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Generator Excitation System & AVR

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Presentation outline
Understanding basic principle Types of excitation Components of excitation system Brief Description of most commonly used Excitation systems in power generating plants:
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Static Excitation system Brushless Excitation System

AVR Experience sharing Conclusion


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What is Excitation system?


Creating and strengthening the magnetic field of the generator by passing DC through the filed winding.

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Why Excitation system?


With large alternators in the power system, excitation plays a vital role in the management of voltage profile and reactive power in the grid thus ensuring Stability

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Purpose of excitation system


Basic function is to provide the direct current to the synchronous machine field winding Regulate the terminal voltage of the machine Meet the excitation power, regulates under all normal operating conditions Control reactive power flow and facilitates the sharing of reactive load between the machines operated parallel in the grid Enable max utilization of machine capability Guard the machine against inadvertent tripping during transients Improve dynamic and transient stability there by increasing availability
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EXCITATION PRINCIPLE

ROTOR

STATOR
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EXCITATION PRINCIPLE

ROTOR

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STATOR

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EXCITATION PRINCIPLE
Stator induced Voltage

E = K. L. d/ dt K = constant L = length exposed to flux d/ dt = rate of change of flux Frequency of induced Voltage F = NP / 120 Magnitude of flux decides generated voltage and speed of rotation decides frequency of generated voltage

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270 0 90 180

360

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Flux in the generator rotor is produced by feeding DC supply in the field coils, thus forming a 2 pole magnet of rotor

The Equipment for supply, control and monitoring of this DC supply is called the Excitation system

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TYPES OF EXCITATION
Different types of excitation systems 1.DC excitation system upto 100/110 MW units 2.Static excitation system 3.Brush less excitation system Static excitation system is used in 200 MW units Brush less excitation system is used in 500 MW units

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EXCITATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENT


Reliability Sensitivity and fast response Stability Ability to meet abnormal conditions Monitoring and annunciation of parameters User friendliness

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COMPONENTS OF TYPICAL EXCITATION SYSTEM


Input and output interface , Aux. power supply, FB AVR: At least two independent channels Follow up control and changeover Excitation build up and Field Discharging system Cooling / heat dissipation components Limiters Protective relays Testing , Monitoring and alarm / trip initiation Specific requirements : Field Flashing, Stroboscope, PSS,
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DC 3 Ph AC Thyristor Converter Field Armature CT

G
Rectifier Transformer Slip Ring Generator

PT

Voltage Regulator
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Manual Control 14

STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM ( 200 MW)


575 v

AVR
AUTO MAN

15.75 kV

FB
FF
FDR

415 v AC
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Static Excitation system


Supply tapped from generator terminals Quick response time Brushes are used to supply field current Thyristor bridge is used with full wave rectification to supply DC voltage At the time of starting field is supplied from external source called field flashing 1500 kva transformer Thyristors are cooled by air Max field current 1326 Amps

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Static Excitation system Contd.. Crowbar is used across field terminals to prevent over voltages A resistor will be connected across the terminals of field at the time of tripping to de excite the machine Search coils are used to check the healthiness of the thysristors

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Static excitation system


G T

Field Breaker
F LD IE TH R O Y IS R B ID E R G

E CTR R X F 1 V 8K /700V 1500K A V

v oltag re lato e gu r G N R TO E E A R

Crow Bar

Non linear resistor

From TGMCC- C

Field discharge Resistor

Pre Excitation

415/40V,10KVA
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Static excitation system


Excitation power from generator via excitation transformer. Protective relays for excitation transformer Field forcing provided through 415 v aux supply Converter divided in to no of parallel (typically4 ) paths. Each one having separate pulse output stage and air flow monitoring. Two channels : Auto & manual, provision for change over from Auto to Manual Limiters : Stator current limiter, Rotor current limiter, Load angle limiter etc. Alternate supply for testing

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Field flashing
It is required for initial excitation as no power is available to excitation system For start up DC excitation is fed to the field from external source like station battery or rectified AC from station Ac supply . Filed flashing is used to build up voltage up to 30 %. From 30 to 70 % both flashing and regulation remains in circuit. 70 % above flashing gets cut-off

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BRUSH GEAR

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Brushless excitation
FIELD BREAKER
ARMATURE ROTATING DIODES

R Y B

FIELD (PM) PILOT EXCITER MAIN EXCITE R


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GENERATO R

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Pilot Exciter

Main Exciter

Generator

Armature

Field
N

Armature

Rotating Rectifier

Field

Armature CT

PT 3 Ph AC Field

Rotor

Thyristor Rectifier

DC

Voltage Regulator
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Manual Control

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Components of Brush less Excitation System


Three Phase Main Exciter. Three Phase Pilot Exciter. Regulation cubicle Rectifier Wheels Exciter Coolers Metering and supervisory equipment.

