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Comparators

y Zero-Level Detection y Nonzero-Level Detection y Effects of Input Noise on Comparator Operation y Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis y Output Bounding y A Comparator Application:

Summing Amplifiers

y The summing amplifier is an application of the inverting

op-amp configuration. y It has two or more inputs, and its output is proportional to the negative of the algebraic sum of its input voltages.

Summing Amplifiers

y Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain

Summing Amplifiers

y Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain (cont )

I T ! I1 I 2

VOUT ! I T R f VOUT

VIN 1 VIN 2 ! ( I1 I 2 ) R f ! R R R f 2 1 VIN 1 VIN 2 ! V R ! IN 1 VIN 2
R R

VOUT

Summing Amplifiers

y Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain (cont ) y In general, a unity-gain summing amplifier with n inputs where all resistors are equal in value has a mathematical expression of VOUT ! IN 1 VIN 2 VIN 3 ... VINn
V

Summing Amplifiers

y Example Problem y Determine the output voltage (VOUT) of the circuit below.

Summing Amplifiers

y Summing Amplifier with Gain Greater than Unity y When R f " R , where R is the value of each equal-value input resistor, the gain of the amplifier is now equal to Rf R

y The general expression for the output is

VOUT !

Rf R

Summing Amplifiers

y Example Problem y Determine the output voltage for the summing amplifier.

Summing Amplifiers

y Averaging Amplifier y A summing amplifier can be made to produce the mathematical average of the input voltages. y This is done by setting the ratio Rf/R equal to the reciprocal of the number of inputs (n).

Rf

1 ! R n

Summing Amplifiers

y Example Problem y Show that the amplifier produces an output whose magnitude is the mathematical average of the input voltages.

Summing Amplifiers

y Scaling Adder y A different weight can be assigned to each input of a summing amplifier by simply adjusting the values of the input resistors. y The output voltage can be expressed as

VOUT

Rn).

Summing Amplifiers

y Example Problem y Determine the weight of each input voltage for the scaling adder and find the output voltage.

Summing Amplifiers

y Scaling Adder Application:

y D/A conversion is an important interface process for

converting digital signals to analog (linear) signals. y One method of D/A conversion uses the scaling adder with input resistor values that represent the binary weights of the digital input code.

Summing Amplifiers

y Scaling Adder Application:

Summing Amplifiers

y Example Problem y Determine the output voltage of the DAC. The sequence of four-digit binary codes represented by the waveforms below are applied to the inputs. A high level is a binary 1, and a low level is a binary 0. The least significant digit is D0.

y If the 200 k

is changed to 400 k , would the other resistor values have to be changed? If so, specify the values.

y The Op-Amp Integrator y An op-amp integrator simulates mathematical integration, which is basically a summing process that determines the total area under the curve of a function.

y The Op-Amp Integrator (cont ) y How a Capacitor Charges

y y

RECALL: Q ! I C t and Q ! CVC Therefore, the capacitor voltage can be expressed as IC VC ! t C This expression has the form of an equation of a straight line that begins at zero with a constant slope of IC/C. RECALL: The capacitor voltage in a simple RC circuit is not linear but exponential.

y The Op-Amp Integrator (cont ) y How a Capacitor Charges

I in !

y

Vin Ri

I C ! I in

y The Op-Amp Integrator (cont ) y The Capacitor Voltage

y The Op-Amp Integrator (cont ) y Rate of Change of the Output

y

Vin (VOUT ! Ri C (t

Integrators are especially useful in triangular-wave generators.

1 vO (t ) ! vI (t )dt RC

y Example Problem y Determine the rate of change of the output voltage in response to the first input pulse in a pulse waveform for the integrator. The output voltage is initially zero. y Describe the output after the first pulse. Draw the output waveform.

y Example Problem (cont ) y Modify the integrator to make the output change from 0 to -5 V in 50 s with the same input.

y The Op-Amp Differentiator y An op-amp differentiator simulates mathematical differentiation, which is a process of determining the instantaneous rate of change of a function.

y The Op-Amp Differentiator (cont ) y Apply a positive-going ramp voltage to the input.

( C IC ! C (t

T i

! I R f ! IC R f

C

( i ! R f C (t

y The Op-Amp Differentiator (cont ) y Output of a differentiator with a series of positive and negative ramps (triangle wave) on the input.

y The Op-Amp Differentiator (cont ) y Equation in Time Domain

dvI (t ) vO (t ) ! RC dt

y Example Problem y Determine the output voltage of the op-amp differentiator for the triangular-wave input.

is changed to 3.3 k ?

y REFERENCE:

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