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Paramount Die Company

Operator Presentation

Pressure Die System and Wire die Basics

Pressure Dies
Old Vs New Die Materials ParaLoc System Pressure Die Basics

Old Vs New

Wire Die Basics - Materials

Hardness Scale (Hv30)
10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Natural iamond PCD Carbide Steel

Wire Die Materials Carbide versus Diamond

Hardness (Wear Resistance) Diamond dies are much harder than carbide dies but as a consequence are considerably more brittle and susceptible to breakage. ost Diamond dies are often 10 to 30 times more expensive than carbide dies. Wire Surface Diamond dies tend to microscopically scratch the wire providing a cleaner, brighter appearance while carbide dies tend to provide better lubricant residuals and therefore a duller wire appearance. Applications Diamond dies tend to be used for soft, non-ferrous wires (Copper, aluminum, etc.) while carbide dies tend to be used for harder, ferrous wires (Steel).

Drawing Insert Composition Premium Quality Sub-Micron Tungsten Carbide SubUltra Fine Extra Fine Fine Medium Medium Coarse Coarse Extra Coarse

0.3- 0.5 m

0.5- 0.9 m

1.0- 1.3 m

1.4- 2.0 m

2.1- 3.4 m

3.5- 5.0 5.0- 7.9 m m

Tungsten Carbide Hardness

Ultra fine

2000 2000
Extra fine Medium

H3F H6F H10F H6N

Medium coarse

1000 1000

Extra coarse

0 0


10 10

20 20

30 30

Co content (wt%)

Carbide Wire Drawing Inserts

Drawing inserts are fast replacing the R-Series die in the wire drawing industry By eliminating the permanent steel casing, drawing inserts: Reduce material and shipping costs Promote superior heat transfer Enable the use of more efficient and compact pressure die systems.

Pressure Die System


Pressure Nib PN Drawing Nib TR



Pressure Die Systems

Pressure die systems are typically two die systems which utilize the first die to trap incoming lubricant and create pressure which in turn forces more lubricant through the draw die. By increasing lubrication and thereby reducing friction, pressure die systems typically provide longer die life, lower drawing temperatures, higher wire quality and the capability of drawing at faster speeds.

ParaLoc Pressure System

First introduced in 1989, the ParaLoc pressure system is the most widely used pressure die system in the world today. The ParaLoc system is one of the most efficient pressure die systems as it is able to maintain extremely high lubricant pressures without leaking.

Pressure System Basics The function of the Pressure Insert

Pressure insert diameter controls lubricant pressure by capturing lubricant and restricting the flow of lubricant back into the die box. Lubricant pressure can be managed by increasing or decreasing the pressure insert diameter relative to the incoming wire diameter. The pressure insert should always be larger than the incoming wire size but not so large that no pressure is generated.

Pressure System Basics Pressure Insert Clearance

Typical clearances range from 8 to 10% over the incoming wire size. As clearances are extremely tight, wire growth and die alignment must be closely monitored.

Wire Die Basics Die Profile

Die Profile Basics - Reduction Angle

The portion of the die where all of the wire deformation takes place. Either the reduction angle or the reduction percentage should be adjusted to assure contact in the optimal zone. Hitting too high in the reduction angle will either damage or break the wire while hitting too low will considerably reduce die life. Most wire drawing scenarios are covered with either 9, 12 or 16 included reduction angles.

Wire Reduction Guidelines Delta Values

Reduction % 7 Reduction Angle 9 12 16 1.80 4 1.69 5 1.58 1.49 1.99 5 1.41 1.88 5 1.33 1.78 7 7 1.69 5 1.60 4 5 1.53 4 1.46 1.94 5 1.39 1.86 1.33 1.78 1.70 1.63 1.57

4 5 7

Wire Die Basics Bearing

Cylindrical portion of the die which maintains wire diameter. Key parameters include: Length Roundness Surface Finish Parallelism absence of taper CAM

Bearing Length Control

Bearing lengths are best controlled utilizing the meeting point method. Intersection point of the reduction and back relief angles Utilizing a simple trigonometric formula, any bearing length can be achieved by adjusting the starting meeting point diameter

Die Profile Basics - Bearing Length

Bearing length specifications for fine wire drawing are typically 0% of diameter with a +/- 10% tolerance. Bearing length control is critical to ensure optimal die life. Excessively long bearings will create friction and damage wire. Short bearings will wear oversize very quickly. It is not uncommon for industry recuts to have bearings which exceed 100% of diameter.