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Brushless excitation
Brush less excitor consists of a 3-phase permanent magnet pilot exciter , the output of which is rectified and controlled by Thyristor voltage regulator to provide variable d.c. current for the main exciter. The 3-phase are induced in the rotor of the main exciter and is rectified by the rotating diodes and to the field winding of generator through the d.c. leads fed in the rotor shaft.
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Brushless excitation
Since the rotating rectifier bridge is mounted on the rotor, the slip rings are not required and the output of the rectifier is connected directly to the field winding through the generator rotor shaft. A common shaft carries the rectifier wheels, the rotor of the main exciter and permanent magnet rotor of the pilot exciter.

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Pilot exciter

The three phase pilot exciter is a 16 pole revolving-field Permanent magnet generator Each pole consists of 12 separate permanent magnets which are housed in a non-magnetic metallic enclosure It supplies 220 v 400 hz supply to main exciter AVR is connected at the output of this pilot exciter Field breaker is also provided at the output only

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Pilot Exciter:
Apparent power Current Voltage Speed Poles Frequency : : : : : : 65 KVA 195 A 220 V 3000 rpm 16 400 HZ

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PMG

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Three phase main exciter

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The three-phase main exciter is a six-pole revolving armature unit. Stator consists of field Rotor produces three phase supply to feed to rectifier wheels quadrature-axis coil is fitted for inductive measurement of the exciter current. Rotating diode assembly on the shaft rectifies this voltage and supplies to field winding through the shaft Stroboscope technique is used to check the healthiness of the diodes 60 diodes per wheel and two wheels will be there.
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Main Exciter :
Active power Current Voltage Speed Poles Frequency : : : : : : 3780 KW 6300 A 600 V 3000 rpm 6 150 HZ

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MAIN EXCITER

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Pilot Exciter Rotor July 8, 2011

Fan

Main Exciter Armature

Rectifier Wheels PMI Revision 00

Multi Contact Connector 34

Excitation Power Requirement


Unit capacity Excitation MW Current at Full Load 200/ 210 500 2600 6300 Excitation Ceiling Voltage at fullVolts load 310 600 610 1000

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BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM (500 MW)

AVR

21 KV
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Brushless Excitation System


Eliminates Slip Rings, Brushgear and all problems associated with transfer of current via sliding contacts Simple, Reliable and increasingly popular system the world over, Ideally suited for large sets Minimum operating and maintenance cost Self generating excitation unaffected by system fault/disturbances because of shaft mounted pilot exciter Multi contact electrical connections between exciter and generator field

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Brushless Exciter
High response excitation with fast acting AVR Multi contact electrical connections between exciter and generator field Stroboscope for fuse failure detection Rotor Earth fault monitoring system RC circuit to avoid over voltages Dehumidifier for use during shut down

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Brushless Excitation system


More reliable than static Excitation. No slip rings, no separate field forcing set up required. Separate gate control unit and thyristor sets for auto & manual. Each thyristor is fused separately. Isolation of auto channel gate control output and power supply can be done by an isolator.

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Brushless Excitation system


Rotor E/F monitoring system alarm 80 K, Trip 5 K Stroboscope for thyristor fuse monitoring (one fuse for each pair of diodes, ) Auto channel thyristor current monitor For monitoring of thyristor bridge current , and initiating change over to manual. Auto to Manual changeover in case of Auto channel power supply, thyristor set problem, or generator volts actual value problem

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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRUSHLESS AND STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEMS


S.NO Description Brushless Excitation Static Excitation

Type of system.

Brushless system gets activated with pilot exciter, main exciter and rotating diodes.

Static excitation system uses thyristors & taking supply from output of the generator Field flashing supply required for excitation build up.

Dependency on external supply.

No external source requirement since pilot exciter has permanent magnet field. Slower than static type since control is indirect (on the field of main exciter) and magnetic components involved. One additional bearing and an increase in the shaft length are required. Less since slip rings and brushes are avoided.

Response of the excitation system.

