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GPRS Network Planning Aspects

Telecom Network Planning Global Jari Ryynnen

NOKIA CS / NS / JRy

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Contents

Nokia GPRS Releases Nokia GPRS Network - Structure Network Planning Procedure and Services GPRS Mobility Management GPRS Power Control GPRS and GSM Resource Sharing GPRS Coding Schemes Capacity Planning Frequency Planning Coverage Planning GPRS Support in Totem Nokia NMS for GPRS GPRS Statistics and Counters GPRS and Other Features

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GPRS Growth Stages & Nokia Releases


Nokia Release 1 Nokia Release 2 Nokia Release 3

GPRS Mobile Penetration

60%

Low penetration Basic GPRS terminals Cost effective network


wide introduction of GPRS

Growing penetration High end terminals


appear

High GPRS penetration & growing traffic volumes GPRS is a standard


feature in all mobiles

40%

Enhanced GPRS
20%

Services Increased GPRS NW capacity

Full set of GPRS


services Optimised NW operation

0%

2000

2001

2002

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Nokia GPRS Network - Structure


PSTN Network
Short Message Service Centre

SMSC SS7 NW Billing System


Charging Gateway

Home Location Register

MSC

HLR

NMS

BTS

BSC
PCU

Serving GPRS Support Node

SGSN

CG Internet

Integrated Network Management

Border Gateway Domain Name Systems

GGSN
Legal Intercept Gateway GPRS Support Node Firewall

Intranet

DNS

Router

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Server Local Area NW

InterPLMN Network

BG

GPRS Backbone IP Network

Corporate

Nokia GPRS Network - Capacity


1 PCU 2Mbit/s data processing for GPRS One PCU can be freely connected up to 64 cells, 128 TRXs, 256 radio channels MAX 8 PCUs / BSC

BTS

BSC
PCU

Serving GPRS Support Node

SGSN

GGSN
Gateway GPRS Support Node

Data Transfer Capacity 16Mbit/s (4-8kpps) Supports 50 000 active PDP contexts

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GPRS Backbone IP Network

Packet Processing 20 Mbit/s mean packet processing capacity (1.3 Mbit/s per PAPU) 48 Mbit/s peak packet processing capacity Subscribers 120 000 Attached subscribers up to 2 IP contexts per subscriber

GPRS Network Planning Procedure


GPRS Planning Services
GPRS Planning Process

Pre-Planning

Capacity Calculation for Dimensioning and RollOut Planning Coverage Design for Dimensioning and Roll-Out Planning Initial Network Configuration Traffic and Performance Analysis of Existing Network Definition of the Radio Interface Design Criteria Preliminary Capacity Planning Preliminary Coverage / Frequency Planning Capacity Planning Totem Monitoring Network Doctor NDW

Detailled Planning NMS/2000 PlanEdit CDW

NPS/X 3.3 Frequency Planning Coverage Planning

Parameter Planning

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Radio Network Planning


Radio NW Capacity Planning Capacity calculation in Netdim Capacity calculation in Totem 3.1 Paging capacity estimation
INPUT Speech traffic Data traffic C/I FH, IUO, IFH OUTPUT Required # of TRXs Throughput / Capacity

(by adjusting the size of RA and LA)

Radio NW Frequency Planning Frequency Planning with NPS/X 3.3 Throughput requirement must be considered in frequency

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planning Higher Throughput -> Higher C/I requirement Dedicated frequencies can be allocated for GPRS use if wanted Soft Capacity features (IFH, FH) increase the throughput

Radio Network Planning


Coverage Planning

Coverage prediction with NPS/X for the existing network Using the existing coverage or an additional coverage to improve the throughput:

Microcells Separate indoor sites Metrosite Concept


Flexible capacity / coverage GSM900 - GSM1800 TRXs in the same BTS

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Shared or Dedicated GPRS capacity (TS, TRX, band basis)

