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Project Management: An Overview

Project Management Growth Factors Project Aspects Project Criteria Project Life Cycle Project Management Profession

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Project Management Emergence


Explosion in human knowledge Mass customization of products and services Expansion of global markets

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Forces Of Project Management


Forces driving Project Management:
1. exponential expansion of human knowledge 2. growing demand for a broad range of complex, sophisticated, customized goods and services 3. evolution of worldwide competitive markets for the production and consumption of goods and services

Team-based problem solving v. individual


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Growth in number of project oriented organizations The Project Management Institute (PMI) was established in 1969 By 1990 it had 7,500 members 1995, over 17,000 members 1998--exploded to over 44,000 members This exponential growth is indicative of the rapid growth in the use of projects Importance of PMI as a force in the development of project management as a profession
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The Professionalism of Project Management manager Complexity of problems facing the project

Project Management Institute: Membership Growth Curve

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Organizational Imperatives
Traditional hierarchical management declining Consensual management increasing Increasing reliance on systems engineering Projects integral to organizational strategy

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The Definition of a Project


Must make a distinction between terms: Program - an exceptionally large, long-range objective that is broken down into a set of projects Task - set of activities comprising a project Work Packages - division of tasks Work Units - division of work packages A specific, finite task to be accomplished
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Project Management A Working Definition


Project:
A problem with a known solution scheduled for completionunique and non-routine activities

Project Management:
The science and art of solving the problem within predetermined time and resource parameters Shouldering just enough risk to escape with your career intact!!!

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Characteristics of a Project
Have a supported purpose/importance Performance specifications (form, fit, function) Known (bounded) solution Have a life cycle with finite due date Interdependencies Uniqueness Resource requirements and tradeoffs Stakeholder Conflict

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Quasi-Projects and Fuzzy Goals


Tasks without Specific Targets
No Who, What, When, Where, How Much

Implied Performance, Cost, Time Constraints Projects to Determine Project Scope Warning: If these Become Projects, Expect Delays, Cost Overruns, Dissatisfied Customers
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Objectives of a Project
Project Objectives:
Performance Time Cost

Expectations of clients inherent part of the project specifications

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Objectives of a Project
3 Project Objectives:

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Why Project Management?


Companies have experienced:
Better customer relations Shorter overall delivery times Lower costs and higher profit margins Higher quality and reliability Higher worker morale

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Why (not) Project Management?


Companies have also experienced some negatives:
Greater organizational complexity Increased likelihood of organizational policy violations Higher costs More management difficulties Low personnel utilization

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The Project Life Cycle


Stages of a Conventional Project:
Slow beginning Buildup of size Peak Begin a decline Termination

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The Project Life Cycle

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The Project Life Cycle


Projects also exist which do not follow the conventional project life cycle Comprised of subunits that have little use as a stand alone unit, yet become useful when put together

2006 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

The Project Life Cycle


Time distribution of project effort is characterized by slow-rapid-slow

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Project Management Life Cycle


Definition Planning Implementation Delivery

Level of effort
1. Goals 2. Specifications 3. Scope 4. Responsibilities 5. Teams

1. WBS 2. Budgets 3. Resources 4. Risks 5. Schedule

1. Status reports 2. Change Orders 3. Quality Audits 4. Contingencies


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1. Train user 2. Transfer documents 3. Release resources 4. Reassign staff 5. Lessons learned

Proactive Project Life Cycle


High
Level of Value of Effort

Project Manager Roles and Responsibilities Change Management System Closed-Loop Planning-Monitor-Control System Project Evaluation (Audit) Process

Low Define
Scope Tradeoffs

Plan

Implement

Delivery

WBS/OBS/Schedule Resource (Re)allocation Learn Curve Detailed Budget Cost Containment Final Report
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The Project Life Cycle


Unlike the more conventional life cycle, continued inputs of effort at the end of the project produce significant gains in returns

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Projects in Contemporary Organizations

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Figure 1-3

Projects in Contemporary Organizations

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Figure 1-4

Projects in Contemporary Organizations

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Figure 1-5

Projects in Contemporary Organizations

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Figure 1-6

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