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EDE 202 The Creative Arts e-Portfolio

Jodie King Student ID: 15203768

Art is a shadow of what a person is thinking... a small glimpse of what they hold inside. Little secrets, regrets, joys... every line has its own meaning. ~Sarah, Los Cerros Middle School, 1999

I certify that the attached material is my original work. No other persons work or ideas have been used without acknowledgement. Except where I have clearly stated that I have used some of this material elsewhere, I have not presented this for assessment in another course or unit at this or any other institution. I have retained a copy of this assignment. I have read and understand the Curtin University of Technology document Academic Integrity at Curtin: Student guidelines for avoiding plagiarism.

Item 1: Drawing & Design 1.1 Rationale 1.2 Classroom Connections Drawing & Elements of Art Representational Drawing Drawing as a Thinking Tool Story-Making Use of Different Art Media 1.3 Cater for Diverse Needs Item 2: 2D Media 2.1 Rationale 2.2 Classroom Connections 2D Media & Elements of Art Acrylic Paint Water Colour Paint Oil & Chalk Pastels Print Making 2.3 Catering for Diverse Needs

Item 3: 3D Media 3.1 Rationale 3.2 Classroom Connections 3D Media / Elements of Art Clay Found Objects Wire Box / Building Block Construction 3.3 Catering for Diverse Needs Item 4: Documentation 4.1 Observing children

Item 5: Self Refection and References 5.1 Self Reflection 5.2 References 5.3 References Cont. 5.4 Notes

To read the information related to the headings above, please click on the blue square:

Every child is an artist. The challenge is to remain an artist after you grow up - Pablo Picasso

There are many reasons for children to learning how to draw and design. It allows children to have fun while developing their cognitive, socio-emotional, motor development and creative skills. To begin with, the activity of drawing and design is a source of much pleasure and satisfaction. As explained by Pelo (2007, p.85) when children draw, they create representations of their experiences, observations, theories, and emotions. Allowing children to express themselves visually, enables them to show you what they have seen or done or who they have met, how they feel or what they are thinking about. For young children, drawing is an important communication tool, providing opportunities to explore their ideas and experiences.

The elements of design are the basic components used by the artist when producing works of art and are the tools that artists use to make the art. These are the building blocks used to create a work of art. The elements of design can be thought of as the things that make up a painting, drawing, or design such as line, tone, colour, texture, shape, form, space and pattern.

Create an organized, visually rich environment

* By displaying reproductions of the childrens masters pieces, instructional posters displaying concepts and techniques. Children will visually see how concepts and techniques can be performed. Also by teachers modelling techniques and sitting talking with children will encourage childrens creativity. * By display words on a wall with visual art vocabulary- for example: line, tone, colour, texture, shape, form, space and pattern, paint, pencil, chalk, clay, 3D, 2D, Box creation, observation, story telling, etc. Children will learn what words go with what concepts and elements of art. *By displaying a variety of interesting everyday objects for still life drawing- for example: vases, mirrors, toy cars, photos, natural objects, etc. Children can have a hands on approach with these elements as they can touch and look to see what textures, tones and shapes the objects are. This making it a real life exploration. * Area to display student art work- This can be anywhere in the classroom or centre. Children can look, see and comment on their peers creations. Giving children the sense of pride. Store supplies in organized, convenient manner for easy access by students- make sure these are at a height that all children can access. Low shelves and plastic tubs are fantastic. Create an area for storage of finished pieces of art. This may be a large portable plastic bin with a lid filled with paper portfolios or a storage unit of shelves and or drawers. Also childrens art work can be displayed for revisiting and as a art gallery. Create a drying area. This could be by using a manufactured drying rack or hang a clothes line and using clothes pegs. Assure plenty of elbow room for each student to successfully create.

Before you attempt any art project in a class environment, create it yourself. As you are making the prototype, think like your students. See if you have a comfortable seat, is the table at the right height, can I access the elements needed for the creation. Be aware of student clothing. Parents should know what days students will be creating art. Have paint shirts or aprons available for painting or clay work. Sometimes, you just have to make a mess. Be proactive. Be prepared. Develop a clear, easy clean up plan including storage of artwork, and supplies. If students need to wash hands or equipment, be prepared with buckets and sponges or basins of water or procedures to use the sink. Baby wipes can be helpful too.

