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Make-up from last time

Electric field from line of charge Electric field from arc of charge Van de Graaff Demos & cage, needle, electroscope Smoke Remover Problem of electron in an electric field Todays Material

What is the electric field from an infinitely long wire with linear charge density of +100 nC/m at a point 10 away from it.
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ y =10 cm

2kP Ey ! sin U 0 y
9 2


50=90 for an infinitely long wire


C 2 v 8.99 v 10 Nm v 100 v 10 m sin 90 ! 1.8 *10 4 N Ey ! C 0.1m


Typical field for the electrostatic smoke remover


Smoke Remover
Negatively charged central wire has electric field that varies as 1/r (strong electric field gradient). Field induces a dipole moment on the smoke particles. The positive end gets attracted more to the wire. In the meantime a corona discharge is created. This just means that induced dipole moments in the air molecules cause them to be attracted towards the wire where they receive an electron and get repelled producing a cloud of ions around the wire. When the smoke particle hits the wire it receives an electron and then is repelled to the side of the can where it sticks. However, it only has to enter the cloud of ions before it is repelled. It would also work if the polarity of the wire is reversed

What is the field at the center due to arc of charge

L /2

Ey !

L / 2



dEx= k dq cos Ur2 dEx= k Pds cos Ur2

L /2 U0

E x ! kP

L / 2

rdU cosU /r 2 ! kP / r

U 0

dU cosU

s=r U ds=r dU

2kP Ex ! sin U 0 r

What is the field at the center of a circle of charge? U0=180


Example illustrating the motion of a charged particle in an electric field: An electron is projected perpendicularly to a downward electric field of E= 2000 N/C with a horizontal velocity v=106 m/s. How much is the electron deflected after traveling 1 cm.

E d E

y =1/2(qE/m)t2

Lecture 3 Gausss Law Ch. 23

Cartoon - Electric field is analogous to gravitational field Physlet / Topics Electric Flux Electric Flux example Gauss Law Coulombs Law from Gauss Law Isolated conductor and Electric field outside conductor Application of Gauss Law Conductor in a uniform field Demo Faraday Ice pail: metal cup, charge ball,teflon rod, silk,electroscope Elmo Problems 29 Polling and Clickers

Electric Flux
Electric flux is the number of Electric field lines penetrating a surface or an area. Call it * .

r r Electric Flux ! * ! (E cosU )A ! E A T T r A ! A n

r r Electric Flux ! * ! (E cosU )A ! E A

T T here A ! A n


T T E A U!0
So, * ! EA cos 0 ! EA




et U ! 45r Then, * ! EA c s 45r ! 0.707EA


Gausss Law - Powerful relationship between charges and electric fields through closed surfaces r r qenc dA ! I 0 E
Gausss law makes it possible to find the electric field easily in highly symmetric situations. If there is no charge inside, then the flux is 0

* net ! 0

Let look at an example

Find the electric flux through a cylindrical surface in a uniform electric field E
Uniform electric field Cylindrical surface choose because of symmetry No charge inside Flux should be 0 T T We want to calculate * ! E dA


r E


* ! EA


r E

* ! En A ! 0 v A ! 0

 r E


* ! En A ! E c sU A

T T * ! E dA


E cos180dA !  EdA ! ETR 2

What would be the flux if the cylinder were vertical ? Suppose it were any shape? 12


E cos90dA ! 0 * ! E c s 0dA ! EdA ! ETR


Flux from a. + b. + c. !as expected

Derivation of Gauss Law from a point charge and using Coulombs law: Summary of steps

Start with an isolated point charge. Choose a sphere around the charge. r r Calculate * ! dA E Show that * ! qI

enc 0



Start with a point charge.

Note that the electric lines of flux are radial for a point charge Choose a spherical surface to simplify the calculation of the flux


Calculate the net flux through the closed surface.

Net Flux =

* net

r r ! dA ! E

E cosUdA ! EdA

En c s 0r ! 1

kq For a Point charge E ! 2 r

 kq * ! EdA ! 2 dA r kq kq dA ! 2 ( 4Tr 2 ) r2 r * ! 4Tkq *!

1 4Tk ! I0 here I 0 ! 8.85 x10

n r dA ! ndA  


C2 Nm 2

* net

q enc ! I0

Gauss Law

Gauss Law

* net

qenc ! I0

This result can be extended to any shape surface with any number of point charges inside and outside the surface as long as we evaluate the net flux through it.


Approximate Flux

T T * ! E (A

T T * ! E dA r dA ! ndA
Circle means you integrate over a closed surface.

Exact Flux


You should know how to prove these things

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The electric field inside a conductor is 0. The total net charge inside a conductor is 0. It resides on the surface. Find electric field just outside the surface of a conductor. Find electric field around two parallel flat conducting planes. Find electric field of a large non-conducting sheet of charge. Find electric field of an infinitely long uniformly line of charge. Find E inside and outside of a long non-conducting solid cylinder of uniform charge density. Find E for a thin cylindrical shell of surface charge density W. Find E inside and outside a solid non-conducting sphere of uniform charge density V.