Radio Network Planning


Radio NW Parametrisation according to the stated quality targets PlanEdit, NMS, CellularDataWarehouse (CDW) to handle all the parameters GPRS activation parameters Cell reselection parameters (C1 and C2) PC parameters (Uplink in Release 1) Load control parameters
GPRS capacity (dedicated, shared) HSCSD load control

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Quality Monitoring and Optimisation New GPRS related counters in BSC Combined NMS/NetworkDataWarehouse (NDW) statistics for speech and GPRS GPRS support in TOM for drive tests GPRS Interworking with other soft capacity features IUO/IFH (Regular layer for GPRS -> higher reuse, high throughput) FH (Reduction in interference -> higher throughput) Dual Band (Flexible, good quality -> high throughput)

BCCH and GPRS Existing BCCH modified to include new parameters for GPRS No reduction in cell traffic capacity when introducing GPRS Signaling capacity shared by Circuit Switched & GPRS
Informs if SI14 and SI15 are sent

System info 13 System info 14 System info 15


Frequency hopping information -MA list etc...

GPRS Mobile

Packet power control & interference measurement information

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GPRS Mobility Management


Location Area (LA) MSC/VLR

Gs Interface
SGSN

Routing Areas used for GPRS Mobility Management Needed signaling / paging capacity depends on the size of RA In IDLE mode no GPRS Mobility Management In STANDBY mode periodic Routing Area Update In READY mode a Cell Update when MS changes the cell
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Routing Area (RA)

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For simplicity, can be the same than LA (GSM specs: RA <= LA)

GPRS Cell Selection and Reselection


1 el R

GPRS mobile cell selection / reselection the same than the Circuit Switched idle mode cell selection

Cell is selected autonomously by the mobile MS uses C1 and C2 parameters for cell selection/reselection
(SYSTEM

INFORMATION TYPE 3)

GPRS handover is called as cell reselection Cell reselection can be done during the data connection
C1 C2

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GPRS Cell Selection and Re-selection


Procedure for cell selection during data transmission:

MS leaves the packet transfer mode and enters the packet idle mode in the old cell MS reads the system information messages in the new cell MS reports to the SGSN Initiates uplink TBF (data, signalling or dummy), Makes cell update Data transmission is started in the new cell No data retransmission in inter-PCU HO LLC frame is retransmitted if the PCU has been changed

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GPRS Power Control


Uplink Power Control Rel 1 - Due to bursty nature of traffic will not be as effective as for Circuit
Switched traffic

- Open loop PC (specified in ETSI) - PC parameters for MS are transmitted on BCCH Downlink Power Control Power control - Not supported in the first release data - Requires measurement reports
which will load the network
DL Power Control Measurement Reports
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- Mobile near far effect a problem

UL Power Control

Uplink Power Control


PCH = min(
0

C H

- (C + 48),PMAX)

CH , sets the minimum power level (default: 17 - GSM900, 18 - GSM1800) , sets the slope for the uplink power level (default: 0.7/0.8) C, normalised received signal level in DL direction
0, ETSI specified value, 39 - GSM900, 36 - GSM1800 PMAX, max power of the cell allowed for MS
MS power control with the default values:
MS Transmission Power (dBm)

MS Output Power as a function of Received DL Signal Level


35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -45 -50 -55 -60 -65 -70 -75 -80 -85 -90 -95 -100 -105 -110
GSM900

Received Signal Level (dBm)

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GSM1800

GPRS and GSM Resource Sharing


Circuit Switched traffic has priority Also GPRS dedicated time slots can be defined In each cell Circuit Switched & Packet Switched territories are defined Territories consist of consecutive timeslots GPRS can be set to favour the BCCH Transceiver -> higher throughput
Temporary GPRS capacity Default GPRS capacity TRX 1 TRX 2
CCCH TS TS TS TS TS TS TS

Circuit Switched Territory Circuit / Packet Switched Territory

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

Territory upgrade until the Default GPRS Capacity and in interval of Territory Upgrade Guard Time
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Territory downgrade according to the Circuit Switched traffic

