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30 July 2011 Comp 122, Spring 2004

Asymptotic Notation,
Review of Functions &
Summations
Asymptotic Notation,
Review of Functions &
Summations
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Asymptotic Complexity
Running time of an algorithm as a function of
input size n for large n.
Expressed using only the highest-order term in
the expression for the exact running time.
Instead of exact running time, say 5(n
2
).
Describes behavior of function in the limit.
Written using Asymptotic Notation.
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Asymptotic Notation
5, O, ;, o, [
Defined for functions over the natural numbers.
Ex: f(n) = 5(n
2
).
Describes how f(n) grows in comparison to n
2
.
Define a set of functions; in practice used to compare
two function sizes.
The notations describe different rate-of-growth
relations between the defining function and the
defined set of functions.
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5-notation
5(g(n)) = {f(n) :
positive constants c
1
, c
2
, and n
0,
such that n u n
0
,
we have 0 c
1
g(n) f(n) c
2
g(n)
}
For function g(n), we define 5(g(n)),
big-Theta of n, as the set:
g(n) is an asymptotically tight bound for f(n).
Intuitively: Set of all functions that
have the same rate of growth as g(n).
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5-notation
5(g(n)) = {f(n) :
positive constants c
1
, c
2
, and n
0,
such that n u n
0
,
we have 0 c
1
g(n) f(n) c
2
g(n)
}
For function g(n), we define 5(g(n)),
big-Theta of n, as the set:
Technically, f(n) 5(g(n)).
Older usage, f(n) = 5(g(n)).
Ill accept either
f(n) and g(n) are nonnegative, for large n.
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Example
10n
2
- 3n = 5(n
2
)
What constants for n
0
, c
1
, and c
2
will work?
Make c
1
a little smaller than the leading
coefficient, and c
2
a little bigger.
To compare orders of growth, look at the
leading term.
Exercise: Prove that n
2
/2-3n= 5(n
2
)
5(g(n)) = {f(n) : positive constants c
1
, c
2
, and n
0
,
such that n u n
0
, 0 c
1
g(n) f(n) c
2
g(n)}
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Example
Is 3n
3
5(n
4
) ??
How about 2
2n
5(2
n
)??
5(g(n)) = {f(n) : positive constants c
1
, c
2
, and n
0
,
such that n u n
0
, 0 c
1
g(n) f(n) c
2
g(n)}
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O-notation
O(g(n)) = {f(n) :
positive constants c and n
0,
such that n u n
0
,
we have 0 f(n) cg(n) }
For function g(n), we define O(g(n)),
big-O of n, as the set:
g(n) is an asymptotic upper bound for f(n).
Intuitively: Set of all functions
whose rate of growth is the same as
or lower than that of g(n).
f(n) = 5(g(n)) f(n) = O(g(n)).
5(g(n)) O(g(n)).
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Examples
Any linear function an + b is in O(n
2
). How?
Show that 3n
3
=O(n
4
) for appropriate c and n
0
.
O(g(n)) = {f(n) : positive constants c and n
0
,
such that n u n
0
, we have 0 f(n) cg(n) }
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; -notation
g(n) is an asymptotic lower bound for f(n).
Intuitively: Set of all functions
whose rate of growth is the same
as or higher than that of g(n).
f(n) = 5(g(n)) f(n) = ;(g(n)).
5(g(n)) ;(g(n)).
;(g(n)) = {f(n) :
positive constants c and n
0,
such that n u n
0
,
we have 0 cg(n) f(n)}
For function g(n), we define ;(g(n)),
big-Omega of n, as the set:
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Example
.n = ;(lg n). Choose c and n
0
.
;(g(n)) = {f(n) : positive constants c and n
0
, such
that n u n
0
, we have 0 cg(n) f(n)}
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Relations Between 5, O, ;
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Relations Between 5, ;, O
I.e., 5(g(n)) = O(g(n)) ;(g(n))
In practice, asymptotically tight bounds are
