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Big6 Research Methodology

Information Literacy Skill Development in the Elementary Grades

Adapted from presentation by: Bill Derry, LMS Green Farms Elementary School Westport, CT

Whats so great about the Big6 and why should I care?

What is information literacy?


The student who is information literate:

Accesses information efficiently and effectively. Evaluates information critically and competently. Uses information accurately and creatively.

The student who is information literate:

Pursues information related to personal interests. Appreciates literature and other creative expressions of information. Strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation.

The student who is information literate:

Recognizes the importance of information to a democratic society. Practices ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology. Participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information.

What is the Big6?

Mike Eisenberg & Bob Berkowitz

The Big6
For Students
1. What do I need to do?

For Planners
1. What do I want my students to know and/or do?

2. What can I use to find what 2. What will they use to find I need? what they need? When? How? 3. Where can I find what I need? 3. Where will they find the information they need?

4. What information can I use? 4. How will they record the information they need? 5. How can I put my information together? 6. How will I know if I did well? 5. How will they put their information together? How will they share their work? 6. How will they evaluate how well they did? How will I evaluate how well they did? How will I evaluate how well I did? (product and process)

How is the Big6 different from other research methodologies? (or the same)
 Irvings Study and Information Skills Across the Curriculum (1985)  Kuhlthaus Information Search Process (ISP) (1991, 1993)  Stripling and Pitts REACTS Term Paper Models (1988)  Joyce and Tallmans I-Search Model (1997)  Pappas and Tepes Pathways to Knowledge (1997)  Yuchts FLIP-It Model

Irvings Study and Information Skills Across the Curriculum (1985)

 Research and information skills are life skills.
1. Defining tasks 2. Considering sources 3. Finding resources 4. Selecting resources 5. Using resources 6. Taking notes 7. Making sense 8. Presenting projects 9. Assessing outcomes

Kuhlthaus Information Search Process (ISP) (1991, 1993)

Multidimensional nature of information seeking acknowledged, i.e. affective, cognitive, and behavioral, thus, at the six thinking activity stages of research:
1. Initiation students experience anxiety and uncertainty 2. Selection students are more optimistic and confident 3. Exploration optimism fades for students who lack focus on narrowing topic and jump ahead to gathering resources prematurely 4. Focus Formulation for those students who narrow topics and refine searches, a sense of clarity achieved and confidence returns 5. Collection - for those students who collect relevant information, confidence builds 6. Presentation students express relief that the search is over or disappointment with the search results

Stripling and Pitts REACTS Term Paper Models (1988)

1. Choose a broad topic

2. Get an overview of the topic 3. Narrow the topic 4. Develop thesis/purpose statement 5. Formulate questions to guide research 6. Plan for research and production 7. Find, analyze, evaluate resources 8. Evaluate evidence, take notes/compile bibliography 9. Establish conclusions/organize into an outline 10. Create and present final product 11. REFLECTION

Joyce and Tallmans I-Search Model (1997)

 Focus of research activity is a topic students choose entirely on the basis of personal interest or connection
1. Topic Choice

2. Finding Information 3. Using Information 4. Final Project ( Share research experience and project)

Pappas and Tepe s Pathway to Knowledge



2. Search 3. Interpretation 4. Communication

At each stage, Appreciation and Evaluation are also present.

 Yuchts FLIP It! Model F L I P

- Focus on the topic

- Link new information to what students know

- Interpretation of Information

- Put together the final research Project

Whats the connection between the Big6 and information literacy?

How do students benefit from the Big6?

 Its less cumbersome than other models  Helps students work smarter not faster  Aids the development of essential life skills  Provides a context for integrating technology instruction into classroom learning

 The Super 3

 The Little 12

The Big6 Skills / Little12 The Big6 is a process model of how people of all ages solve an information problem. From practice and study, we found that successful information problem-solving encompasses six stages with two sub-stages under each: 1. Task Definition 1.1 Define the information problem 1.2 Identify information needed in order to complete the task (to solve the information problem) 2. Information Seeking Strategies 2.1 Determine the range of possible sources (brainstorm) 2.2 Evaluate the different possible sources to determine priorities (select the best sources) 3. Location and Access 3.1 Locate sources (intellectually and physically) 3.2 Find information within sources

4. Use of Information 4.1 Engage (e.g., read, hear, view, touch) the information in a source 4.2 Extract relevant information from a source 5. Synthesis 5.1 Organize information from multiple sources 5.2 Present the information 6. Evaluation 6.1 Judge the product (effectiveness) 6.2 Judge the information problem-solving process (efficiency)