Die Profile Basics - Bearing Roundness

As a general rule, total out of roundness should not exceed one half of the total diameter tolerance. While most high quality die manufacturers typically hold out of roundness to under .0002 (.00 mm), industry recuts have been measured to be as much as .002 (.0 0mm) out of round in extreme cases. Paramount routinely holds roundness to around .0000 (.001mm)

Die Profile Basics Surface Finish

While finish is most often gauged visually in the wire industry, surface tracing can prove that looks can be deceiving. High surface finishes can significantly improve wire quality and improve die life by reducing friction. Paramount routinely achieves sub-micron surface finishes.

Die Profile Basics - Bearing Taper

Bearing taper is a common problem found in improperly ground wire dies. The greater the bearing taper, the faster the die will wear oversize. Quality wire dies should have near zero bearing taper.

Die Profile Basics - Bearing CAM

Occurs when the center line of the bearing is different than the center line of the die. The result is a bearing which is uneven. Properly manufactured dies should have parallel bearings with little or no CAM. Excessive bearing CAM can cause significant drawing problems.

Troubleshooting Problems Poor Die Life

Check rod quality. Check rod handling and pre-treatment. Check die lubrication in all positions. Proper lubrication upstream is critical for die life downstream. Check reduction practice (Wire contact point in the reduction angle) Look for signs of water leakage or moisture sweating in the die box Check die alignment. Look for signs of welded material Galling in the die. Confirm that the die bearing is not excessively long or short. Confirm that the die bearing is not tapered.

Troubleshooting Problems Lubrication Failure

Confirm that the proper lubricant is being used for your application (Chemistry, Softening (Melting) point, grind) Check that the wire is receiving proper cooling. Not over cooled or under cooled. Lubricant will burn from excessive heat or flake from insufficient heat. Look for signs of water leakage or moisture sweating in the die box Look for signs of lubricant tunneling. (Lubricant should be continuously stirred in the die box)

Troubleshooting Problems Wire Scratches

Check for signs of rod damage. Look for signs of rod scale in the die box. Look for signs of welded material Galling in the die. Check drawing capstans for grooves caused by wear. Check that all rolls and sheaves are turning freely and are properly aligned. Check that the wire is not contacting the pressure inserts. Confirm that the lubricants are functioning properly. Check reduction practice and confirm that the correct die sizes and reduction angles are being used throughout the draft. Check the die geometry and surface finish.

Troubleshooting Problems Insert Breakage

Check holders for damage from previous insert breakage. Use an insert gauge Look for excessive wire reduction. Look for signs of lubrication failure. Check incoming wire alignment. Look for bad welds. Check dancer arm or tuner roll pressure and stability. Proper tension should be consistently maintained. Confirm that the wire diameter does not exceed the recommended maximum for the insert. Check rod for problems. Check the outside taper of the drawing insert (Look for un-ground inserts)

Troubleshooting Problems Pressure Holder Lubricant Leakage

Lubricant should be confined to the pressure chamber and should not leak into the base or threads of the holder. If signs of leakage are noticed, check the following: Check inside chamfer on holder base for signs of damage Check pressure insert to confirm that the insert is actually a pressure insert with a 10 chamfer and not just a standard RSeries Nib. Confirm that adequate torque is being used to tighten the cap of the holder to the base. The pressure insert should not rattle inside the holder once tightened.

Troubleshooting Problems Pressure Insert Wear

Under normal conditions, a pressure insert should last a very long time and show few signs of wear. If significant wear is noticed, check the following: Check die wear allowance wire growth allowance on dies upstream. Check die alignment to confirm that the wire is not entering the pressure dies at an angle. Check that the correct pressure die sizes are being used and not ones that are too small. Check for signs of excessive wire chatter. (Instability of a dancer arm or tuner roll)

Wire Industry Trends

Increasing drawing speeds Increase in the use of pressure die systems Less wire reduction per pass resulting in more passes and narrower die angles Increase in Mechanical Descaling of Rod Increase in direct water cooling of die boxes

Paramount Die Company

Operator Presentation