Create a safe environment physically and emotionally where ALL children and their work is honoured. Balance the importance of following directions and creative expression. Praise children for following directions AND for finding new ways to create art. Encourage children to solve art problems uniquely and individually. Honour childrens ideas by compiling them in an individual or classroom journal. Consistently provide time for all children to tell about their artwork, their creative process and new ideas using visual art vocabulary. Honour childrens artwork by displaying their work in an attractive, organized manner. Develop self-confidence in childrens artistic ability by refraining from drawing, painting or marking on their work in any way. Demonstrate examples for individuals on separate pieces of paper or on a white/chalk board. Have fun! The best way to create a safe environment for creative expression for children is to be free to creatively express yourself. Make mistakes gracefully and turn them into new opportunities to create art. Develop ways for children to comment about other children's works of art by orchestrating positive comments only, NOT criticism. Remember there is not wrong or right way of doing art!! The following slides are examples are of different elements of drawing and design. Drawing & Elements of Art: line, tone, colour, texture, shape, form, space and pattern. Representational Drawing Drawing as a Thinking Tool Story-Making Use of Different Art Media
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Drawing is a visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. Common instruments include graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax colour pencils, crayons, charcoals, chalk, pastels, and markers. Kolbe (2007, p.42) explains drawing as the quickest and most direct way of making ideas visible. It is a powerful tool a language that enables children to explain things to themselves and to others. Drawing is the activity of making marks on a surface so as to create an image, form or shape. A drawing is a product of that activity. The elements of art are the parts of an artwork that an artist plans. They are line, tone, colour, texture, shape, form, space and pattern. The principles of art help artists plan their art and think about how other people will react to the artwork. As Herberholz (1995, p.21) explains both teachers and children need to become acquainted with and understanding the vocabulary of art: the verbal tools that will help them identify, describe, analyse and react to artwork. Art skills develop in stages as children grow. These stages are the Scribble, Schematic and Preschematic stages. By teachers paying attention to these stages, they can plan activities that can engage all children. Teaching children the basics of art, allows children to express themselves artistically and by not restricting the subject matter, progression in their art will lead from basic shapes to representations of daily life. As children move from scribbling to drawings, that represent the world around them, encouraging children to practice their shapes, lines and colours could be done by simply suppling an easy-to-hold painting brush or drawing tool such as a pencil and a piece of paper. These tools are all children at this age need to practice these basic elements of art of drawing. Lessons at this age could also include modelling by the teacher and opportunities to practice drawing different shapes and lines. Time to identify shapes and lines in pictures and real life should also accompany these lesson. Colour identification may include a collage of pictures, in one colour, cut from magazines as well as paintings created in tints and tones of one colour. Making time for experimentation with mixing of paints, will assist children in identifying tints and tones of Colour. When art is taught, it can provide children with authentic learning experiences that engage their minds, hearts, and bodies. This learning experience can be real and meaningful for them. As Bullard (2010, p. 249) explains children who have rich art experiences continue to progress through additional art stages as they mature.

Tell me and I'll forget; show me and I may remember; involve me and I'll understand. - Chinese Proverb
It is important for teachers to develop an effective teaching style in order for children to be able to master the principles needed to create well designed works of art. Children need to be guided throughout the development of their works during the beginning stages of art education. Slowly children will learn to be more self-regulated and rely on peer critiques to guide them. As Bea (2004) describes teachers that plan activities in the preschool/kindergarten classrooms are considering a balance between freedom and structure. Art activities for children can included drawing time, largegroup time, and art projects. Through these activities they can give children time to develop a variety of skills essential to good artwork. Through drawing it allows them to develop their spatial skills, while the large-group time can give children time to compare and contrast drawings and other art projects. Art projects give freedom and creativity because students can express themselves even at a young age. Pelo (2007, p.1) explains children immersed in a culture of drawing, painting, sculpting and writing, can represent and reflect on their encounters with the world and each other. Drawing is also an important part of literacy development. As children draw together they will often discuss and tell the story of their picture to each other and add the start of scribbled letters. When the environment is set up in a way that children can have access to materials plus the time to make choices and explore processes, it is common for children to spend a long time on their drawings. Bullard (2010, p.250) says that art is often considered the childs first written language. With this, children should be encouraged to experiment and take risks in both drawing and emergent literacy. When children are developing these skills, they are solving problems about how language works. Childrens drawing and attempts at writing should be encouraged and accepted, and never judged.