Very fast response in the order of 40 ms. due to the direct control and solid state devices employed. No additional bearing and increase in shaft length are required. More since slip rings and brushes are required. Also over hang vibrations are very high resulting in faster wear and tear.

Requirement of additional bearing and increase of turbo generator shaft length. Maintenance.

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EXCITER COOLING
VAPOUR EXHAUST

COOLER

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GENERATOR
I XG EF = I . XG + VT

EF

VT

Equivalent circuit of Generator


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GENERATOR
Phasor diagram of the Generator Ef

IL.Xd IL VT

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GCB G

GT

GENERATOR

Xd

XT

Ef

VT

Vbus

Generator + Generator Transformer Eq. Ckt.


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GENERATOR
Vector Diagram of Generator and GT connected to an infinite bus EF IL.Xd IL Vbus VT IL.XT

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GENERATOR
In the equivalent Circuit and Phasor diagram, the notations used have the following description: Vbus VT EF : : : Infinite bus voltage Generator Terminal Voltage Induced Voltage (behind synchronous Impedance) of Generator, proportional to excitation. Direct axis sync. Reactance assumed same as quadrature axis sync. Reactance Transformer reactance Load Current Phase angle Torque Angle (rotor/load angle)
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Xd

XT IL
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: : : :

GENERATOR
POWER ANGLE EQUATION
Referring to the phasor diagram on slide no.14; Sin / IL.{Xd+XT} = Sin (90+ ) / EF

Putting Xd+XT =X, and multiplying both sides by VIL, V Sin /X = VIL Cos / EF

{Sin (90+ ) = Cos } or, (EF . V / X) Sin Pmx a


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= =

VIL Cos EF . V / X

Note that the Electrical Power Output varies as the Sin of Load angle
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Torque angle diagram


1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
0 Sin delta

Power in pu

T rq e an le d ram o u g iag
1 .2 1
30 60 90 12 15

0 .6 0 .4 0 .2 0

Angle in degrees

3 0

6 0

18

0 .8

9 0

1 20

150

10 8

A g in d re n le eg es
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Physical significance of load angle

red N ROTOR S N

Stator mag. axis Rotor mag. axis yellow

S blue
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STATOR

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Excitation constant; Steam flow increased Power output P1 to P2 EF1 EF2

P2 P1

2 I2 I1 Vbus

Locus of Constant Excitation

ACTIVE POWER CHANGE


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Locus of P = const. Steam Flow constant; Excitation increased Power output Constant EF1 EF2

2 I2 I1 Vbus

Locus of Constant Excitation

I Cos = Constant
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EXCITATION CHANGE

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Excitation Control
1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 P o w e r An g le Dia g ra m s fo r Diffe re nt Ex cita tio n L e ve ls

Power in per unit

P1 P2 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 P ow e r Ang le (d e lta ), in de g re e s P3

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AVR

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TYPES OF AVR SYSTEMS


Single channel AVR system Dual channel AVR system Twin channel AVR system

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Single channel AVR system


Here we have two controllers one is automatic and the other is manual and both the controllers are fed from the same supply The AVR senses the circuit parameters through current transformers and voltage transformers and initiates the control action by initiating control pulses , which are amplified and sent to the circuit components The gate controller is used to vary the firing angle in order to control the field current for excitation In case of any fault in the automatic voltage regulator the control can be switched on to the manual controller.
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Dual channel AVR system


Here also we have two controllers in the same manner as the previous case i.e. one automatic voltage controller and one manual controller But here in contrary to the previous case we have different power supply, gate control and pulse amplifier units for each of the controllers Reliability is more in this case than previous one since a fault in either gate control unit or pulse amplifier or power supply in single channel AVR will cause failure of whole unit, but in dual channel AVR this can be avoided by switching to another channel.
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Twin channel AVR system


This system almost resembles the dual channel AVR but the only difference is that here we have two automatic voltage regulators instead of one automatic voltage regulator and one manual Voltage regulator This system has an edge over the previous one in the fact that in case of failure in the AVR of the Dual voltage regulator the manual system is switched on and it should be adjusted manually for the required change in the system and if the fault in AVR is not rectified in reasonable time it will be tedious to adjust the manual voltage regulator

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Twin channel AVR system


In Twin channel AVR both the AVRs sense the circuit parameters separately and switching to other regulator incase of fault is much easier and hence the system is more flexible than the other types. Generally switching to manual regulator is only exceptional cases like faulty operation of AVR or commissioning and maintenance work and hence we can easily manage with one AVR and one manual regulator than two AVRs. So Twin channel AVR is only used in very few cases and generally Dual channel AVR is preferred.
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AVR
There are two independent control systems 1. Auto control 2. Manual control The control is effected on the 3 phase output of the pilot exciter and provides a variable d.c. input to the main exciter

