Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

CHAPTER 2

HEATING AND COOLING CURVE

OBJECTIVES
 At the end of this lesson we should be able to :
a) elaborate the changes state of the substances by using the kinetic theory model b) differentiate the heating and cooling curves of the naphthalene

KINETIC THEORY IN THE CHANGES OF STATES OF MATTER


 A substances can be changed from one state into another when it is heated or cooled  The changes in the state of the substances can be explained using the kinetic theory model

The changes of states of matter


Process Changes

Heating up

Melting evaporating

solid liquid

liquid gas

Cooling down

condensing freezing

gas liquid

liquid solid

cooling

cooling

heating

heating

solid

liquid

gas

heating
Solid  particles packed closely  solid heated, particles receive heat energy, kinetic energy increases vibrates faster  at melting point, particles vibrate so much, break away from the fixed positions. Solid become liquid  Melting point = temperature at which the solid changes into the liquid state Liquid

heating
Gas  gas cooled particles lose kinetic E, movement of particles slows down  forces of attraction btwn particles formed which hold the particles together in liquid state  condensation= process of gas liquid  T of this process same as boiling point

 when liquid continuously heated particles receive > E & move faster  collide each other > often  at boiling point, particles receive enough E to overcome the forces of attraction holding them together. Particles in liquid state break loose become gaseous state  when liquid cooled, movement of particles slows down. Stronger forces attraction btwn particles formed  particles arranged in orderly manner in solid state. Process of liquid solid=solidification, T of this process= freezing point  Melting point & freezing point of a substance have same value

cooling

cooling

MELTING POINT & BOILING POINT


 No two substances have the same melting and boiling point  The melting & boiling points of a substance will change when there is a small amount of impurity in it  Example; melting point of pure water is 0C 0 and its boiling point is 100C. A small amount 100 of salt added to the water will decrease its melting point to -2C and increase its boiling point to 102C 102

HEATING CURVE OF NAPHTHALENE


temperature (C) D

80C

time (s)

Region in the graph


Region AB

State of substances and the energy change


 naphthalene in solid state

 as it is heated, heat energy converted to kinetic energy  kinetic energy increases and molecules vibrate faster about their fixed positions  T increases as the molecules receive more heat E

Region in the graph


Point B

State of substances and the energy change


as kinetic E of molecules increases, the molecules vibrate faster. At point B, the molecules vibrate so much that they break away from fixed positions  the solid naphthalene begins to melt

Region in the graph


Region BC

State of substances and the energy change


 naphthalene now consists of a mixture of solid and liquid  at this region the temperature remains constant because the heat energy supplied is the same amount as the heat energy absorbed  heat energy absorbed to overcome the forces of attraction holding the naphthalene molecules together in the solid state  the heat absorbed to overcome the forces of attraction is called the latent heat of fusion  latent heat of fusion of a substance = heat required to convert a solid into a liquid without a change in temperature

Region in the graph


Point C

State of substances and the energy change


 all the naphthalene has completely melted

Region CD  naphthalene is in liquid state  as liquid naphthalene heated, the molecules gain more heat energy  the temperature continues to increase

COOLING CURVE OF NAPHTHALENE


temperature (C) P

80C

time (s)

Region in the graph

State of substances and the energy change

Region PQ  naphthalene in liquid state  liquid naphthalene loses heat to the environment  kinetic energy of molecules decreases as temperature decreases

Region in the graph


Point Q

State of substances and the energy change


 as kinetic energy molecules , the molecules move slower  at point Q, the molecules stop moving except for small vibrations  at this point, the liquid naphthalene begins to solidify or freeze

Region in the graph

State of substances and the energy change

Region QR  naphthalene now consists of a mixture of liquid and solid  at this region the temperature remains constant because the heat energy lost to the environment is the same amount as the heat energy released  latent heat of fusion is released when forces of attraction are formed between the molecules as the liquid naphthalene solidify (or freezes)

Region in the graph


Point R

State of substances and the energy change


 all naphthalene has completely solidified

Region RS  naphthalene in the solid state  the solid naphthalene continues t lose heat to the environment and hence the temperature drops down to room temperature

HEATING AND COOLING CURVE

KINETIC THEORY MODEL

MELTING POINT AND BOILING POINT

EXAMPLE

The concept of melting point and boiling point

The melting and freezing points of naphthalene

Melting Solid Freezing Liquid

Boiling/ evaporation Gas Condensation

QUIZ
1. Which processes are correct based on below table that shows the change of physical states and change of energies of four substances?
Name of process Change of physical state Gas to liquid Solid to liquid Liquid to gas Solid to gas Change of energy Heat is absorbed Heat is absorbed Heat is given out Heat is given out

A B C D

Condensation Melting Evaporation Condensation

Answer = B

2. Which of the following correctly describes the particles in a concentrated sugar solution?
Sugar molecules A. Widely separated, move randomly B. Close together, move randomly C. Close together, move randomly D. Close together, not moving Water molecules Close together, move randomly Close together, move randomly Widely separated, move randomly Close together, move randomly

Answer = C

3. Which graph is true that showing the heating and cooling curve of naphthalene? I
100C

II
80C

III
80C

IV
100C

A. I & II B. I & III C. II & III D. I & IV

Answer = C