Dedicated GPRS Capacity

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GPRS and GSM Resource Sharing


Parameters
Parameters for Territory management:

GPRSenabled (BTS-level) GPRSenabledTRX (TRX-level) DedicatedGPRScapacity (BTS-level, %) DefaultGPRScapacity (BTS-level, %) PreferBCCHfreqGPRS (BTS-level) TerritoryUpdateGuardTimeGPRS (BSC-level) effect of introducing GPRS on NW Quality & Capacity

Online when the cell GPRS capability is set off by GPRSenabled parameter or The cell is locked.

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GPRS territory parameters can be changed when:

Resource Sharing between GPRS MS


Several mobiles can share one timeslot Mobiles are queued - maximum 7 Uplink, 9 Downlink Uplink State Flag used to tell which mobiles turn to transmit
Uplink State Flag
TS 1

New MS

TS 2 TS 3

Timeslot selected to give maximum throughput Each mobile gets 1 / (no. of MS in queue) of the channels capacity
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Multislot Mobile

RLC / LLC Transmission


LLC frame
SGSN

LLC retransmissions

-max 12160 information bits

LLC frame Gb RLC blocks


BSC PCU

-a header of 32 bits -ack/non-acknowledged modes RLC block -160 information bits with CS-1 = 8 kbit/s -a MAC header of 21 bits

BTS

RLC retransmissions

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4 interleaved bursts

-acknowledgement every 18 blocks, if retransmissions more often

GPRS Coding Schemes


Coding Scheme Nokia GPRS Release 1
CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4

Payload (bits) per RLC block*


181 268 312 428

Theoretical Data Rate (kbit/s)


13.4 15.6 21.4
Error Correction Data

9.05

CS1 & CS2 More Data - Implemented in ALL Nokia BTS without HW change = Less Error CS3 & CS4 Correction - Will not fit in normal 16kbit/s Abis TRAU frame - Feature candidate for future release New TRX for TalkFamily & MetroSite Not feasible for PrimeSite & 2nd Generation * RLC Block = 456 bits after puncturing
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Throughput versus C/I, link level simulations

GPRS Coding Schemes

All Nokia BTS support GPRS without any modification (CS1 & CS2) For signalling only CS1 is used (ETSI) 8 Timeslot parallel connections supported
Network throughput - 1 Timeslot
Typical NW C/I Minimum Average

Network throughput - 3 Timeslots


Typical NW C/I Minimum Average

0 0 5 10 15 C/I 20 25 0 5 10 15 C/I 20

Nokia Simulations - RLC polling interval = 18 blocks, non-frequency hopping)


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25

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

CS-3 CS-2 CS-4 CS-1

50 40

CS-3 CS-2 CS-4 CS-1

Kbit/s

Kbit/s

30 20 10

GPRS Coding Scheme Selection


All Calls start with CS1 Change to CS2 based on successful transmission (without retransmissions) Retransmissions always with the same coding scheme After unsuccessful retransmissions, the coding changed back to CS1 Other alternatives also under study, like RXQUAL or C/I based link adaptation CS1 CS2 LLC All Blocks OK
LLC

CS2 CS2 CS1

All Blocks OK
Required Retransmissions CS1

LLC

LLC

All Blocks OK

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Capacity Planning

GPRS bandwidth can be estimated via the voice time slot usage E.g. 1 TRX cell with 7 traffic TSs

Offered voice traffic: 2.88 Erl (Blocking=2%) For GPRS: 7 - 2.88 = 4.12 Erl
available GPRS time slots 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1

GPRS bandwidth

no fixed GPRS time slots fixed GPRS Tss = number of TRXs one fixed GPRS TS in the cell 2 3 4 number of TRXs 5 6

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BSS Capacity Dimensioning


(CS1, control signalling included) 200
6TRX (44TCH) 180 GPRS Capacity (kbit/s) 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Circuit Switched Load (erl) 2% Blocking 2% Blocking 2% Blocking 2TRX (14TCH) 4TRX (30TCH)