The feedback of voltage and current output of the generator is fed to avr where it is compared with the set point generator volts se from the control room
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AVR
The main components of the voltage Regulator are two closed loop control systems each followed by separate gate control unit and thyristor set and de excitation equipment Control system 1 for automatic generator voltage control (AUTO) comprises the following

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AVR
Generator voltage control The output quantity of this control is the set point for a following.

Excitation current regulator, controlling the field current of the main exciter

Circuits for automatic excitation build-up during start up and field suppression during shut-down
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AVR
This equipment acts on to the output of the generator voltage, control, limiting the set point for the above excitation current regulator. The stationary value of this limitation determines the maximum possible excitation current set-point (field forcing limitation); Limiter for the under-excited range (under excitation limiter), Delayed limiter for the overexcited range (over excitation limiter)

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AVR
In the under excitation range, the under excitation ensures that the minimum excitation required for stable parallel operation of the generator with the system is available and that the under -excited reactive power is limited accordingly

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AVR
Control system 2(manual) mainly comprises a second excitation current regulator with separate sensing for the actual value this control system is also called manual control system, because for constant generator voltage manual re-adjusting of the excitation current set-point is required

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AVR
The set-point adjuster of the excitation current regulator for manual is tracked automatically (followup control) so that, in the event of faults, change over to the manual control system is possible without delay Automatic change over is initiated by some special fault condition. Correct operation of the follow-up control circuit is monitored and can be observed on a matching instrument in the control room. This instrument can also be used for manual matching.
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AVR
The manual change over command is normally issued from the control room. Push buttons AUTO, MATCH, MANUAL are provided for manual change over. The MATCH push button must be actuated prior to manual change over.

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AVR
Following this the RAISE, LOWER push buttons must be actuated for matching the o/p value of set point adjuster for MANUAL or the set point adjuster for AUTO to actual excitation state. When matched state is reached the matching instrument in the control room indicates zero. Since different controlled variables are associated to the MANUAL and AUTO modes of operation, matching must not be effected by balancing of the set point adjuster position, which are also indicated in the control room.

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AVR
Change over to MANUAL or AUTO is only possible after the MATCH condition has been selected and is done by remnant relay module in gate control set. When all the conditions for change over are fulfilled, change over is initiated by actuating pushbutton MANUAL or AUTO. The stored commands MATCH or AUTO are cancelled by check back signal gate control set MANUAL ON or gate control set AUTO ON.
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AVR
FAULT INDICATIONS The following alarms are issued from the voltage regulator to the control room. AVR fault AVR automatic change over to MANUAL AVR loss of voltage alarm
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AVR
The current feedback is utilized for active and reactive power compensation and for limiters

There are 3 limiters


1.Under excitation limiter 2.Over excitation limiter 3. V/F limiter
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Excitation Interlocks
Preconditions for Excitation ON
Excitation ON command N>90% Protection Off FCB Off feedback External trip GCB is OFF

5s delay

Excitation ON

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Excitation OFF Interlocks


Exc. OFF from Field flashing

Exc OFF command GCB OFF N>90% GCB OFF External trip Delay 1sec Exc OFF

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Capability Curve
Capability Curve relates to the limits in which a generator can Operate safely. Boundaries of the Curve within with the machine will operate safely Lagging Power Factor/Overexcited region Top Section Relates to Field Heating in Rotor Winding Right Section Relates to Stator current Limit Straight line relates to Prime Mover Output Leading Power Factor/ Underexicted region Lower Side relates to Stator end ring Limit Further down relates to Pole slipping
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Limiters The limiters of the excitation system ensure an operation within the generator capability curve The characteristics of the limiters are within the power characteristics
P,Active power O
Core end heating limit
Armature heating limit

N If Under Excited Over excited I Q


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Max Turbine power limit P


Field heating limit

M
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Points within the M-N-O-P-Q are allowed in the generator characteristics. Section M-O regards UEL stability limit Section O-P regards the stator current limit- maintain the stator temp raise within the limits Section P-Q regards the generator rotor current limit limit the rotor temp raise Section O-P-Q allow dynamic overshooting with an adjustable PI characteristic Types Over excitation limiter Under excitation limiter Rotor angle limiter Stator current limiter V/F limiter
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Generator Operation & Capability diagram


