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GENDER POLITICS

has been a political issues for many years, as women have been either totally exclude from, or marginalized by, the male power structures of every major political system.

It

The

right to vote was only won by women in the twentieth century, even in advanced democracies. In recent decades, however, significant changes have occurred while still living much ground to cover.

POLITICS OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION

Only in the last few decades has the mainstream political agenda come to accommodate issues of sexual orientation.  While issues of gay rights remain controversial, especially in some religions or cultures, the political


systems in most liberal democracies have shown some positive movement in this area.

THE POLITICS OF GENDER

Dr. Steven Goldberg It is terribly self-destructive, to refuse to accept ones own nature and the joys and powers it invests.

*VALUING OF MALE ATTRIBUTES DISTORTS FEMINIST REASONING:


Feminism

was once dominated by the idea that sex-related tendencies are purely cultural in origin. The higher statusthe more competitive the positionthe lower will be the percentage of women

MALE OCCUPY MORE HIGH-STATUS ROLES BECAUSE THEY ARE MOTIVATED MORE STRONGLY TO ACHIEVE THAT HIGH STATUS.
*

*THE

he does not argue that either sex is uniquely associated with competence. But he does say that few women would devote the lifelong expenditure of energy necessary to achieve such positions and any increase of women in these positions will be slight.

WHEN FEMALES SUPERVISE MALES:


*

Even if the males greater dominance tendency were overridden and large numbers of women placed in positions of authority, it is unlikely that stability could be maintained.

THE UNIVERSALITY OF PATRIARCHY:


*

An idea that undergirds much of feminist thinking is that patriarchy, matriarchy and equiarchy are all equally possible, and there is no natural order which decrees that men will rule in every society.

Accordingly, feminist tend to say that our expectations of men and women are culturally determined, and therefore infinitely malleable.

COGNITIVE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN


THE SEXES
*

We know that men and women think and behave differently, whatever the causeThe social is given its limits and direction by the physiological Falsity of assumption cannot be balanced by a doubling of emotional investment

*There exist in our culture, a powerful hunger to believe that gender differences in cognitive aptitudes are exclusively natural. Men surpass women in dealing with high-level logic and abstraction, which lead them to excel in math, composing, chess, philosophy and so forthfields in which, he says, there is no woman of genius.

Women equal surpass men on all cognitive tests not related to mathematical reasoning or associated aptitudes, although neither sex is more intelligent than the other, he says, when we speaks of intelligence in a broader sensein all its different forms.

He stresses that none of this information justifies discrimination against the woman who happens to be as qualified as a man in a male- dominated fieldbut she must be aware, realistically, that she can never hope to live in a society that does not attach feminine expectations to women

DECLARATION OF THE 2002 NATIONAL


ELECTORAL REFORM SUMMIT
Taking

note of the serious problems and shortcomings of our political and electoral system; Recognizing the urgent need for reforms, notwithstanding the past and current initiatives of state reformists and civil society, in the Philippine electoral process.

adhering to the basic tenets of a broad grassroots-based democracy and rejecting elite monopoly in our political system: *Stressing the constitutional mandate to democratize access to political power.

heeding the voice of our people for democratic participation in our electoral process and in governance; *taking off from the impetus for governance reforms underscored by EDSA I and EDSA II. *Taking advantage of the favourable environment for democratic governance in Asia and in the whole world.
*

A.
1. 2. 3. 4.

LEGISLATIVE AGENDA Enabling law on absentee voting Law to strengthen the Philippine political party system. Amendments to R.A 7941, the Party-List Law Law on structural reforms in electoral management.

Implementing law on local sectoral representation. 6. Enabling law on constitutional ban against political dynasties 7. Law on continuing citizen and voter education.
5.

B. ACTION AGENDA
1.

2.

3.

Implementation of electoral modernization. Launching intensive of civic literacy and voter education. Building broad consensus regarding constitutional reform.

4.

Establishment of multi-sectoral citizen alliance on electoral reforms. 5. Pursuing the electoral reforms summit resolutions and sustaining the summit initiatives.

CONSTITUTIONAL REFORMS
PHIL. CHARTER CHANGE also known as CHA-CHA - Refers to the political and other related processes involve in amending or revising the current 1987 Constitution of the Philippines

Initiatives Constituent assembly Constitutional convention All three would lead to a referendum wherein the proposed amendment/s or revision/s has to be approved by the majority of Filipinos in order to be adopted.

Peoples

CHARTER CHANGE: PRES. RAMOS


The proposed changes in the constitution included a shift to a parliamentary system and the lifting of term limits of public officials. Ramos argued will bring more accountability, continuity and responsibility to the gridlock

prone Philippine version of presidential bicameral system. Critics argued that the proposed constitutional changes for one would benefit the incumbent which during that time was Ramos.

CHARTER CHANGE: PRES. JOSEPH ESTRADA


CONCORD

or Constitutional Correction for Development: according to its proponents, would only amend the restrictive economic provisions of the constitution that is considered as impending the entry of more foreign investments in the Phils.

Again an objections from opposition politicians, religious sects and left wing organizations based on diverse arguments such as national patrimony and the proposed constitutional changes would be self serving. accused of pushing Charter Change for their own vested interest.

CHARTER CHANGE: PRES. ARROYO election campaign platform during the 2004 elections and was considered as high priority. created the Consultative Commission; was to propose the necessary revisions on the 1987 constitution after various consultation from different sectors of society.

PROPOSALS:
A

shift to a unicameral parliamentary form of government Economic liberalization Further decentralization of national government More empowerment of local governments via transition to a parliamentary-federal government

Sigaw ng Bayan s Peoples Initiative  Their aim was to gather enough signatures in order to call for a plebiscite on the proposed constitutional changes via Peoples Initiative mode. Opposed Group: One Voice
1.

Communist Party of the Phils. New Peoples Army October 25,2006, the supreme court, under Chief Justice Artemio Panganiban, narrowly rejected Sigaw ng Bayans Peoples Initiative; this time, on the grounds that the initiative failed to comply with the basic requirements of the Constitution

for conducting a peoples initiative. 2. Constituent Assembly by House Speaker Jose de Venecia Jr.  attempted to push for constitutional change process by convening the House of Representative of the Phils and the Senate of the Phils into a

Constituent Assembly or con-ass. The anti-terrorist change forces threatened massive protest on the political process that could lead to a plebiscite on the charter change issue. *Former Pres. Estrada *left wing BAYAN *El Shaddai Movement

*Jesus is Lord Movement *LaRouche Youth Movement *Communist Party of the Phillipin *and other cults and personalities  Called this as eating rally, the religious leaders called on the whole nation to embrace electric post, face removal and character change instead of systematic changes such as charter change

3. Constituent Assembly by Nograles-Pimentel On May 1, 2008 announced by Prospero Nograles this Federal system of government is close to my heart as a Mindanaoan leader and Im sure most of the leaders in Mindanao will agree that we have long clamored for it.

THANK YOU & GOD BLESS!


PREPARED BY: MA.MILDRED A. COSTELO

Senate Resolution 10 is a pleasant surprise because senate has a long history of opposing any move to amend the constitution.  The joint Senate resolution called for the creation of 11 federal states in the country, by convening of Congress into a constituent assembly for the purpose of revising the Constitution to established federal system of government.