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CHAPTER 2

HEATING AND COOLING CURVE

OBJECTIVES
 At the end of this lesson we should be able to :
a) elaborate the changes state of the substances by using the kinetic theory model b) differentiate the heating and cooling curves of the naphthalene

KINETIC THEORY IN THE CHANGES OF STATES OF MATTER

 A substances can be changed from one state into another when it is heated or cooled  The changes in the state of the substances can be explained using the kinetic theory model

The changes of states of matter

Process Changes

Heating up

Melting evaporating

solid liquid

liquid gas

Cooling down

condensing freezing

gas liquid

liquid solid

cooling

cooling

heating

heating

solid

liquid

gas

heating
Solid  particles packed closely  solid heated, particles receive heat energy, kinetic energy increases vibrates faster  at melting point, particles vibrate so much, break away from the fixed positions. Solid become liquid  Melting point = temperature at which the solid changes into the liquid state Liquid

heating
Gas  gas cooled particles lose kinetic E, movement of particles slows down  forces of attraction btwn particles formed which hold the particles together in liquid state  condensation= process of gas liquid  T of this process same as boiling point

 when liquid continuously heated particles receive > E & move faster  collide each other > often  at boiling point, particles receive enough E to overcome the forces of attraction holding them together. Particles in liquid state break loose become gaseous state  when liquid cooled, movement of particles slows down. Stronger forces attraction btwn particles formed  particles arranged in orderly manner in solid state. Process of liquid solid=solidification, T of this process= freezing point  Melting point & freezing point of a substance have same value

cooling

cooling

MELTING POINT & BOILING POINT

 No two substances have the same melting and boiling point  The melting & boiling points of a substance will change when there is a small amount of impurity in it  Example; melting point of pure water is 0C 0 and its boiling point is 100C. A small amount 100 of salt added to the water will decrease its melting point to -2C and increase its boiling point to 102C 102

HEATING CURVE OF NAPHTHALENE

temperature (C) D

80C

time (s)

Region AB

State of substances and the energy change

 naphthalene in solid state

 as it is heated, heat energy converted to kinetic energy  kinetic energy increases and molecules vibrate faster about their fixed positions  T increases as the molecules receive more heat E

Point B

State of substances and the energy change

as kinetic E of molecules increases, the molecules vibrate faster. At point B, the molecules vibrate so much that they break away from fixed positions  the solid naphthalene begins to melt

Region BC

State of substances and the energy change

 naphthalene now consists of a mixture of solid and liquid  at this region the temperature remains constant because the heat energy supplied is the same amount as the heat energy absorbed  heat energy absorbed to overcome the forces of attraction holding the naphthalene molecules together in the solid state  the heat absorbed to overcome the forces of attraction is called the latent heat of fusion  latent heat of fusion of a substance = heat required to convert a solid into a liquid without a change in temperature

Point C

State of substances and the energy change

 all the naphthalene has completely melted

Region CD  naphthalene is in liquid state  as liquid naphthalene heated, the molecules gain more heat energy  the temperature continues to increase

COOLING CURVE OF NAPHTHALENE

temperature (C) P

80C

time (s)

State of substances and the energy change

Region PQ  naphthalene in liquid state  liquid naphthalene loses heat to the environment  kinetic energy of molecules decreases as temperature decreases

Point Q

State of substances and the energy change

 as kinetic energy molecules , the molecules move slower  at point Q, the molecules stop moving except for small vibrations  at this point, the liquid naphthalene begins to solidify or freeze

State of substances and the energy change

Region QR  naphthalene now consists of a mixture of liquid and solid  at this region the temperature remains constant because the heat energy lost to the environment is the same amount as the heat energy released  latent heat of fusion is released when forces of attraction are formed between the molecules as the liquid naphthalene solidify (or freezes)

Point R

State of substances and the energy change

 all naphthalene has completely solidified

Region RS  naphthalene in the solid state  the solid naphthalene continues t lose heat to the environment and hence the temperature drops down to room temperature

EXAMPLE

Boiling/ evaporation Gas Condensation

QUIZ
1. Which processes are correct based on below table that shows the change of physical states and change of energies of four substances?
Name of process Change of physical state Gas to liquid Solid to liquid Liquid to gas Solid to gas Change of energy Heat is absorbed Heat is absorbed Heat is given out Heat is given out

A B C D

Condensation Melting Evaporation Condensation

2. Which of the following correctly describes the particles in a concentrated sugar solution?
Sugar molecules A. Widely separated, move randomly B. Close together, move randomly C. Close together, move randomly D. Close together, not moving Water molecules Close together, move randomly Close together, move randomly Widely separated, move randomly Close together, move randomly

3. Which graph is true that showing the heating and cooling curve of naphthalene? I
100C

II
80C

III
80C

IV
100C