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LRDE

ELECTRONICS AND RADAR DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT

Submitted by: Pravin Kumar 07EC75 Electronics and Communication Engg. NITK,Surathkal

INDEX:
LRDE profile Area of work Achievements ATmega 128 Avr CPU Core ATmega128 memory Schematic of development board of ATmega128 Making A Line Follower Algorithm Schematic Of Control Circuit of Line Follower L298 Motor Controller Programming Atmega using AvrStudio References

LRDE PROFILE:

LRDE has its genesis in Inspectorate of Scientific Stores created in 1939 at Rawalpindi, which was redesigned at Technical Development Establishment at Dehradun in 1946. In 1958 Electronics research and development establishment was formed at Bangalore. The establishment was renamed in 1961 as Electronics and Radar Development Establishment(LRDE).

VISION:


To create centre of excellence in design and development of Radars and related Technologies.

Mission


Develop Radar systems and related technologies to cater to the needs of Services . Enhance the infrastructure, Knowledge, base and Technologies for achieving self-reliance.

AREAS OF WORK:


 

   

Design and development of Radar Systems for Army, Air Force , Navy. Low level 2D Radar for fire control and air defence. 3D Tactical control radar. Maritime patrol Radar for fixed and Rotary wing aircraft. Development of Radar Technologies Antennas. Radar Data Processors. Multichannel double hetrodyne receivers.

ACHIEVEMENTS:
    

Indian Doppler Radar(INDRA-1) Indra-II PC radar Rajendra Radar 3D Central Acquisition Radar(3D-CAR) Battle Field surveillance radar(BFSR-SR)

ATMEGA128:
    

  

53 Programmable I/O Lines Operating voltages 2.7 5.5V Speed grade 0-8MHz High Performance low power AVR 8 bit microcontroller. Advanced RISC architecture 133 Powerful Instructions 32x8 General purpose registers 128K Bytes In system Self programmable Flash memory. 4K bytes of EEPROM 4K bytes of SRAM JTAG(IEEE std. 1149.1 compliant) Interface

AVR CPU CORE:

Avr uses Harvard Architecture with separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory is executed with a single level pipelining. The fast access registers contains 32x8 general purpose registers. Two operands are output from register file ,the operation is executed and result is stored back in the register file.

AVR 128 MEMORY:


Contains 128K bytes of onchip insystem reprogrammable flash.  AVR instructions are 16 or 32bits.  Flash is organized as 64Kx16.  For software security,the programe Memory is divided into two sections: 1. Boot program Section. 2. Application program Section.


MAKING A LINE FOLLOWER


Why line follower ? The line follower is an automated machine that can follow a path. The path can be visible like a black line on a white surface or vice versa. Practical applications of line follower:


Automated cars running on roads with embedded magnets Guidance system for industrial robots

OVERVIEW:

The robot uses IR Sensor to sense the line, an array of 8 IR LED (Tx) and Sensors(Rx), facing the ground has been used in this set up. The output of sensor is an analog signal which depends on the amount of reflect back is converted to digital by using a comparator.

When a sensor is on it reads 0 and when it is off it reads 1.

ALGORITHM:
1. L=leftmost sensor which reads 0 R=rightmost sensor which reads 0.

2. If all sensors read 1 go to step 3 else, If L>R , Move left If R>L, Move right If L=R, Move straight, Go to step 4 3. Move Clockwise if line was last seen on right. Move anticlockwise if line was last seen on left. Repeat step 3 till line is found. 4. Go to step 1.

SENSOR CIRCUIT:
The resistance of the Sensor decreases when IR Light falls on it. Ideal Sensor: 1. 0 resistance when light Falls on it. 2. Infy resistance in absence of light

To get good voltage swing the value of R1 must be carefully chosen. Rsensor = a when no light falls on it. = b when light falls on it. The Difference in potential is Vcc*{a/(a+R1)-b/(b+R1)}

MOTOR INTERFACE AND CONTROL CIRCUIT:

L 298 MOTOR DRIVER:


  

  

4 inputs to control the motion of motor. 2 enable inputs to switching the motors on and off. To control the speed of motors, variabe width PWM pulses is applied to enable pins. Operating upto 46V Total DC current upto 4A Logical 0 input voltage up to 1.5V

BI DIRECTIONAL DC MOTOR CONTROL:

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
C

programming language

y Easy to learn and implement y C can be used with many microcontrollers due to the availability of C simulators for most controllers
 Assembly
y

language of the microcontroller

Different families of controllers have different instruction sets. y Harder to program but very efficient in real time implementation cases. We concentrate on C programming

Software:
AVR Studio Win AVR

Programmers:
BSD or parallel port programmer USB programmer

USING AVR STUDIO:

3 8-bit Special function registers DDRB, DDRC and DDRD are used to declare whether a PORT has to function as an input port or an output port. Ex: DDRB = 0x00; //declare PORT B as an input port DDRB = 0xFF; //declare PORT B as an output port DDRB = 0xF0; //----????


//declare last 4 pins (B7 to B4) as output pins and first 4 pins (B0 to B3) as input pins.

3 8-bit Special function registers PORTB, PORTC, PORTD are used to send an 8 bit data to the pins of a Port which has been declared as an output Port. DDRB = 0xFF; PORTB = 0xAA; //declare PORT B as an output port

Ex:

/*Send the binary pattern of the hexadecimal number 0xAA to the output pins of PORT B. 0xAA = 10101010 */

3 8-bit Special function registers PINB, PINC, PIND are used to read an input from a Port which has been declared as an input Port. Ex: uint8_t input; //declaration of an unsigned 8-bit //variable called input DDRB = 0x00; //declare Port B as an input Port input = PINB; // Read the input from Port B and store //in the variable input

SAMPLE CODE
#include<avr/io.h> #include<avr/delay.h> //Blink an Led connected to PORT D void main() { DDRD = 0XFF; while(1) { PORTD = 0XFF; _delay_ms(400); PORTD = 0x00; _delay_ms(400); } }

//declare PORT D as an output port

//make PORT D pins high //make PORT D pins low

REFERENCES:
1. Atmel Corp. http://www.atmel.com 2. http://www.avrbeginners.com 3. http://www.avrfreaks.com 4. Line follower robot Priyank Patil