Line is an element of art that is used to define shape, contours, and outlines, and also to suggest mass and volume. It may be a continuous mark made on a surface with a pointed tool or implied by the edges of shapes and forms. As Herberholz (2010, p.16) explains the tool a line is made with relates to its character. A line can be used to express various things or feeling. It also can be used to show various things in different ways, and has a number of characteristics such as direction horizontal, vertical or diagonal, length short or long, thick or thin, blurred or sharp, straight or curved, and so on. Element of Drawing Line: Is a mark with length and direction. Is a continuous mark made on some surface by a moving point. May be three dimensional such as wire or may be implied such as the edge of a shape or form. Classroom Experience Different lines: Experiment using different mediums. For example draw thick, thin, zigzag, straight, vertical, horizontal, swirly, etc. Draw from observation: By looking around the classroom looking at the different shapes that you can find. For example, today we are all looking for squares. Once children have found something representing that shape, look, touch and then draw using different elements, such as chalks, paints, charcoal. Multi foot drawing: By tracing the outline of childrens feet it can develop the awareness of natural lines from unlikely sources.

The above examples of different lines were down in a variety of lead pencils( 2B, 3B, 5B, 2H, H and HB), brush texta pens, and fine tip markers on white A4 paper.

In art, tone refers to the degree of lightness or darkness of an area. Tone varies from the bright white of a light source through shades of gray to the deepest black shadows. How we perceive the tone of an object depends on its actual surface lightness or darkness, color and texture, the background and lighting. As explained by Watt (1999, p. 38) tone of a colour is how light or dark it is. Tone in a picture can change the feeling or mood of it. Tone is the range of lightness and darkness within a picture. Tone is created by a light source that shines on an object creating highlights and shadows. It also illuminates the local or actual colour of the subject. Tone creates depth within a picture making an object look three dimensional with highlights and cast shadows, or in a landscape where it gets lighter in value as it recedes to the background giving the illusion of depth.

Element of Drawing Tone: Is simply the difference between the light and dark areas in a painting or drawing. The greater the difference the more attention the area attracts. Refers to relative lightness and darkness. It can be perceived as various levels of contrast.

Classroom Experience Black and white: Give children black paper and white pencils or white paper and one colour crayon, ask children to seeing how light and dark they can get their colour to appear. How bright: Have a object such as a bowl and shine a light towards it showing children the different shadows the light forms. Get children to draw what they see (This also can be use for form).

The above examples of tone was done with a HB, 3B, 5B and 2B pencil on A4 white paper.

Colour is another important element of art. It is a wonderful medium that can create in a piece of art. As explained by Pelo (2007, p. 35) colour anchors us to our world. It calls on our sense of sight as well as our other senses. Colour always has three characteristics, which are hue, value and the intensity. Hue means the shades (Red, yellow or pink), value refers to the lightness or the darkness and intensity refers to the brightness or dullness of the work of art. Colours can be warm or cooling and not only affect the expressive qualities of a picture or painting, but also can give the sense of space in artwork. For example warm colours are advanced and cool appear to recede.
Element of Drawing Classroom Experience

Colour: Colour wheels are a tool used to organise colour. It is made up of: Primary: Red, Yellow, Blue these can not be mixed, they must be bought in some form. Secondary: Orange, Violet, Green, these colours are created by mixing two primaries. Intermediate: Red Orange, Yellow Green, Blue Violet, etc.; mixing a primary with a secondary creates these colours. Complementary: are colours that are opposite each other on the colour wheel. When placed next to each other they look bright and when mixed they neutralise each other.

What colour do you see: Let children observe the different colour leafs collected from the yard. Get children to draw and then let them choose the medium that they would like to colour their picture in with. This will deliver different shades, tones and texture of their creations. Rainbows: Colour the hole page in different colour crayons. Paint the whole page over top of the crayon with black paint. Wait for it to dry and then etch a drawing in the paint using a match stick. Watch the colours come through.