Based on Nokia Research Center simulations

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GPRS User Throughput - Web Pages


2TRX Cell with 4.1 Erl Circuit Switched Load (50% loaded) 18 16 14 12 6TS Mobile Coding Scheme CS1

Mean kbit/s

10 8 6 4 2 0 0

3TS Mobile

1TS Mobile

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Offered GPRS Load kbit/s

Note ! Due to larger packet sizes in FTP and email applications rates should be better
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Retransmission Percentage GPRS Simulation Example

Retransmission percentage vs. average CIR


Macro 2/6, 1-slot, WWW traffic
100 80 % 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30
Average burst CIR over the w hole netw ork [dB]

Retransmission [%] CS-1 Retransmission [%] CS-2 Retransmission [%] CS-3 Retransmission [%] CS-4

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C/I versus Throughput Network level simulations


Throughputs vs. CIR. Shaded areas describe the regions where each coding
scheme is best.

C/I 20dB is required for high throughput -> requires a good quality network!
Macro 2/6, 1-slot, WWW traffic
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 20 30
Average burst CIR over the w hole netw ork [dB]

Net throughput CS1 Net throughput CS2 Net throughput CS3 Net throughput CS4

kbit/s

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Frequency Planning
Sonera Simulations

Effect on frequency reuse patterns, voice traffic with 2% blocking as background load
16

Outage probability (C/I=9 dB, TRXs=3)


K=7 K=9 K=12 K=13 K=16 K=19

Reuse 9 with voice traffic + 100% GPRS load has the same interference probability than Reuse 7 with only voice traffic!! 2-3 dB additional interference with full GPRS load

14 12 10 p (%) 8 6

2 0 GPRS_0%

GPRS_25%

GPRS_50% GPRS load

GPRS_75%

GPRS_100%

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Coverage Planning Sonera Simulations

10 % outage probability is typical criteria in network planning


C a r r ie r
30

C/I with outage probability 10 %


GPRS_0%

25

GPRS_50% GPRS_100%

20 C/I (dB)

15

100% GPRS load worsens C/I by 2 dB

0 0.65 0.80 0.85 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.70 0.75 0.90

0.95

r/R
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50% GPRS load worsens C/I by 1 dB

10

GPRS Support in Totem


INPUT OUTPUT Required # of TRXs Throughput / Capacity

Capacity Calculation for

Speech traffic Data traffic C/I FH, IUO, IFH

Dimensioning and Roll-Out Planning

Coverage Design

An estimated GPRS throughput (kbit/s) with different channel


coding schemes in an existing network can be shown prepared

A coverage plan to fulfil the required GPRS throughput can be

Coming 12/99??
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Nokia NMS for GPRS


Combined GSM and Data Network
management
Nokia NMS for GPRS

Integrated access: all applications/tools can


have a seamless access from the same terminal - SNMP traps from the IP backbone - Q3 Alarms from the GSM network allowing the collection and monitoring of both GSM and data related counters

Integrated fault management:


S N M P IP Q 3 GSM

Integrated Performance Management

Seamless growth path from the current NMS/2000 GSM management system to the GPRS System Solution
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Operator Processes in GPRS Network Management


Building Adding SGSN's Adding GGNS's Downloading GPRS SW

Process centric view

Radio Network Planning IP network Planning IP Address management Security Planning

Performance Reporting

Planning

Network Monitoring Trouble Management Activating GPRS Adding/changing GPRS subscriber parameters

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Operating

GPRS Statistics and Counters


A lot of new counters are proposed for GPRS. Here are some examples:
Number of data RLC blocks Coding Scheme CS 1 CS 2 Uplink 56 27 Downlink 108 80 Number of data retransmitted RLC blocks Uplink 8 3 Downlink 22 10 Number of RLC control blocks Uplink 8 Downlink 20 -