Key inputs required for the capability diagram to be drawn for the Turbo generator Rated MVA of the machine Rated Megawatts Rated synchronous impedance Rated Short circuit ratio Rated Power factor Rated Hydrogen pressure Minimum Boiler load

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Generator Operation & Capability diagram

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Generator Operation & Capability diagram

Normal Overexcited Operation

Under excited Operation


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LIMITERS
Over excitation limiter Under excitation limiter Rotor angle limiter Stator current limiter V/F limiter

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Over excitation limiter


Line voltage drops due to more reactive power requirement , switching operations or faults AVR increases generator excitation to hold the voltage constant Line voltage drops , thermal over loading of generator can result OEL is automatic limitation of generator excitation by lowering the generator voltage (otherwise the set point of generator voltage is reduced in time or the transformation ratio of the GT is to be adjusted ) OEL permits excitation values above the normal excitation and extended to max excitation (for field forcing) for a limited time, so as to permit the generator to perform the grid stabilization in response to short drops in line voltage When IF >110% of Ifn , the OEL and Field forcing limiter are active
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Under Excitation limiter


Function is to correct the reactive power when the excitation current falls below minimum excitation current value required for stable operation of generator Activation of UEL takes over the control from the closed loop voltage control, acting via a max selection The limit characteristic is adjustable (shifted parallel) I reactive ref is compared with the measured I reactive , the error is fed to P- amplifier. When the value drops below the characteristic the amplified diff signal causes the field current to increase For commissioning purpose provision is made to mirror the characteristic in the inductive range, this allowing both the direction in which the control signal acts and the blocking of the set point generators is to be changed
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Rotor Angle Limiter


Stable operation rotor angle <900, for higher degree of stability a further margin of 10-12% is normally provided RAL gives the o/p as permissible I reactive =F ( I active) Characteristic is shifted linearly as a function of generator voltage Permissible I reactive is compared with the measured value and is fed to the limit controller when the I reactive achieved value drops below the permissible value then the limiter comes in action and I reactive
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Stator current limiter


During operation at high active power P and / low voltage the stator current of the generator tends to rise beyond its rated value and can cause the thermal overloading of stator, in spite of the action of the UEL An additional stator current limiting controller acting on the generator excitation is provided as a safe guard against such states of operation SCL always monitors the stator current measured value for crossing the rated stator current SCL permits small time over load but comes in action thereafter and influences the effective generator voltage set point- to reduce the Q till the stator current is brought down below the rated value Change in generator voltage set point is not blocked when SCL active SCL does not operate near the unity PF because near this value any limiter would cause oscillations

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V/F limiter
Also known as over fluxing limiter It is the protection function for the GT V/F ratio , eddy current , the local eddy current causes thermal over loading of GT In DVR mode V/F ratio is continuously monitors the limit violation In case V/F ratio crosses the limit characteristic, the upper limit as the effective AVR set point is reduced as a function of V/F ratio This limiter is used when it is required to keep the unit operating even in case of substantial frequency drops , for instance in order to prevent complete breakdown of the system, a V/F limiter is used to lower the voltage proportional with frequency drop July 8, 2011 PMI Revision 00 86

PRIORITY STRUCTURE OF AVR


1st priority Rotor current limiter UN1024 Stator current li miter inductive UN0027

2 nd priority

Load angle limiter UN1043

Stator current limiter Capacitive UN0027

3 rd priority

Voltage regulator UN-2010

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Field failure protection


Loss of generator field excitation under normal running conditions may arise due to any of the following condition. 1. Failure of brush gear. 2.unintentional opening of the field circuit breaker. 3. Failure of AVR. When generator on load loses its excitation , it starts to operate as an induction generator, running above synchronous speed.cylindrical rotor generators are not suited to such operation , because they don't have damper windings able to carry the induced currents, consequently this type of rotor will overheat rather quickly.
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Important alarms & actions Emergency C/O to ECR

----Monitor terminal voltage Stator current limiter active ----Reduce excitation by decreasing AVR set point Over excitation limiter active -----Reduce excitation AVR set point Under excitation limiter active ----Increase excitation Increase AVR set point V/F limiter active ----Reduce excitation AVR set point Rotor angle limiter active ----Increase excitation Increase aVR set point Fans on aux supply ----Switch over to main supply
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THANK YOU

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