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In 1992 was the establishment of basin for the disposal of sewage for the city of
Rafah, as well as the establishment of a line pressure reaches a length of 3 km
Sea terminal of Rafah.

Station site :

The plant is located in the southwest of the city of Rafah near the border strip.
As a result, the city of Rafah in the Tel Sultan area suffers from significant problems
in the process of rash experienced by the station and to increase the amount of
sewage up, and the inability of the plant to absorb the quantity, it was a rash
increase steadily, especially in winter due to the lack of Network Rain water
drainage especially in Rafah.
And it felt CMWU cooperation with the Municipality of Rafah after the withdrawal of
occupation of the Gaza Strip to work on the development of the station, to resolve
all the problems faced by the province, the CMWU in coordination with other
donors, particularly the International Committee of the Red Cross regarding the
development of the plant were monitored the amount of approximately 3 million
dollars to work on the development as follows,
Terminal would be established on an area of 150 dunums.
Will serve the city of Rafah for almost 20 years .
m
This situation adversely affected the environment of Rafah city and the surrounding
areas, for the reason that sewage often overflowed from the wastewater system.

To prevent any further environmental degradation and eliminate hazard to public


heath, the coastal municipality¶s water utility (CMWU) through the Project
Management Unit (PMU) proposed a project to upgrade the treatment plant with
implementation plan of two phases

The project¶s phase one included the construction of preliminary treatment and
anaerobic lagoons, phase two is construction of two bio towers, effluent force main
and upgrading of pumping facilities, effluent pumping station and infiltration basins.

The project expanded the treatment plant's capacity to treat 20,000 m3/d with levels
of effluent quality being environmentally acceptable.

Currently, the volume of collected wastewater is in order of 8,000- 8,500 m3/day


compared with a 3200 m3/day in 1997. Originally, the treatment plant was designed
for the flow of 2000 cubic meters/day. Therefore, the site is hydraulically overloaded
and virtually no treatment processes are occurring.
  

The current population of Rafah is approximately 183,000 inhabitants of which


approximately 112,500 inhabitants are connected to the drainage system that
discharges to the Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Currently, the raw wastewater characteristics are; BOD = 740 mg/l, COD = 1200
mg/l and TSS = 635 mg/l. These parameters indicate that the raw sewage is very
condensed and the concentration of pollutants is very high. As a result, the total
daily biological load (BOD) amounts to 5,920 kg.

Phase 2 is planned to be constructed through three separate contracts, the first is


for the construction of two trickling filters, the second is for the construction of
effluent pumping station and the third one is for the construction of the force main.
and virtually no treatment processes are occurring.
  

This situation adversely affected the environment of Rafah city and the surrounding
areas, for the reason that sewage often overflowed from the wastewater system.

To prevent any further environmental degradation and eliminate hazard to public


heath, the coastal municipality¶s water utility (CMWU) through the Project
Management Unit (PMU) proposed a project to upgrade the treatment plant with
implementation plan of two phases

The project¶s phase one included the construction of preliminary treatment and
anaerobic lagoons, phase two is construction of two bio towers, effluent force main
and upgrading of pumping facilities, effluent pumping station and infiltration basins.

The project expanded the treatment plant's capacity to treat 20,000 m3/d with levels
of effluent quality being environmentally acceptable.

Currently, the volume of collected wastewater is in order of 8,000- 8,500 m3/day


compared with a 3200 m3/day in 1997. Originally, the treatment plant was designed
for the flow of 2000 cubic meters/day. Therefore, the site is hydraulically overloaded
and virtually no treatment processes are occurring.
  

The current population of Rafah is approximately 183,000 inhabitants of which


approximately 112,500 inhabitants are connected to the drainage system that
discharges to the Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Currently, the raw wastewater characteristics are; BOD = 740 mg/l, COD = 1200
mg/l and TSS = 635 mg/l. These parameters indicate that the raw sewage is very
condensed and the concentration of pollutants is very high. As a result, the total
daily biological load (BOD) amounts to 5,920 kg.

Phase 2 is planned to be constructed through three separate contracts, the first is


for the construction of two trickling filters, the second is for the construction of
effluent pumping station and the third one is for the construction of the force main.
  

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The bio-tower is a concrete cylindrical structure and comprise of bio-filter, which is a specially
manufactured plastic media, and a rotary wastewater distributor to introduce an aerobic
(oxygen rich) environment for biological treatment.

The bio filters component will consist of the following facilities:

M        
The pumping station will consist of four pump, three operating and one stand by. Total
capacity of pumps will be 1100 m³/hr with hydraulic head of 11 meters

M !    
Total average flow 20,000 m³/day
Hydraulic peak flow 24,267 m³/day
Average flow per unit 6667 m³/day
Peak flow per unit 8089 m³/day
No. of units are 3
Effective unit area 200 m²
Effective depth of media 5m
Filter media fabricated plastic media
Rotary arms, stainless steel trapezoidal cross section arms equipped with orifices as a
wastewater spreading method.
  

    
The functioning of this component is to keep the bio-towers continuously wet and under
optimum flow.
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The network will connect all the functional elements of the designed system and the additional
elements in the future.

      
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The pumping station will be used to dispose effluent from the plant to the infiltration basins
and/or to the sea through a two force mains.