Number of RTSLs requested / allocated for one TBF 1 Request Uplink Request Downlink Allocated Uplink Allocated Downlink 4 2 3 3 2 17 13 15 10 3 21 22 17 17 4 13 15 8 8 5-8 0 1 0 1

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BSC Statistics for GPRS


Available Measurement

PCU measurement Traffic measurement

- 65 counters - 7 counters

Resource availability measurement - 4 counters Resource access measurement Handover measurement Availability measurement - 30 counters - 2 counters - 1 counter

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BSC Statistics for GPRS


Formula examples : Comparing of CS1 & CS2

Ratio of CS1 and CS2 for RLC data blocks = (A + B) / (C + D)


Comparing of uplink and downlink

Ratio of uplink and downlink RLC data blocks = (A + C) / (B + D)

B = Counter for number of RLC data blocks in downlink with CS1 coding scheme C = Counter for number of RLC data blocks in uplink with CS2 coding scheme

D = Counter for number of RLC data blocks in downlink with CS2 coding scheme

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where A = Counter for number of RLC data blocks in uplink with CS1 coding scheme

BSC Statistics for GPRS


Formula examples : Ratio of retransmitted data and a whole transmitted data on uplink and downlink

Ratio of transmitted data and a whole transmitted data RLC data blocks with CS1 coding = (C + D) / (A + B)
where A = Counter for number of RLC data blocks in uplink with CS1 coding scheme
B = Counter for number of RLC data blocks in downlink with CS1 coding scheme C = Counter for number of retransmitted RLC data blocks in uplink with CS1 coding scheme D = Counter for number of retransmitted RLC data blocks in downlink with CS1 coding scheme

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BSC Statistics for GPRS


Formula examples : Ratio of control blocks and data blocks on uplink and downlink

Ratio of RLC control blocks and data blocks CS1 coding = (E + F) / (A + B)


where A = Counter for number of RLC data blocks in uplink with CS1 coding scheme
B = Counter for number of RLC data blocks in downlink with CS1 coding scheme F = Counter for number of control RLC blocks in downlink with CS1 coding scheme

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E = Counter for number of control RLC blocks in uplink with CS1 coding scheme

GPRS and Other Features


IUO/IFH:

GPRS MS doesn't have access to the IUO/IFH super layer At start low GPRS traffic -> OK to use only regular layer Release1 does not support Network requested cell re-selection No IUO C/I estimation Less capacity for GPRS High reuse on the regular layer -> high throuhput More interference for the regular layer because of GPRS traffic
Frequency Hopping:

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Basically FH improves the GPRS throughput With tight reuse schemes the GPRS throughput will suffer With BB FH, TS0 cannot be used for GPRS (GSM specs., different FH group) BCCH TRX preference doesnt help with BB FH

GPRS and Other Features


Dual Band:

DB 1800 layer is normally less interfered -> more suitable at the beginning for the GPRS
service

In Idle mode, the C2 parameter is used to suck the DB traffic to 1800 layer, the same
parameter is used in GPRS Release 1 for GPRS cell selection HSCSD:

Has priority over GPRS but can be controlled by HSCSD load parameters
Extended cell:

GPRS is not supported in Extended cell in Release1 -- so ETRX can not carry GPRS TCHs
Satellite Abis:

GPRS is not supported over Satellite Abis (long delay)


Forced Handover For O&M Reason:

If there are GPRS TSLs in the TRX to be blocked, BSC moves those TSLs to CS territory
before TRX blocking

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Explanations TBF

A Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is a physical connection used by the two RR entities to support the unidirectional transfer of LLC PDUs on packet data physical channels. The TBF is allocated radio resource on one or more PDCHs and comprises a number of RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PDUs. A TBF is temporary and is maintained only for the duration of the data transfer (i.e. until there are no more RLC/MAC blocks to be transmitted and, in RLC acknowledged mode, all of the transmitted RLC/MAC blocks have been successfully acknowledged by the receiving entity).

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