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Building Services I Second Year B.Arch. Academic Year 2011-2012.

Prepared by Prof.S.G.Bhate

Types of Refuse
 Domestic : It includes ashes,food,paper,bottles,tins,rags,
cardboard etc.

 Commercial : It includes mainly waste paper from office stationery, catering waste and cartoons.  Industrial : It mainly consists of various waste materials produced by industries, some of which may be very toxic, offensive and dangerous to health. Metal waste may be salvageable and could be melted down and reused.

Main issues of Refuse disposal

 Understanding the type of refuse generated in our premises.  Segragating the refuse at the point of generation.  Reduce, Reuse and Recycle as much as possible.  Segragate the dry and wet waste  Education of the masses about refuse storage and disposal.  Participation of the people in implementing the refuse disposal plan.

Storage of refuse
 Storage should be simple and handy for handling and transportation.  Metal bins, plastic containers, disposable paper bags can be used for storage.  Metal bins being heavy, they are difficult to handle and hence not encouraged.  Disposable paper bags in plastic or metal container is a better alternative.  Metal bins can be made quieter by using rubber rings. Since the refuse is becoming lighter but more bulky a large dustbin should be recommended.

Transport of refuse
 Depending upon the population, and financial resources available with Grampanchayat, Municipality or Municipal Corporation appropriate transportation is used such as bullock carts, tractors, trucks, compactors etc.  Since many hygienic issues are involved care will have to be taken to minimize the handling of refuse especially the wet garbage so as to avoid spillage while transportation, and subsequent spread of various diseases.  The wet garbage such as kitchen waste etc should be treated at the source only and only dry waste will be transported with Municipal help.  Dispensing Systems in Residential Buildings.

Transport of refuse

Waste Management Bins

Waste Management Bins

Waste Management Bins

Refuse chutes
 Refuse chutes are normally provided in high rise structures as carrying the waste physically is very difficult and cumbersome.  It is a small vertical duct provided throughout the height of the building and an inlet hopper is provided at each floor.  The hoppers are designed to close the chute when they are opened to receive the refuse, or otherwise people on the lower floors might be covered with refuse from above when they put their refuse in to the hopper.  This type of hopper prevents dust, smoke and smells from passing through to the individual floors.

Refuse chutes

Garchey System

Planning Principles
 The refuse chute to have circular cross section with minimum diameter of 375 mm.  As per British Standards it should be at least 457 mm in diameter in blocks of twelve storeys high or where four or more refuse containers are provided in a storage chamber.  Refuse chutes should be sited on well ventilated landings, balconies or adjacent to the kitchen and storage space.  Bends and offsets in chutes should be avoided  A special machine may be employed which will automatically compress the refuse in to the bags.

 The chute should be properly ventilated by means of pipe, or duct.  It should be of non combustible materials and carried up high enough to avoid foul air causing a nuisance.

 Refuse chutes should be constructed out of non combustible and acis resisting materials.  Hoppers should also be made of non combustible materials not subject to corrosion or abrasion.  They may be made out of cast iron, wrought iron or cast aluminum

Refuse Chambers
 Refuse storage chambers must be surrounded by .floors and walls with at least 1 hour fire resistance.  Surface finishes should be non combustible, moisture proof and easy to clean.  Half hour fire rating door should be provided and floor must be laid to falls to an external gully.  A water tap should be provided out side so that the chamber can be washed down easily.  To reduce noise it should be separated from rest of the building by means of double walls or separate floor slabs.

Waste generation
 In Indian cities the per capita generation of solid waste ranges from 0.2kg to 0.6 kg per person per day.  Total waste generated is about 1.15 lakh MT per day and 42 million MT annually.  As the city expands and as the income level of people rises, average per capita waste generation also increases.  Our waste generation is much lower than developed countries  Cities with 1lakh plus population contribute 72.5 % of the waste generated as compared with other 3955 urban centers which produce only 17.5 % of the total waste.

Reasons for Inadequacy and Inefficiency in Services

 Apat f i ipal Aut riti s.  Abs f unit parti ipati n.  N st rage f aste at S ur e. llecti n fr m t e rstep.  N S stem f rimar  Irregular Street S eeping.  Unhyginic Waste St rage epots such as etal, oncrete or asonry hambers, in hich the aste spills all around endangering the health of citizens.  Inadequate transport facilities to the dumping site, breakdown in services, opposition of local citizens etc.  Inadequate processing of waste such as bio gas generation, composting etc.  isposal of waste.- umping yard, no capping, foul gases and bad odor etc.

Effects on climate of inadequate Solid Waste Management

 Land fill sites release landfill gas with 50 to 60% methane by volume.
 Methane is 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide aggravating the problems related to global warming.  It is estimated that in 1997 India released 7 million tones of methane in to atmosphere.  This figure is likely to increase to 39 million tones of methane in 2047.

Technologies for Processing Treatment and Disposal of Solid Waste

 Composting: It is a process which decomposes organic matter by microorganism in warm, moist, aerobic and anaerobic environment.  Vermi: It is a natural organic manure produced from the excreta of earthworms fed on scientifically semi-decomposed organic waste.  Waste to Energy: The viability and sustainability of such projects is yet to be established, as they are more capital intensive and more complex compared to other options of waste disposal. A project of 5 to 50 M capacity can be established with total MS of 500-5000 TPD.

 Anaerobic Digestion and Biomethanation This process leads to bio gas/power generation in addition to production of compost. This method is suitable for kitchen waste and other biodegradable waste and can produce about 100-150 k h of energy per tonne of waste input.

 Production of Refuse Derived Fuel or Pelletization.

It is a processing method for mixed MS which converts waste in to pellets to be used for burning in incinerators or industrial furnaces.  This process is energy intensive and not suitable for wet MS during rainy season.  The pellets are contaminated by toxic/hazardous material, and the pellets are not suitable for burning in open or domestic use.

 Incineration: This method is suitable for high calorific value

waste with large components of paper, plastic, packaging material and pathological waste etc.

 Pyrolysis/Gasification, Plasma Pyrolysis Vitrification, Plasma Arc Process.

These technologies are suitable for wood, pulp etc and yet to be tried in India.

 Sanitary Landfills and Land fill Gas recovery.

This method is normally adopted by Municipal authorities but neglect proper implementation with the result no gas is recovered and affects the health of people living in neighboring areas.

Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling)Rules 2000.

Now GOI, Ministry of Environment and Forests have formulated the law and following guidelines are given.  Prohibit littering on the streets by ensuring storage of waste at source in two bins, one for bio degradable waste and another for recyclable material.  Primary collection of biodegradable and non biodegradable waste from the door step at pre informed timings on day-to-day basis using containerized tricycle/had crafts/pick up vans.  Street sweepings covering all the areas of towns on all days of the week.  Abolition of open waste storage and depots and provision of closed body waste storage depots.  Transportation of waste in covered vehicles on a day to day basis.

Additional Reading:
01 Principles of Solid Waste Management.pdf 02 Kuppam_Planning (Rural).pdf 03 SWM GPS&GIS Enabled (Urban).pdf 04 SWM Principles & Terminologies.pdf 05 SWM Kochi Municipal Corporation Report.pdf 06 SWM Article by P.U.Asnani.pdf 07 PDM Thane Experiment.pdf 08 SWM Transportation.pdf 09 SWM Leagal Obligation (Urban).pdf 10 SWM Presentation.pdf 11 Municipal Solid Waste Management In Urban Centres.pdf 12 SWM in India.pdf 13 Municipal Solid Waste.pdf 14 SWM_ Garbage trucks.pdf 15 SWM_ Dumpster.pdf