Sie sind auf Seite 1von 64

Hormones and the Endocrine System

Adapted from:
PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

Lectures by Chris Romero


Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Exocrine vs. Endocrine Glands Exocrine Glands- retain their ducts that carry secretions to the surface and is transported to the target organs

Endocrine Glands- do not retain their ducts ; ductless, secretions are carried into blood and transported to target organs by blood

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Overview: The Bodys Long-Distance Regulators An animal hormone


Is a chemical signal that is secreted into the circulatory system and communicates regulatory messages within the body

Hormones may reach all parts of the body


But only certain types of cells, target cells, are equipped to respond
Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Concept 1 The endocrine system and the nervous system act individually and together in regulating an animals physiology Animals have two systems of internal communication and regulation
The nervous system and the endocrine system

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Negative feedback
Regulates many hormonal pathways involved in homeostasis

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Concept 2 Hormones and other chemical signals bind to target cell receptors, initiating pathways that culminate in specific cell responses Hormones convey information via the bloodstream
To target cells throughout the body

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Classes of Hormones
Three major classes of molecules function as hormones in vertebrates
Proteins and peptides Amines derived from amino acids Steroids

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Major Human Endocrine Glands


Hypothalamus Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands

Adrenal glands Pancreas Ovary (female)

Testis (male)

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Hypothalamus Produces the following hormones: - ADH and Oxytocin, which are then stored in the posterior pituitary - Releasing hormones, which stimulate the anterior pituitary to release its hormones

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

ADH and Oxytocin


- Produced in hypothalamus, stored and released from the posterior pituitary

Hypothalamus

Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus

Axon

Posterior pituitary

Anterior pituitary

HORMONE

ADH

Oxytocin

Figure 45.7

TARGET

Kidney tubules

Mammary glands, uterine muscles

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Posterior Pituitary Hormones The two hormones released from the posterior pituitary ( but produced by hypothalamus)
Oxytocin ADH

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Oxytocin
Induces uterine contractions and milk ejection

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)


Enhances water reabsorption in the kidneys

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

ADH- Anti-diuretic Hormone


Increases water reabsorption in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney
Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus Thirst Drinking reduces blood osmolarity to set point Pituitary gland ADH Increased permeability Distal tubule Collecting duct STIMULUS: The release of ADH is triggered when osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus detect an increase in the osmolarity of the blood H2O reabsorption helps prevent further osmolarity increase

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) enhances fluid retention by making the kidneys reclaim more water.

Homeostasis: Blood osmolarity


Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Releasing Hormones
Other hypothalamic cells produce releasing hormones That are secreted into the blood and transported to the anterior pituitary, stimulate anterior pituitary to release its hormones

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Anterior Pituitary Hormones The anterior pituitary


Produces both tropic and nontropic hormones TROPIC Hormone- a hormones that stimulates another gland to secrete their hormone/s

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Tropic Hormones The four strictly tropic hormones are


Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Each tropic hormone acts on its target endocrine tissue


To stimulate release of hormone(s) with direct metabolic or developmental effects
Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Nontropic Hormones The nontropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary include
Prolactin Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) F-endorphin

Non-Tropic and Tropic: Growth Hormone


Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Anterior Pituitary Hormones


Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus

Portal vessels

Hypothalamic releasing hormones (red dots)

Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary Pituitary hormones (blue dots)

HORMONE

FSH and LH

TSH

ACTH

Prolactin

MSH

Endorphin

Growth hormone

TARGET

Testes or ovaries

Thyroid

Adrenal cortex

Mammary glands

Melanocytes

Pain receptors in the brain

Liver

Bones

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Non-Tropic Hormones Prolactin stimulates lactation in mammals MSH influences skin pigmentation in some vertebrates
And fat metabolism in mammals

Endorphins
Inhibit the sensation of pain

Growth hormone (GH)


Promotes growth directly and has diverse metabolic effects
Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Concept 4 Nonpituitary hormones help regulate metabolism, homeostasis, development, and behavior Many nonpituitary hormones
Regulate various functions in the body

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Thyroid Hormones
The thyroid gland
Consists of two lobes located on the ventral surface of the trachea Produces two iodine-containing hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) Its secretion is stimulated by TSH from anterior pituitary T3 is the active form