How does this fit in with all the other things I have to do?
 Aligns with national, state, and district standards  Supports Habits of Mind  Facilitates differentiated instruction

Info mation Lit a y 1 Access inform tion efficiently
nd effectively 2 Ev lu te inform tion critically and competently 3 Use information accurately and creatively

Conn ti ut
1. Define Info mation Needs
Define their information needs and identify effective courses of action in to conduct research solve problems and pursue personal interests

1. Task Definition
1 1 Define the problem 1 2 Identify information requirements
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At A Glance
No th B anfo d
Reference and Search Skills
pose questions using graphic organi ers as an aid use appropriate primary and secondary reference sources (maps, charts, graphs, encyclopedias, thesauri, atlas, almanac, periodicals, personal interview, artifacts, etc.) and non-fiction materials for a given purpose. use the library media center independently develop an understanding of the basic concepts of the Dewey decimal system use the electronic catalog to locate materials find an entry in the dictionary using guide words select, synthesi e, and use relevant information from the dictionary use basic search strategies for accessing traditional and technological sources for research and personal interest demonstrates basic operation of technolog y for retrieving information and for presentation utili e electronic resources to navigate software menus to access information using symbols, logos, and icons demonstrate use of on-line etiquette become familiar with the use of a simple bibliography to give credit to sources used (understands the concept of plagiarism) begins to critically analy e print and electronic source information for reliability, currency, authority, accuracy, and objectivity paraphrase and summari e information gathered from sources organi e information from traditional and technological sources create and/or present an original product (written, oral, 3-dimensional, multi-media, etc.) with support, self- evaluates the effectiveness of the research process

2. Info mation Systems

Apply principles of organi ed information systems to learning endeavors

2. Information Seeking Strategies

2 1 Determine the range of sources 2 2 Evaluate to determine priority sources
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Ind p nd nt L a ning 4. Pursue information related

personal interests 5. Appreciate literature and other creative expressions of information 6. Strive for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation

3. Info mation St ategies

Demonstrate a command of information skills and strategies to locate and use effectively print non-print and/or electronic resources to solve problems conduct research and pursue personal interest

3. Location and Access

3 1 Locate sources 3 2 Find information within sources


Use of Information
4.1 Engage (Read, View, Listen) 4.2 Extract relevant information

So ial Responsibility 7. Recogni e the importance of

information to a democratic society 8. Practice ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology 9. Participate effectively in groups to pursue and generate information

4. Info mation Pro essing

Apply evaluative criteria to the selection interpretation analysis reorgani ation and synthesis of information from a variety of sources and formats


5.1 Organi e information from multiple sources 5.2 Present information

Use appropriate technologies to create written visual oral and multimedia products to communicate ideas information or conclusions to others


6.1 Judge the product (effectiveness) 6.2 Judge the process (efficiency)

y y

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7. Responsible Use of Information

Adapted from chart by: Bill Derry, LMS Green Farms Elementary School Westport, CT

Demonstrate the responsible and legal use of information resources computers or other technologies recogni ing the attendant social economic, and ethical issues

The Big6 was created by Michael B. Eisenberg and Robert E. Berkowit

Prepared by: Terry McCabe, Teacher/Librarian

Implemented through the collaboration of teachers, library media specialists, technology facilitators, and other instructional specialists.

Evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of their own choices and uses of information and technology for problem solving and communication

6. Evaluating Information Strategies

5. Appli ation of Information and Technology

Habits of Mind
 Think Flexibly  Questioning and Posing Problems  Taking Responsible Risks  Applying Past Knowledge  Gathering Data  Creating, Imaging, Innovating  Thinking and Communicating  Striving for Accuracy  Thinking about Thinking

 Steps 1-3 (Task Definition, Information Seeking Strategies, and Location and Access  Steps 1-5 (See above and Use of Information and Synthesis)  Steps 3-4 (Location and Access and Use of Information)  Step 5 (Synthesis)  Step 5-6 (Synthesis and Evaluation  Step 6 (Evaluation)

Differentiated Instruction
How Research Supports
Based on student interest
Topics can be selected Guiding questions are generated

Based on student ability

Vary the number of source formats required Vary the number of sources required Vary the number of subtopics required Vary the number of facts/details per subtopic required Adjust the rigor of bibliographic citation required

Can I get help with the Big6?

 Teacher / Librarian  Eisenberg, Michael and Berkowitz, Robert. Teaching Information and Technology Skills: The Big6.
Worthington, OH: Linworth Publishing, 1999.

 Wolinsky, Art. Internet Power Research Using the Using the Big6 Approach. Berkeley Heights,
NJ: Enslow Publishing, 2002.

So, what do you think?