obtained from asymptotic upper and lower bounds.
Theorem : For any two functions g(n) and f(n),
f(n) = 5(g(n)) iff
f(n) = O(g(n)) and f(n) = ;(g(n)).
Theorem : For any two functions g(n) and f(n),
f(n) = 5(g(n)) iff
f(n) = O(g(n)) and f(n) = ;(g(n)).
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Running Times
Running time is O(f(n)) Worst case is O(f(n))
O(f(n)) bound on the worst-case running time
O(f(n)) bound on the running time of every input.
5(f(n)) bound on the worst-case running time
5(f(n)) bound on the running time of every input.
Running time is ;(f(n)) Best case is ;(f(n))
Can still say Worst-case running time is ;(f(n))
Means worst-case running time is given by some
unspecified function g(n) ;(f(n)).
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Example
Insertion sort takes 5(n
2
) in the worst case, so
sorting (as a problem) is O(n
2
). Why?
Any sort algorithm must look at each item, so
sorting is ;(n).
In fact, using (e.g.) merge sort, sorting is 5(n lg n)
in the worst case.
Later, we will prove that we cannot hope that any
comparison sort to do better in the worst case.
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Asymptotic Notation in Equations
Can use asymptotic notation in equations to
replace expressions containing lower-order terms.
For example,
4n
3
+ 3n
2
+ 2n + 1 = 4n
3
+ 3n
2
+ 5(n)
= 4n
3
+ 5(n
2
) = 5(n
3
). How to interpret?
In equations, 5(f(n)) always stands for an
anonymous function g(n) 5(f(n))
In the example above, 5(n
2
) stands for
3n
2
+ 2n + 1.
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o-notation
f(n) becomes insignificant relative to g(n) as n
approaches infinity:
lim [f(n) / g(n)] = 0
n
g(n) is an upper bound for f(n) that is not
asymptotically tight.
Observe the difference in this definition from previous
ones. Why?
o(g(n)) = {f(n): c > 0, n
0
> 0 such that
n u n
0
, we have 0 f(n) < cg(n)}.
For a given function g(n), the set little-o:
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[(g(n)) = {f(n): c > 0, n
0
> 0 such that
n u n
0
, we have 0 cg(n) < f(n)}.
[ -notation
f(n) becomes arbitrarily large relative to g(n) as n
approaches infinity:
lim [f(n) / g(n)] = g.
n
g(n) is a lower bound for f(n) that is not
asymptotically tight.
For a given function g(n), the set little-omega:
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Comparison of Functions
f mg } a mb
f (n) = O(g(n)) } a b
f (n) = ;(g(n)) } a u b
f (n) = 5(g(n)) } a = b
f (n) = o(g(n)) } a < b
f (n) = [(g(n)) } a > b
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Limits
lim [f(n) / g(n)] = 0 f(n) c(g(n))
n
lim [f(n) / g(n)] < g f(n) O(g(n))
n
0 < lim [f(n) / g(n)] < g f(n) 5(g(n))
n
0 < lim [f(n) / g(n)] f(n) ;(g(n))
n
lim [f(n) / g(n)] = g f(n) [(g(n))
n
lim [f(n) / g(n)] undefined cant say
n
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Properties
Transitivity
f(n) = 5(g(n)) & g(n) = 5(h(n)) f(n) = 5(h(n))
f(n) = O(g(n)) & g(n) = O(h(n)) f(n) = O(h(n))
f(n) = ;(g(n)) & g(n) = ;(h(n)) f(n) = ;(h(n))
f(n) = o (g(n)) & g(n) = o (h(n)) f(n) = o (h(n))
f(n) = [(g(n)) & g(n) = [(h(n)) f(n) = [(h(n))
Reflexivity
f(n) = 5(f(n))
f(n) = O(f(n))
f(n) = ;(f(n))
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Properties
Symmetry
f(n) = 5(g(n)) iff g(n) = 5(f(n))
Complementarity
f(n) = O(g(n)) iff g(n) = ;(f(n))
f(n) = o(g(n)) iff g(n) = [((f(n))
30 July 2011 Comp 122, Spring 2004
Common Functions
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Monotonicity
f(n) is
monotonically increasing if m n f(m) f(n).
monotonically decreasing if m u n f(m) u f(n).
strictly increasing if m < n f(m) < f(n).
strictly decreasing if m > n f(m) > f(n).
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Exponentials
Useful Identities:
Exponentials and polynomials
n n
n n
a a a
a a
a
a

