (p. 167)
' 
… &   - '    !
    ! 
     
         
;       
5 ! $ (/:#$
'      
… !" $ (:>#
#        
&          
&          ¹
¹
 #
!#   !    !   
       
    ; $ (:> $ ((# $ (?:#
1 2 
 
   @
# 2 !      $ (:>#
1 & ww #   # $
…  !"     #
#        
!#    w  !"
# !      $ (:>#
…  +0+*'& -69'&
       !" ! 
   6 #
…   !"  !"# $
(:>#
…   ! $ (:(#
… '    
  $ (:(#

    ! $
(:(#
- ooh o h 
-    A h  á 
   A h  á 
- +B o o
+B o o   $
í &     !"   
   !   !" C $ (:(#
   A  : Heƞs my brother. He seems hy
w  # A  : He be"me restess (. 171)
í &     !"   
   !   !"C $ (:(#
   A  : ate the meat c.
c.
í w  # A  : hey ele"ted him Peidet (p.
171)
í
    !" (p.
172)
(tuyӃt lӣ
- e ce (tuyӃ lӣ) destroyed several houses
í * !" $ (:)#
Ʀ a re"ipient role with verbs su"h as have, own,
possess, benefit (fro)
fro)
- r. with has bought/given/sold his son a radio
í wo now his son has/owns/possesses a radio
Ʀ per"eptual verb see and hear (p. 172)
í ' 
í %!"11 !   $ (:/#
%!"
D %!" 7
D %!" 7  !  
- A "lause in a position o subje"t "ounts as
singular: o te got tere oesn$t "on"ern e.e.
- * oinal relative "lause a ave plural or
singular "on"or: at ere on"e uan ellings are
no noting but piles o rubble.
noral spee": ere$s unres o people on
 noral

te aiting list.
***
lural ors an prases "ount as singular i te
are use as naes titles quotations: - Crie an

unisent is peraps te bestƦ; but e Broter


Karaazov is unoubtel is best novel (176)
- Ɲe Ce$   !e !e.
!e.
- e Ceb e ex/ex  
Mc.
     8 $ (:/#
- e !ee e b e  e e ()
***e ce  x ee !eee  e
eb w wee    ce ecee 
ee  eeece  !eee w e e
W  e bjec:
-   exce  w e 
 w .
.
- -  e  ! (. 177).
'  
   cece    b
#c !
- e bc e e f e
- e ece ee e'! ee e f  (. 177)
*** e ece  e
'  !" $ (::#
We  b'ec c f   e  e
ce b   c   be e
beee l   l
c.
-  M e  e (á om is now ready
and ary is now ready)
- a I say and wa I in are my own affair (á
wa I say is and wa I in is).
**A single verb is used with "onjoinings whi"h
represents a single entity
- he haer and si" le was flying fro a tall flag
pole..
pole
**onjoinings expressing a utual relationship even
though they "an only indire"tly be treated as redu"tions
of "lauses in this way also ta e plural verb:
- Your proble and ine ar siilar (á Your problem is
similar to mine and mine is similar to yours) (177).
***ut: he "oordinated stru"tures reer to the same
hing:
- his temple o ugliness and memorial to Vi"torian bad
taste was eece  e Qee$ exe ..
***he ollowing example however is ambiguous and
"ould have either a singular or plural verb a""ording as
the brother and editor are one person or two:
- is oung brother and the subsequent editor o his
"olle"ted papers was/wr with him as his death-
death-bed.
***Abstra"t nouns "an be interpreted with some
latitude:
-Your airness and impartialit has/hav been mu"h
appre"iated (p. 178
178).
).
+ A single noun head with "oordinate modiiers ma
impl two separated senten"e a plural verb may
ollow a singular non-
non-"ount noun subje"t:
- Goo an ba taste ar cce b exe
(á#ood taste isƦ and bad taste isƦ) (p. 178).
178).
+ '   
 C  #
-  e M   e  b  ce. [1]
- Ee e  e  e be a  ce. [2]
 e
- ?  b e   ee!   f [3]
   ee!   b e a   f [4]
*** [3] ee !   ee  be !z
***Nee
***Nee e   fe a e  e 
  e   e f efee b e:
- Nee e   fe a e (. 179)
D   a
-   a   b a
a !e
!e e
e.
 or tha e e has ee !
e  (y u  !u veb 
eee be"ue (e) e ee  e
  !u u e.

+t 8rssos o aot


D ee  e!ve exe 
mu
- $ve ee e ub bu e ( em) hav/has
ve ye.
ye.
H  me "vey Ɲ"e"$ bu ve  me
m"  ee" (. 179).
í ' 
í %!"11 !   $ (:/#
%!"
1 %!"
%!" 77  !  
í & ' 8  $E>?#
í '   ! 
í 3     !   
1 o   w . k
í N11  
N
1 2
   C
í 5!   
1 
  w    C
í     $<%
í 






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