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The hypothalamus and anterior pituitary


Control the secretion of thyroid hormones through two negative feedback loops
Hypothalamus

Anterior pituitary

TSH

Thyroid

Figure 45.9

T3

T4

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Thyroid Hormones
Play crucial roles in stimulating metabolism and influencing development and maturation

Hyperthyroidism, excessive secretion of thyroid hormones Hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid secretion

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Calcitonin The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin


Which functions in calcium homeostasis

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin: Control of Blood Calcium


Two antagonistic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin
Play the major role in calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis in mammals

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Maintaining Blood Calcium Level


Thyroid gland releases calcitonin. Calcitonin

Stimulates Ca2+ deposition in bones

Reduces Ca2+ uptake in kidneys

STIMULUS: Rising blood Ca2+ level Homeostasis: Blood Ca2+ level (about 10 mg/100 mL) Blood Ca2+ level rises to set point Stimulates Ca2+ release from bones Parathyroid gland

Blood Ca2+ level declines to set point

STIMULUS: Falling blood Ca2+ level

PTH Increases Ca2+ uptake in intestines Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Stimulates Ca2+ uptake in kidneys

Calcitonin, secreted by the thyroid gland


Stimulates Ca2+ deposition in the bones and secretion by the kidneys, thus lowering blood Ca2+ levels

PTH, secreted by the parathyroid glands


Has the opposite effects on the bones and kidneys, and therefore raises Ca2+ levels Promotes intestinal uptake of Ca2+ from food

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Insulin and Glucagon: Control of Blood Glucose Two types of cells in the pancreas
Secrete insulin and glucagon, antagonistic hormones that help maintain glucose homeostasis and are found in clusters in the islets of Langerhans

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Glucagon
Is produced by alpha cells

Insulin
Is produced by beta cells

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Maintenance of glucose homeostasis


Insulin Beta cells of pancreas are stimulated to release insulin into the blood. Liver takes up glucose and stores it as glycogen. STIMULUS: Rising blood glucose level (for instance, after eating a carbohydraterich meal) Blood glucose level declines to set point; stimulus for insulin release diminishes. Body cells take up more glucose.

Homeostasis: Blood glucose level (about 90 mg/100 mL)

Blood glucose level rises to set point; stimulus for glucagon release diminishes.

STIMULUS: Dropping blood glucose level (for instance, after skipping a meal)

Alpha cells of pancreas are stimulated to release glucagon into the blood. Liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose into blood. Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Glucagon

Target Tissues for Insulin and Glucagon Insulin reduces blood glucose levels by
Promoting the cellular uptake of glucose Slowing glycogen breakdown in the liver

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by


Stimulating the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver Stimulating the breakdown of fat and protein into glucose

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus, perhaps the best-known endocrine disorder


Is caused by a deficiency of insulin or a decreased response to insulin in target tissues Is marked by elevated blood glucose levels

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent diabetes)


Is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system destroys the beta cells of the pancreas

Type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes)


Is characterized commonly by reduced responsiveness of target cells due to some change in insulin receptors

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Adrenal Hormones: Response to Stress The adrenal glands (Suprarenal gland)


Are adjacent to the kidneys Are actually made up of two glands: the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Adrenal Medulla The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine

Are secreted in response to stress-activated impulses from the nervous system Mediate various fight-or-flight responses

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Stress Hormones from the Adrenal Cortex Hormones from the adrenal cortex
Also function in the bodys response to stress Classes of steroid hormones

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Adrenal Cortex Hormones 1. Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol


Influence glucose metabolism and the immune system

2. Mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone


Affect salt and water balance

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Aldosterone
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)
Is part of a complex feedback circuit that functions in homeostasis
Increased Na+ and H2O reabsorption in distal tubules Homeostasis: Blood pressure, volume STIMULUS: The juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) responds to low blood volume or blood pressure (such as due to dehydration or loss of blood)

Aldosterone The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) leads to an increase in blood volume and pressure.