1. Electric field inside a conductor is 0. Why?

Inside a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium the electric field is always zero. (averaged over many atomic volumes) The electrons in a conductor move around so that they cancel out any electric field inside the conductor resulting from free charges anywhere including outside the conductor. This results in a net force of 0 on any particular charge inside the conductor.

r r F ! qE


2. The net charge inside a conductor is 0.

Any net electric charge resides on the surface of the conductor within a few angstroms (10-10 m). Draw a Gaussian surface just inside the conductor. We know everywhere on this surface E=0. Hence, the net flux is zero. From Gausss Law the net charge inside is zero. Show Faraday ice pail demo.


3. Find electric field just outside the surface of a conductor

The electric field just outside a conductor has magnitude and is directed perpendicular to the I0 surface.
Draw a small pill box that extends into the conductor. Since there is no field inside, all the flux comes out through the top.

q WA EA ! ! I0 I0



4. Find electric field around two parallel flat conducting planes.





2W 1 E! I0


6. Find the electric field for a very long wire of q length L that is uniformly charged. !P

q n dA ! I 0 E endcaps+sides T En ! E n

auss's La


dA ! E ! E 2T rh E dA

J ! endcaps  side ! 0  E 2Trh

Ph I0

r 2k P E! r r

2k P E! r

T EBn U ! 90r Cos90r ! 0



9. Electric field inside and outside a nonconducting solid uniformly charged sphere
Often used as a model of the nucleus. Electron scattering experiments have shown that the charge density is constant for some radius and then suddenly drops off at about
2  3 v 1014 m.

For the nucleus,

10 26 C ! m3
V ! Charge density per unit volume


v10 14 m

Electric Field inside and outside a uniformly charged sphere

Q V! 4 , reR 3 TR 3

Q= Total charge = Z v 1.6 v 10 -19C

Inside the sphere: To find the charge at a distance r<R Draw a gaussian surface of radius r By symmetry E is radial and parallel to normal at the surface. By Gausss Law:
q n dA ! I 0 E

q V 4 Tr 3 E 4 Tr 2 ! ! 3 I0 I0
Vr E! 3I0  r Vr E! r 3I 0

Electric Field inside and outside a uniformly charged sphere


4 3


, reR 3

Q= Total charge = Z v 1.6 v 10 -19C

Outside the sphere:

q V 4 TR 3 E 4Tr 2 ! ! 3 I0 I0
VR 3 E! 3I 0 r 2

Same as a point charge q


Electric field vs. radius for a conducting sphere

Er w r

Er w

1 r2


Comment on Sample Problem 23 -4

A charge of - 5uC is placed inside a neutral conducting shell at R/2. What is the charge on the inner and outer surface of the shell? How is it distributed? What are the field lines inside and outside the shell?

Comment on Sample Problem 23 -4

Charge on the inner of the shell is +5 uC? Outer surface is - 5 uC How is it distributed? Uniformly on outer surface, but not on inner surface. What are the field lines inside and outside the shell? As shown on the inside. Like a point charge of 5 uC at the center of the sphere on the outside.

Chapter 23 Problem 29 Elmo

A long straight wire has a fixed negative charge with a linear charge density of magnitude 3.1 nC/m. The wire is to be enclosed by a coaxial, thin walled, nonconducting cylindrical shell of radius 1.8 cm. The shell is to have positive charge on its outside surface with a surface charge density that makes the net external electric field zero. Calculate the surface charge density.


Here is a essay question you should be able to answer based on our ideas so far
1) Suppose you put a neutral ideal conducting solid sphere in a region of space in which there is, initially, a uniform electric field.
a) Describe (as specifically as possible) the electric field inside the conductor. b) Describe the distribution of charge in and on the conductor. c) Describe the electric field lines at the surface of the conductor.


External Electric field penetrates conductor


Free charges inside conductor move around onto the surface in such a way as to cancel out the field inside.


E 0 inside conducting sphere



Orientation of electric field is perpendicular to surface

If the electric field were not perpendicular, then there would be a component of electric field along the surface causing charges to accelerate on the surface and it would not be in electrostatic equilibrium contrary to experience.

2) Suppose you put some charge on an initially-neutral, solid, perfectly-conducting sphere (where the sphere is not in a pre-existing electric field).
Describe the electric field inside the conductor, Describe the electric field at the surface of the conductor, and outside the conductor as a result of the unbalanced charge. Describe the distribution of the charge in and on the conductor.

3) Repeat questions 1-3 for the case of a hollow perfectlyconducting spherical shell (with the interior being vacuum). 4) How would your answers to questions 1-4 change if the conductor had some shape other than spherical?