The effluent pumping station will consist of:

Pumps¶ room: a concrete structure with dimensions of 6.2 x3x5 meters.

Pumping units specifications:


No. of Units 4 pumps (3 + 1 standby)
Flow 350 m³/hr
Head 30 meters
Power 40±5 kW
Electrical Panel: the electrical panel will have both power and control devices.
Pumps manifold: it consists of pumps¶ riser, gate valves, non-return valves, air
release valves, dressers, elbows, wash pipe and flow meter.
  

 -  

  .            / 0101


Total designed flow 20,000 m³/day
Peak flow 24,267 m³/day
Peak flow 1,214 m³/hr
For new UPVC pipes a designed velocity of 2.4 m/s will be used.
The new force main of 14 inches is designed for the flow of 830 m³/hr, with maximum peak flow
of 864 m³/hr.
Currently the site has one force main of 10 inches (Dia. = 250 mm, A= 0.0491 m²) and the
maximum capacity at Velocity of 2 m/s is 350 m³/hr.

  0               

Volume of the infiltration basin


Area of the infiltration basin 30,000 m²
Maximum water depth 2m
Volume of infiltration basin 60,000 m³
Infiltration rate 0.2 m/m²/day (This figure is estimated based on existing infiltration records
in similar soil in Gaza strip. Soil tests is ongoing to verify this value for the infiltration rate)
The maximum infiltration 6,000 m³/day
The discharge to the sea 14,000 m³/day
The new force main will cope with this flow with large safety factor.
  

   
 
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There is a potential risk of the project¶s implementation; these risks are mainly due to
the current prevailing conditions.

The major risk is due to un-availability or shortage of construction materials mainly


cement and pipes.

It is recommended to coordinate for cement delivery to Gaza, the project needs


some of 300 Tons of cement.

For the 14´ UPVC pipes, there are two potential manufacturers in Gaza, it is
recommended to check availability of materials and if necessary coordinate for
delivery of raw materials.

For the bio tower media, the fabricated plastic media should be procured from Israel
and delivered to Gaza.
 





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     3456789:;<=>?@:;

3000
p1 8    2388
p2    688 2500

p3   1688 2000


p4 d!" 769
1500
p5 #  2750
1000

500
Maximum value = 1500
0
5p 4p 3p 2p 1p
The probability of Risk ( E.C )
P(R)= 3\5= 0.6

Electrical Conductivity depends on :


‡Total dissolved solid
‡concentration of ions
‡equivalent to ion
EE f :;A5BCD;

p1 8    
1800
p2     1600
p3   " 1400

p4 d!" "" 1200


1000
p5 #  "
800
600
400
200
0
The probability of Risk (EE  5p 4p 3p 2p 1p

P(R)= 3\5= 0.6


  ;7@F

100

p1 8     90
80
p2     70
p3    60
50
p4 d!" ( 40
p5 #  28 30
20
10
0
5p 4p 3p 2p 1p

max value=70
The probability of Risk (   
P(R)= 1\6= 0.17
  ½ ?

700

600
p1 8    
500
p2    (
400
p3   ((
300
p4 d!" 
200
p5 #  "
100

0
5 4 3 2 1
The probability of Risk (   
P(R)= 1\6= 0.17

Chloride salts of contaminated water from several sources the most important of human
waste water and sewage systems, where human urine contains a high concentration of
chloride, so the high concentration of chloride in water is usually an indication of sewage
contamination
Some other sources such as:
1 - soluble chloride of rock and soil.
2 - to storm the encroachment of salt water on groundwater in particular coastal areas
2  f6H:;7BG:;

1400

p1 8      1200

p2    " 1000

p3    800

p4 d!"  600
p5 #  " 400

200

The probability of Risk (2   5p 4p 3p 2p 1p

P(R)= 1\6= 0.17

Hard water minerals primarily consist of calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+)
metal cations, and sometimes other dissolved compounds such as bicarbonates
and sulfates. Calcium usually enters the water as either calcium carbonate
(CaCO3), in the form of limestone and chalk, or calcium sulfate (CaSO4), in the
form of other mineral deposits. The predominant source of magnesium is dolomite
(CaMg(CO3)2). Hard water is generally not harmful to one's health.
  A?=B:5

300

p1 8     250

p2     200


p3   "
150
p4 d!" 
p5 #   100

50

0
The probability of Risk (   5p 4p 3p 2p 1p

P(R)= 1\6= 0.17

The presence of calcium in the water within the normal level, but there is
an increase in some wells .
Deficiency can lead to problems in the formation of bones and teeth, while
increasing dosage to the formation of kidney stones.
 A? ?>

450

p1 8      400
350
p2    
300
p3   "
250
p4 d!"  200
p5 #  ( 150
100
50
0
The probability of Risk (   5p 4p 3p 2p 1p
P(R)= 2\6= 0.33

Rate and the presence of sodium in the water is high in some wells, and
the damage caused by the high proportion of sodium is high blood
pressure and other damage .
 

A treatment plant in the western region of Rafah, on the


largest underground reservoir in the province led to many
dangers on the quality of drinking water.

The best site treatment plant is the eastern region in


Rafah, but the economic difficulties: where it need for many
pumps and its expensive operational cost .

In terms of political, since the occupation prevents its


presence in the eastern regions .