Adrenal gland

Arteriole constriction

Angiotensin II Angiotensinogen

Distal tubule JGA

Renin

Renin production

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Gonadal Sex Hormones The gonadstestes and ovaries

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The testes primarily produce testosterone


Which stimulate the development and maintenance of the male reproductive system Sperms are formed in the seminiferous tubules while interstitial cells (Leydig) produce testosterone

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Testosterone causes an increase in muscle and bone mass

Figure 45.14
Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Secreted in the Ovary by Follicles Estrogens Are responsible for the maintenance of the female reproductive system and the development of female secondary sex characteristics Progesterone
Are primarily involved in preparing and maintaining the uterus

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Melatonin The pineal gland, located within the brain


Secretes melatonin

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Release of melatonin
Is controlled by light/dark cycles

The primary functions of melatonin


Appear to be related to biological rhythms

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

LAB: Histology of Some Endocrine Organs 1. Ovary 2. Testis 3. Pancreatic islets 4. Adrenal Gland 5. Thyroid 6. Pituitary Gland

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

OVARY- page 149 Identify: follicle - Ovum- egg cell ( secondary oocyte stage) - Granulosa cells- cells found within follicle - Antrum- fluid-filled cavity of follicle - Zona pellucida- clear area between plasma membrane of ovum and corona radiata - Corona radiata- cells surrounding ovum What is ovulation?
Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

TESTIS- page 150 Identify: - interstitial cells of Leydig - germinal cells ( on the periphery) - spermatozoa - lumen of seminiferous tubule Trace the pathway of sperms from epididymis to urethra and then out

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Pancreatic Islets- page 149 Acini- dark; exocrine cells Pancreatic islets- light patches

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Adrenal Gland- page 151 Cortex- outer part; secretes corticosteroid hormones 1. Mineralocorticoids- salt balancing hormone(aldosterone) 2. Glucocoticoids- glucose-balancing hormone Medulla- inner part; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Adrenal Gland ( cont.): identify the ff: Capsule Zona glomerulosa ( outer layer of cortex) Zona fasciculata (middle layer of cortex) Zona reticularis (inner layer of cortex Adrenal medulla

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Thyroid Gland- page 152 Functional units: follicles- secrete T3 and T4 Parafollicular cells- secrete calcitonin Identify: - follicle - parafollicular cells - follicular cells - colloid
Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Pituitary Gland- pages 150-152 Anterior Pituitary- (Adenohypophysis)secretes ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, prolactin, GH > chromophobe- no stain, not involved in hormone
production > chromophils- with stain, produce hormones ( acidophils are red-staining and basophils are blue-staining) > sinusoids- capillaries

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Posterior Pituitary- (Neurohypophysis)secretes ADH and oxytocin > contains nerve fibers and pituicytes

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Clinical Diagnosis of Diabetes Using Simulated Blood and Urine

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Diabetes Metabolic disease that results when the pancreas produces little or no insulin, or when the tissue cells fail to respond to insulin

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Type I: IDDM ( Juvenile Onset) Most serious Between 5-10% of all cases Auto-immune disorder Beta cell of the pancreatic islet is destroyed No insulin is produced Insulin injections are required

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Type II : NIDDM ( Maturity-Onset) Accounts for 90% of cases Affect people over age of 55 Obese &/or hypertensives are at-risk Familial in nature 80% of patients diagnosed are overweight, but only 1/3 of all type II patients show signs of the disease

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Type III: Gestational Diabetes Occurs in 3-5% of all pregnancies Affects minorities the most Begins between 24-28th week of pregnancy Produces enough insulin but hormones produced by placenta can block insulin production Insulin resistant, but disappears after delivery of baby Patients are at greater risk of developing type II
Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Common Symptoms in all three types: Frequent urination- polyuria Excessive thirst- polydipsia Increased hunger Blurred vision Fatigue Slow healing of sores/wounds Tingling/numbness in extremities Unexplained weight loss
Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Diagnosis Normal blood sugar level: 70-120 mg/100 ml of blood Fasting blood sugar level- test urine and blood levels of glucose

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

DO IT RIGHT FOR OUR FAMILY


CHILDREN BECOME WHAT THEY SEE

1 2 3

EAT RIGHT EXERCISE REGULARLY MINIMISE STRESS

AND MAKE IT A LIFE-LONG HABIT

Love life, and live it to its fullest in happiness and health

- Dr Myron Wentz
Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings