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COMMUNICATION RESEARCH

Lecture I

SCIENCE THEORY AND RESEARCH


The Concept of Science Science is an objective, accurate, systematic analysis of a determinate body of empirical data in order to discover recurring relationships among phenomena.

Objective means unbiased, unprejudiced, detached, impersonal. It is the characteristics of viewing things as they are. Accurate means that we strive to be definite, precise and exact. Systematic carries with it the implication that science is methodological, thorough and regular in its procedures.

Analysis means that we are concerned with the identification and study of the component parts or elements which make up the things which we study. Determinate means that there are relatively agreed upon defined traits or boundaries which specify which kind of thins or boundaries we study.

AIMS OF SCIENCE
DESCRIPTION what are the facts? What is the case? What is out there? EXPLANATION how things/events come about, what causes them, what are the laws that determine their occurrence. PREDICTION making inferences from facts or laws.

A THEORY is a set of interrelated constructs, definitions and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena. PURPOSE Classify and organize events/things O Explain or make intelligible facts O Predict the occurrence of events/outcomes O Make things understandable

FUNCTIONS OF THEORY
1. It identifies the start of a research problem

by presenting the gaps, weak points, and inconsistencies of previous research.


2. It puts together all the constructs/concepts

that are related to your topic investigation.


3. It presents the relationships among

variables that have been investigated.

 is a process of scientific thinking that leads

to the discovery or establishment of new knowledge or truth.


 is

a careful, diligent and exhaustive investigation of a specific subject matter, having as its aims the advancement of mankinds knowledge.

A. ANALYTIC describes WHAT WAS. It is a past

oriented research which seeks to illuminate a question of current interest by an intensive study of material that already exist. B. DESCRIPTIVE describes and interprets WHAT IS. It involves description, recording, analysis and interpretation of conditions that now exist. C. EXPERIMENTAL describes WHAT WILL BE. When certain variables are carefully controlled or manipulated. It allows to explain why.

A. Exploratory or Formulative focuses on

the discovery of ideas and insights. B. Historical involves studying, understanding and explaining past events. C. Descriptive involves description, recording, analysis and interpretation of conditions that now exist. D. Experimental investigates the effect of the independent variable (cause) on a dependent variable (effect)

 PURPOSIVE NOMENCLATURE

Fundamental/Pure deals on the development of theories by discovering broad generalizations/principles. Applied its purpose is improving a product or a process. Action its purpose is to improve practices

 DESCRIPTIVE NOMENCLATURE

Historical describes what was. Descriptive describes what is. Experimental describes what will be.

Theory Implications For Propositions

Starting point of theory testing


Conceptual Proposition

New Theory
Testable Propositions Collect Data

Analyze Data

Starting point of theory construction

COMMUNICATION RESEARCH
Lecture 2

CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
1. Empirical based on direct experience or

observation by the researcher. 2. Logical based on valid procedures and principles. 3. Cyclical the process starts with a problem and ends with a problem. 4. Analytical utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data.

ANALYTICAL RESEARCH DESIGNS


O Historical Research data

gathered focus on the past O Descriptive Research the study focuses on the present situation O Experimental future O Case Study past, present and future

5. Critical Research exhibits careful and

precise judgment . A higher level of confidence must be established to identify its significance or not. 6. Methodical Research conducted in an orderly manner without bias using systematic method and procedures. 7. Replicability using the same instrument, method and procedure but to a different subjects and venues.

QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER


O R earserch-oriented O E fficient O S cientific O E ffective O A ctive O R esourceful O C reative O H onest O E conomical O R - eligious

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESEARCHER


O INTELLECTUAL CURIOSITY undertakes

deep thinking and inquiry of the things, problems, and situations around him. O PRUDENCE careful to conduct his research study at the right time and at the right place wisely, efficiently and economically. O HEALTHY CRITICISM always doubtful as to the truthfulness of the results.

O INTELLECTUAL HONESTY

honest to collect or gather data or facts in order to arrive at honest results. O INTELLECTUAL CREATIVITY creates new researches; enjoys inventing unique novel and original researches, and considers research as his hobby.

TYPES OF RESEARCH
O PURE RESEARCH basic research or

fundamental research. It aims to discover basic truths or principles, discover new facts. O APPLIED RESEARCH involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem, such as the development of a new system or procedure, device , or new method in order to solve the problem.

O ACTION RESEARCH is a

decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices

CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH
O LIBRARY RESEARCH done in the library

where answers to specific questions or problems of the study are available. O FIELD RESEARCH conducted in a natural setting. No changes are made in the environment. O LABORATORY RESEARCH conducted in artificial or controlled conditions by isolating the study in a rigorously specified and operationalized area.

PURPOSE OF LAB RESEARCH


test hypothesis derived from theory 2. To control variance under research conditions 3. To discover the relations between the dependent and independent variables.
1. To

COMMUNICATION RESEARCH
Research in speechcommunication focuses on the ways in which messages link participants during interactions. (Kibler & Barker, 1969, p. 63) Is a specialty that studies message-related behavior

When Communication Researchers survey employee attitudes as part of a counseling contract the work is considered applied research.

Methods of Studies used in Communication Research


1.

Qualitative Studies Use descriptions of observations expressed in pre-dominantly nonnumerical terms Most qualitative research in our field tends to describe or interpret communication exchanges.

Types of Qualitative Studies


1.

Historical-Critical Studies:
Research designed to describe a period, person, or phenomenon for the purpose of interpreting or evaluating communication and its effects

i.e. HISTORICAL STUDIES: Studying whether Lincolns Gettysburg Address really met with negative reaction at the time it was delivered. Studying the true impact on Americans from Orson Welless 1938 War of the Worlds broadcast Studying dominant methods of treating stuttering during the last two hundred years.

CRITICISM:
Evaluating the use of argument by Ronald Reagan in his presidential debates Evaluating whether newspaper reports of the news gave politically balanced reports of the U.S. entry into the Iraq-Kuwait crisis. Evaluating the ethical use of surgery in the treatment of speech-handicapped patients in the nineteenth century.

Qualitative Observational Studies: methods designed to use predominantly attribute-type data to interpret contemporaneous communication interactions. 3. Case Studies and Interpretive Studies: intensive inquiries about single events, people, or social units (interpretive studies attempt to look for themes or stories that are helpful to interpret or understand the case,)
2.

i.e.

Case Studies:
Investigating the practice of a successful speech therapist to pick up some pointers. Studying the communication inside a newspaper that is in the process of being sold.

4.

Participant Observation Studies:


Inquiries in which the researcher takes the role of an active agent in the situation under study (sometimes may be used to gather quantitative data) i.e. Case Studies on studying the process of news writing for a television station by joining the writing staff to report events from the inside. Case Studies on investigating the development of public strategy for a political campaign by joining a campaign as an active worker who makes observations from within the organization

5.

Ethnomethodology
Originally developed by anthropologists to study societies of humans, an approach (rather than a rigorous method) in which researchers find an ethnic group, live within it, and attempt to develop insight into the culture; emphasis is on ordinary behavior, which participants take for granted, to find hidden meanings and unwritten rules people use to make sense off their word.

i.e.

Case Study on investigating how people react to television by living with an isolated group of people without television watching their reactions in the days and weeks that follow introduction of televisions. Case Study on inquiring into the special language of street gang members by moving around with a gang during an extended time period.

6.

Discourse/Conversational Analysis:

A method of examining utterances people exchange, for the purpose of discovering the rules and strategies people use to structure sequence, and take turns in speaking, to learn how people manage their interactions with others.

i.e.

Studying the structure of interpersonal arguments among husbands and wives. Examining the judge and attorney communication by looking at the structure of the abbreviated exchanges. Inquiring into childrens speech development by identifying language competency levels among six-year-old and eight-year-old school children

7.

Creative Studies:
use of the method of performance or demonstration to explore an aesthetic or creative experience.

i.e. Examining the problems of communication Renaissance poetry to modern audiences by undertaking special performances in oral

Examining whether a public relations campaign using multimedia news releases is perceived as a suitable way to transmit information by designing such a campaign directly. Most qualitative research in our field tends to describe or interpret communication exchanges.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS


Are inquiries in which observations are expressed predominantly in numerical terms Tends to be explanatory, especially when experiments are involved, or it attempts to use precise statistical models go achieve comprehensive understandings of human communication. Usually attempts to answer questions about how many people are involved in an activity

2 MAJOR BRANCHES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

1.SURVEY STUDIES 2.EXPERIMENTAL


STUDIES

SURVEY STUDIES

Techniques

involve carefully recorded observations which provide quantitative descriptions of relationships among variables. variables.

that

TYPES OF QUANTITATIVE SURVEY STUDIES

a)DESCRIPTIVE OR OBSERVATIONAL
SURVEYS

Direct observations of behavior

by use of some measurement (the researcher does not manipulate or change any variables)

i.e. Discovering Identifying

what sorts of things small group communicators say that predict their becoming group leaders. leaders. the relationship between the number or newspapers a person reads on regular basis and the amount of fear of society rated on a measure of state anxiety

b)CONTENT ANALYSIS
A
systematic, quantitative study of verbally communicated material (article, speeches, films) by determining the frequency of specific ideas, concepts, or terms

i.e.

Studying

the amount of violence on childrens television programs into the amount of newspaper space dedicated to stories about the womens movement in samples of

Inquiring

Analyzing of the types of speech defects


shown by children spontaneous speech. speech.

c)OPINION SURVEYS
Assessments of reports from about topics of interest. interest. i.e. individuals

Analyzing opinion surveys regarding which candidate people think won a political debate Examining whether the public believes that speech correction therapy should receive increased funding in the public schools. schools. Assessing surveys of the favorite television programs people watch. watch.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES

method of studying the effect of variables in situations where all other influences are held constant. Variables constant. are manipulated or introduced by experiments to see what effect they may have

i.e.

Studying

the impact of the use of evidence completed by exposing one group to a speech with evidence and another group to a speech without evidence

Studying

the effect of color in advertising by exposing one group to an ad with color printing and another group to an ad without color printing

5 key qualities of research

1.Research is systematic

Organized though unexpected results often emerge, serendipity happens Researchers stand the best chance of grasping the importance of unexpected findings

2. Research is data driven

Willing to change their minds in light of new data. data.

3.Research is a sound argument

Claims advanced on the basis of reasoning from evidence

4.Research
replication

is

capable

of

We can tell whether research findings are generally true or accidental

5.Research is partial

There is always more that could be added about a topic. topic.