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# Course Exam

Next Thursday (April 15) 7 pm Same classroom (ECJ 7.208) 2.5-hour exam Open book open notes
All problem types of questions
(short but comprehensive)

Objectives
Finish the pumps and plumbing systems

## Pumps and Plumbing

Very similar to fans and ducts
Same principles based on fluid dynamics With some specifics

Hydronic Terms
Head loss Open-loop vs. closed loop 2-pipe vs. 4-pipe

Table 19.1
Pipe dimensions for standard pipe

Fittings
V (h ! k 2g
2

Pumps
Driving force to move air water in buildings Raise pressure and produce flow One main type
Centrifugal

Pump curves

## Finding Volumetric Flow

Same procedure as for air Intersection of pump curve and system curve How can you control flow?

## Use Multiple Pumps

Plumbing Arrangements

Example 19.7
Similar to equal friction method Calculate head loss for common pieces of system Size pipes to have equal head loss between points 2 and 3

## Review for the Exam

Should be able to do all calculations associated with lectures as well as HW1
Questions/problems may deal with context
i.e. Explain how thermal conductivity influences fin efficiency? Holding all other parameters equal, how important is increasing the thermal conductivity

## Psychrometrics and Processes (7 & 8)

Know all parameters and their location/orientation on a psychrometric chart Be able to look up conversions of parameters on a psychrometric chart and with calculations Use protractor to calculate SHR and W/ h Plot processes on a chart for real buildings
List what is held constant for different processes

## Direct Contact (10)

Describe how a cooling tower works Describe analysis procedure for direct contact devices

## Cycles (3), Refrigerants (4)

Describe Carnot cycle and components
Understand constant variables for each component

List, describe, and calculate inefficiencies Use figures, refrigerant tables and equations for different substances Contrast different refrigerants List important parameters for refrigerant selection/differentiation

## Heat Exchangers (11)

Differentiate types Calculate NTU, , cr, R, P, F, m, UA, etc. Complete broad analysis
Which m is larger, which t is larger?
Within and between heat exchangers

## Heat Exchangers (11)

Calculate and compare different thermal resistances Describe influence of key factors Integrate different parameters/resistances Manipulate UA equation Describe differences/parameters of relevance for wet heat exchangers

## Diffusers, Duct Components (18)

Select diffusers
Define all terms on manufacturer data sheets

## Calculate pressure drop of:

Straight duct Duct fittings Components (coils, VAV boxes, dampers, etc.)

Use fan laws

## Duct layout/design (18)

Describe static regain method Compare to equal friction method
Supply or return systems Balance the system

Project
Design problem
For example: Given cooling and heating load design HVAC for the building

Research problem
Analysis based problem. For example:
Find the optimum solution for. Developed control strategy for Life cycle cost analysis for .