This is a drawing of a map of a bedroom. It was first drawn in pencil then painted in water colour paints on A3 white paper.

This example of colour was done by blowing through texta's onto A4 white paper.

Texture is an obvious and important element in a painting. To save confusion it can be broken into two parts. Physical Texture is the texture you can actually feel with your hand. The build up of paint, slipperiness of soft pastel, layering of collage - all the things that change the nature of the papers surface. Herberholz (2010, p.16) explains actual texture as one that we are able to feel with our eyes closed. Visual Texture is the illusion of physical texture, created with the materials you use. Paint can be manipulated to give the impression of texture, while the paper surface remains smooth and flat. Lines and shading can be used also to create different textures as well. For example, if one is portraying certain fabrics, one needs to give the feeling of the right texture so that it closely resembles what the artist is trying convey. Element of Drawing Texture: Is the surface quality of an object. Refers to the way a picture is made to look for example: rough or smooth. Different elements of surfaces to use to create a texture: such as sandpaper, bark, cement, bricks. Classroom Experience Shaving cream prints: By adding shaving cream and different colours of paint onto a board. Finger paint a pattern into the mixture and then place a piece of paper to make a print. These prints make a interesting textured background for further works of art. Sandpaper drawings: This is using a different textured surface to draw on. Children can create drawing with crayons, pencils or chalk. Crayon rubbings: By rubbing with a crayon on different surfaces or objects gives the paper a different texture. For example drawing a tree and then rubbing with a crayon on bark give the tree the texture it needs.

The above examples of texture were done in coloured chalk on ash-felt and rocks.

Shape is when a line crosses itself or intersects with other lines to enclose a space it creates a shape. Herberholz (2010, p.16) describes a shape with no details inside is flat and may be called a silhouette. Shapes can be geometric (e.g.: square, circle, triangle, hexagon, etc.) or organic (such as the shape of a puddle, blob, leaf, boomerang, etc.) in nature. Shapes are defined by other elements of art: Space, Line, Texture, Value, Color, Form and always has two dimensions, length as well as width but no depth.

Element of Drawing Shape: Geometric shape- circle, square, triangle Organic shape- leaf, seashells, flower Positive shape- solid forms Negative shape- space around the positive shape Static shape- appears stable and resting Dynamic shape- appears moving and active It is the external outline of an object It is two dimensional

Classroom Experience Geometric shapes: By having different geometric shapes to trace, see what pictures you can create. Winter puddles: After looking at what a puddle looks like, let children draw their puddle shapes on paper but explain that they need to cover the hole page in different shaped puddles. Then colour in different colours. Flowers: Let children look at different flowers and their shapes. Have different mediums for children to draw these in.

This example of shapes is of geometric triangles. The first stage was drawn using a HB pencil, then outlined using a fine tip black pen. To finish it off it was coloured in using 3 primary colours Red, Blue and Yellow on A4 white paper.

This example is of a pair of scissors that are over lapping. It was then painted using acrylic paints that were watered down on A4 white paper.

Form may be created by the forming of two or more shapes or as three-dimensional shape. For instance shapes such as cubes, pyramids, spheres or even cylinders are all examples of different forms of elements. Therefore, form has depth as well as height and width. It may be also enhanced by tone, texture and colour. Herberholz (1995, p.28) explains form has to do with three dimensional artworks- sculpture, architecture, and craft objects. You can hold a form; walk around a form and in some cases walk inside a form. Form can be open that can be looked into, closed- self contained, geometric- sphere, cube, pyramid, cone, cylinder or free- non geometric , irregular in shape.

Element of Drawing Form: Is a shape that is three-dimensional of an object It has depth, length, and width and resides in space. It can come in many different forms, such as cube, sphere, pyramid, etc. In drawing or painting using value can imply form, such as shading a circle a certain way turns it into a shape.

Classroom Experience Solid shape: Have examples of cubes, spheres, pyramids, cones for children to look at and touch. Have children draw pictures of one object and them colour and shade it using pastels or charcoals to create depth. How bright: Have a object such as a bowl and shine a light towards it showing children the different shadows the light forms. Get children to draw what they see. (This also can be use for tone). Sculpture: Visit a Art Gallery with the children and get them as a group to chose their favourite sculpture to draw. There will be different aspects of the sculpture as the children will all see it differently.

This example of form is done on A4 white paper using a graphite pencil. The shading gives the objects shape and depth.

This example is done in charcoal on A4 white paper. The shading and angles give these two objects depth, height and volume.

Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. It may have two dimensions (length and width), such as a floor. Space in a two-dimensional drawing or painting refers to the arrangement of objects on the picture plane. The picture plane is the surface of your drawing paper or canvas. As explained by Schirrmacher (1998, p.160) an artists ultimate space is determined by the size of the canvas, be it paper, cardboard, wood or a shoe box. Space may also have three dimensions (length, width, and height), such as a box. To give a box a three dimension shape can be created with the help of shading and perspective to give a feeling of depth. Space can also include the background, foreground and middle ground, and also can refer to the distances or areas around, between or within components of a piece. There are two types of space: positive and negative space. Positive space refers to the space of a shape representing the subject matter. Negative space refers to the space around and between the subject matter.

Element of Drawing Space: Refers to the area in which art is organised, for example how it is placed on the page. Gives the illusion of depth. Real space is three dimensional, for example length, width and height. Two dimensional is length and width.

Classroom Experience Through the looking square: Have frames of cardboard for children to look through. Get them to see what fits in that square and then transfer the observation onto a piece of paper. Remind the children that the whole piece of paper is to be used (filling all of the space). Down the garden path: Get children to draw the front of their house. Do they have trees, a driveway, plants, grass? The house will be the base line of their drawing. Different sizes in space: Have round objects of different sizes for children to look. Get them to place them in correct size order and draw them on the paper using the correct size and space.

The above example of space is done in oil pastels on A4 white paper. The positioning of the circles give the elusion of space.

A Pattern is created when there is a regular repetition of particular forms, it shows a pattern of movement. Schirrmacher (1998, p. 161) explains patterns as having their own identity. They can be ornate, fancy, plain, regular, irregular, symmetrical, asymmetrical, sequenced or alternating. Pattern can also refer to the treatment given to a surface, suggests flow, rhythm, motion or movement. It can also be made with forms, shapes, lines, colours, textures, or symbols that move across a surface in a recurring sequence.
Element of Drawing Pattern: Refers to the repetition or reoccurrence of a design element, such as a line, shape or colour over and over again. Classroom Experience Repeat design: Get children to draw a repeated pattern on their paper in different coloured crayons, then in a black wash paint over the top. Line Patterns: With a ruler draw three lines at a time in different coloured textas. repeat this pattern at different angles until the page is full. Grid Pattern: Place a solid object under paper, for example a jig saw piece, and with a crayon rub. Repeat this with different coloured crayons until the pattern has filled the page.

This example of pattern is done by using different shaped sponges and acrylic paints on A4 white paper\.

This example is done on wet wipes. One was dried and the other was wet when done. The top one was dry and bottom wet giving different effects. It was done using ink in eye droppers and then folded over to make a pattern.

Representational drawing is essentially about close observation, and learning how to draw accurately is a long, complex and often frustrating process. It is a cluster of skills that, once acquired, can be useful. Bullard (2010, p.254) says children need the real object as well as representations of the object for inspiration while drawing. Simply put, a representational drawing can be how children sees and draws a certain subject, although the subject may not look identical to the actual item, animal, or person originally referenced for the drawing. Despite this, one can still tell what the drawing subject is. By incorporating representational drawing in the classroom, it can help with the development of eye hand co-ordination, fine motor skills, and help with the beginning of math, reading and writing skills.

Classroom Experience Self portraits: This can be done on mirrors with fine tip whiteboard markers. Photo gallery: From a photo they can observe and reproduce the picture or drawing using different mediums. Snap shot drawings: With a partner observe each others face and draw using coloured pencils. Neighbourhood watch: Walk around the local neighbour hood and observe something you like. From memory draw your favourite choice of observation. This can be done using any medium.

The above drawing is a representation of the coloured sun flower picture. It was done in graphite pencil and charcoal on A4 white paper.

