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# Comparators Summing Amplifiers Integrators and Differentiators

Comparators
y Zero-Level Detection y Nonzero-Level Detection y Effects of Input Noise on Comparator Operation y Reducing Noise Effects with Hysteresis y Output Bounding y A Comparator Application:

## Over-Temperature Sensing Circuit y A Comparator Application: Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Conversion

Summing Amplifiers
y The summing amplifier is an application of the inverting

op-amp configuration. y It has two or more inputs, and its output is proportional to the negative of the algebraic sum of its input voltages.

Summing Amplifiers
y Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain

## A two-input summing amplifier

Summing Amplifiers
y Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain (cont )

I T ! I1  I 2
VOUT !  I T R f VOUT
VIN 1 VIN 2 ! ( I1  I 2 ) R f !  R  R R f 2 1 VIN 1 VIN 2 !   V R !  IN 1  VIN 2 R R

## If all three of the resistors are equal,

VOUT

Summing Amplifiers
y Summing Amplifier with Unity Gain (cont ) y In general, a unity-gain summing amplifier with n inputs where all resistors are equal in value has a mathematical expression of VOUT !  IN 1  VIN 2  VIN 3  ...  VINn V

Summing Amplifiers
y Example Problem y Determine the output voltage (VOUT) of the circuit below.

## k resistor, what is the output voltage?

Summing Amplifiers
y Summing Amplifier with Gain Greater than Unity y When R f " R , where R is the value of each equal-value input resistor, the gain of the amplifier is now equal to Rf R
y The general expression for the output is

VOUT ! 

Rf R

## VIN1  VIN 2  VIN 3  ...  VINn

Summing Amplifiers
y Example Problem y Determine the output voltage for the summing amplifier.

## 2.2 k and the feedback resistor is 18 k .

Summing Amplifiers
y Averaging Amplifier y A summing amplifier can be made to produce the mathematical average of the input voltages. y This is done by setting the ratio Rf/R equal to the reciprocal of the number of inputs (n).

Rf

1 ! R n

Summing Amplifiers
y Example Problem y Show that the amplifier produces an output whose magnitude is the mathematical average of the input voltages.

## order to handle five inputs.

Summing Amplifiers
y Scaling Adder y A different weight can be assigned to each input of a summing amplifier by simply adjusting the values of the input resistors. y The output voltage can be expressed as

VOUT

## the resistance, RX, for that input (RX = R1, R2,

Rn).

Summing Amplifiers
y Example Problem y Determine the weight of each input voltage for the scaling adder and find the output voltage.

## R2 = 82 k , R3 = 56 k , and Rf = 10 k . Also find VOUT.

Summing Amplifiers

## Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Conversion

y D/A conversion is an important interface process for

converting digital signals to analog (linear) signals. y One method of D/A conversion uses the scaling adder with input resistor values that represent the binary weights of the digital input code.

Summing Amplifiers

## Binary-weighted resistor DAC

Summing Amplifiers
y Example Problem y Determine the output voltage of the DAC. The sequence of four-digit binary codes represented by the waveforms below are applied to the inputs. A high level is a binary 1, and a low level is a binary 0. The least significant digit is D0.

y If the 200 k

is changed to 400 k , would the other resistor values have to be changed? If so, specify the values.

## Integrators and Differentiators

y The Op-Amp Integrator y An op-amp integrator simulates mathematical integration, which is basically a summing process that determines the total area under the curve of a function.

## Integrators and Differentiators

y The Op-Amp Integrator (cont ) y How a Capacitor Charges
y y

RECALL: Q ! I C t and Q ! CVC Therefore, the capacitor voltage can be expressed as IC VC ! t C This expression has the form of an equation of a straight line that begins at zero with a constant slope of IC/C. RECALL: The capacitor voltage in a simple RC circuit is not linear but exponential.

## Integrators and Differentiators

y The Op-Amp Integrator (cont ) y How a Capacitor Charges
I in !
y

Vin Ri

I C ! I in

## Integrators and Differentiators

y The Op-Amp Integrator (cont ) y The Capacitor Voltage

## Integrators and Differentiators

y The Op-Amp Integrator (cont ) y Rate of Change of the Output
y

Vin (VOUT ! Ri C (t
Integrators are especially useful in triangular-wave generators.

## y Equation in Time Domain

1 vO (t ) !  vI (t )dt RC

## Integrators and Differentiators

y Example Problem y Determine the rate of change of the output voltage in response to the first input pulse in a pulse waveform for the integrator. The output voltage is initially zero. y Describe the output after the first pulse. Draw the output waveform.

## Integrators and Differentiators

y Example Problem (cont ) y Modify the integrator to make the output change from 0 to -5 V in 50 s with the same input.

## Integrators and Differentiators

y The Op-Amp Differentiator y An op-amp differentiator simulates mathematical differentiation, which is a process of determining the instantaneous rate of change of a function.

## Integrators and Differentiators

y The Op-Amp Differentiator (cont ) y Apply a positive-going ramp voltage to the input.

( C IC ! C (t
T i

! I R f ! IC R f
C

( i !  R f C (t

## Integrators and Differentiators

y The Op-Amp Differentiator (cont ) y Output of a differentiator with a series of positive and negative ramps (triangle wave) on the input.

## Integrators and Differentiators

y The Op-Amp Differentiator (cont ) y Equation in Time Domain

dvI (t ) vO (t ) !  RC dt

## Integrators and Differentiators

y Example Problem y Determine the output voltage of the op-amp differentiator for the triangular-wave input.

## y What would the output voltage be if the feedback resistor

is changed to 3.3 k ?

y REFERENCE: