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Classification Of Saffron

Division :- Embryophyta Siphanogama Sub-Division :-Angiospermae Class :-Monocotyledonae Order :-Epigynae Family :-Iridaceae Genus :-Crocus Species :-C. sativus

Botanaical Name : Crocus sativus Linn.

Common Name : Hindi - Kesar Kannada - Kumukuma Kesari Sanskrit - Keshara Telugu - Kunkuma Puvu Tamil - Kungumapu Family - Iridaceae

Origin Crete(Eastern Greece),Western & Central Asia Distribution

From western mediterranean(Spain) to India(Kashmir)

Used Plant Part Stigma(Dried)

Botanical Description

Saffron is low growing plant with underground globular corm or bulb. The plant is cultivated for its large, scented, blue or lavender flowers. The flower has trifid orange colored stigma which along with the style-tops yeild the saffron of commerce. Habit Perennial herb Leaves Leaves are simple, exstipulate, sessile, linear to ensiform, arranged in two ranks, mostly basal, numerous and crowded at base of stem, with sheathing leaf bases, parallel venation. Flower - Flower develop on destinct aerial flowering axis, flower solitary ,invariably terminal. Perianth Usually 6 tepals arranged in 2 whorls of 3 each, of these the outer world of 3 tepals represents calyx and often petaloid; and inner whorl of 3 tepals represent corolla; tepals are usually basally connate into long tube. Flower Bracteate, comlete , actinomorphic, bisexual, apigynous,trimerous,showy,large beautifully colored, usually subtended individually or in groups by two spathe-like bracts. Androeciun Usually 3 stamens situated opposite the teapls of outer whorl, epiphyllous,enthers-dithecous, basifixed, extrorse, dehiseing by vertical slits. Gynoecium Tricarpellary, syncarpous, ovary inferior, trilocular with few to many anatropous ovulus in each locules, exile placentation. Fruit Loculicidal capsule dehiscing by three valves. Pollination Usually entomophilous.

Economic Importance
Dried style of crocus, sativus are used to make Saffron , and orange yellow dye use chiefly for flavouring and colouring dishes. Orange yellow dye is known as Saffranin. Crocus is highly priced decorative plant of garden and parks. Saffron is famous for its extraordinary medicinal, flavouring and colouring properties. It is used in fine breads, sweets and confectionaries in many countries. In medicine saffron is used in fevers, melancholia and enlargement of liver. It has stimulant and stomachic properties and is considered to be a remedy for catarrhal infection in children In the ayurvedic and unanai system of medicine saffron is used as stimulant, warm and dry in action, helping urinary digestive and uterine troubles. When Saffron is pounded with Ghee, its reported to be very effective in diabetes.