Drawing as a thinking tool involves drawings that conveys childrens thinking through a poster, pictorial brainstorm, observational drawing journal, murals etc. For example, We may ask children to draw what they know about a topic before and after it has been studied in a class subject. Schirrmacher (1998, p.280) explains art gives children the opportunity to represent what they know nonverbally or graphically. With encouragement, they may also choose to talk about what they have created. Another explanation for a thinking tool used in a educational environment is mind maps. These can be the means of presenting information visually so that relationships between ideas can be clearly seen.
Classroom Experience Draw a plan: of your bedroom or create a bedroom that you would like. This could be done using pencil first and then coloured in using crayons or coloured pencils. Make a map: for the ideal playground for the school or community. This could be done as a group discussion first then as individuals. Make a poster: explaining how to use something or how something works. Children can create the poster using crayons or textas. Drawing a view of what they think a farm might look like from above. This can be done using pencil and coloured in using different mediums.

The above examples is of map of a childs bedroom and a piece of furniture out of the child's bedroom. They then had to write a list of what they would need to make that piece of furniture that they had chosen to reproduce in a box making activity.

Wright (2003, p.24) says communicating via drawing and storytelling gives children the opportunity to create and share meaning using two modes- non verbal and verbal. As story making is a powerful motivation for visual arts and language arts for children, it is an important part of human life and a natural and effective way to communicate thoughts, insights, and experiences of the arts. Story making in children involves drawings that conveys their knowledge of stories. For example, they may retell a story through drawing or inventing an ending of their own story. As Schirrmacher (1998, p.280) explains when children draw, they are not simply communicating about their experiences, they are also solving visual problems. Story making can also take on many forms of narrative and dialogues to relate either personal or social perspectives. For example, children can use stories as a channel to understand and find out about themselves and the world around them. With this, children can create a scenario that is suited to their needs and desires in their art work which symbolically represent their immediate concerns and thoughts. All arts encompasses a story in one way or another; even art works that initially do not seem to be narrative do have stories behind it. Normally, children will use both visual and verbal forms of expression in explaining their art work. Classroom Experience Different story endings: Children could use this method by listening to a story in a group session, then finish the ending off in a different way through drawings. On the weekend: Ask children to draw what they did on the weekend. This could be done in a comic strip format. Puppet show or performance: Once children have rewritten a different ending of a favourite story, children could perform a stage show or make puppets to retell their ending.

This is a drawing of a family snow boarding, Mum, Dad and son. There is the snow slop that they went down and the car that they travelled in. He was very excited as he was explaining his adventures with his family.

Sartorius (2004) explains that some artists stick with one medium throughout their artistic careers and other artists use many different media to express themselves. Picasso, for example, painted, made ceramics, did printmaking, and used found objects to create his work. Mixed media is an open-ended term that includes an infinite variety of materials, processes, and techniques used in combination in a work of art. Any traditional drawing tools, materials, and substances, for example graphite, watercolour, brushed ink, oil pastels, chalk pastes, conte, texta markers, paper Mache, sculpture, clay, contour lines (often done in pen and ink), prints, and poster paints. acrylic, pencil, pastel, charcoal, ink, and crayons, etc., may be incorporated in a mixed media artwork by traditional, non-traditional, or unconventional means involving 2D and 3D media. Visual media that could incorporate mixed media processes include ceramics, computergenerated imagery, photography, painting, papermaking, printmaking, and sculpture. Common mixed media processes include collage, construction, and shaping. The goal of mixed media is to improve an artists creative outlook, a goal that can be achieved for children if they are willing to experiment, explore, combine, embrace, unearth, and reconstruct. Forman (1994, pg. 3) explains different media allows children to express some meanings more easily than other meanings. Mixed media work can be successful for children no matter what level of artistic experience is required.

Classroom Experience Oil pastel resistant paintings: Draw a picture with oil pastels then with water colour paints paint over top. Dry clay drawing: Let some clay dry in long strips. Use this on black paper to draw with. Inky wet wipes: Dry out wet wipes and with droppers drop ink onto them. Watch the colours blend(Could also be used for colour observation).

The first example is a picture drawn with a piece of clay that was dried out on Black A4 paper. The second example is ink used on a wet and dried wet one.