!
!
!
) (
1
1
) (
0 lim
n b
n
b
n
a o n
a
n
!
!
g p
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Logarithms
x = log
b
a is the
exponent for a = b
x
.
Natural log: ln a = log
e
a
Binary log: lg a = log
2
a
lg
2
a = (lg a)
2
lg lg a = lg (lg a)
a c
a
b
b b
c
c
b
b
n
b
c c c
a
b b
b
c a
b
a
a a
b
a
a
a n a
b a ab
b a
log log
log
log
1
log
log ) / 1 ( log
log
log
log
log log
log log ) ( log
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
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Logarithms and exponentials Bases
If the base of a logarithm is changed from one
constant to another, the value is altered by a
constant factor.
Ex: log
10
n * log
2
10 = log
2
n.
Base of logarithm is not an issue in asymptotic
notation.
Exponentials with different bases differ by a
exponential factor (not a constant factor).
Ex: 2
n
= (2/3)
n
*3
n
.
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Polylogarithms
For a u 0, b > 0, lim
npg
( lg
a
n / n
b
) = 0,
so lg
a
n = o(n
b
), and n
b
= [(lg
a
n )
Prove using LHopitals rule repeatedly
lg(n!) = 5(n lg n)
Prove using Stirlings approximation (in the text) for lg(n!).
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Exercise
Express functions in A in asymptotic notation using functions in B.
A B
5n
2
+ 100n 3n
2
+ 2
A 5(n
2
), n
2
5(B) A 5(B)
log
3
(n
2
) log
2
(n
3
)
log
b
a = log
c
a / log
c
b; A = 2lgn / lg3, B = 3lgn, A/B =2/(3lg3)
n
lg4
3
lg n
a
log b
=b
log a
; B =3
lg n
=n
lg 3
; A/B =n
lg(4/3)
pg as npg
lg
2
n n
1/2
lim ( lg
a
n / n
b
) = 0 (here a = 2 and b = 1/2) A c(B)
npg
A 5(B)
A 5(B)
A [(B)
A c(B)
30 July 2011 Comp 122, Spring 2004
Summations Review
asymp - 30 Comp 122
Review on Summations
Why do we need summation formulas?
For computing the running times of iterative
constructs (loops). (CLRS Appendix A)
Example: Maximum Subvector
Given an array A[1n] of numeric values (can be
positive, zero, and negative) determine the
subvector A[ij] (1 i j n) whose sum of
elements is maximum over all subvectors.
1 -2 2 2
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Review on Summations
MaxSubvector(A, n)
maxsum n0;
for i n1 to n
do for j = i to n
sum n0
for k ni to j
do sum += A[k]
maxsum nmax(sum, maxsum)
return maxsum
n n j
T(n) = 1
i=1 j=i k=i
NOTE: This is not a simplified solution. What is the final answer?
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Review on Summations
Constant Series: For integers a and b, a b,
Linear Series (Arithmetic Series): For n u 0,
Quadratic Series: For n u 0,

!
!
b
a i
a b 1 1
2
) 1 (
2 1
1

! !

!
n n
n i
n
i
.

!

! !
n
i
n n n
n i
1
2 2 2 2
6
) 1 2 )( 1 (
2 1 .
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Review on Summations
Cubic Series: For n u 0,
Geometric Series: For real x { 1,
For |x| < 1,

! !
n
i
n n
n i
1
2 2
3 3 3 3
4
) 1 (
2 1 .

! !
n
k
n
n k
x
x
x x x x
0
1
2
1
1
1 .

g
!

!
0
1
1
k
k
x
x
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Review on Summations
Linear-Geometric Series: For n u 0, real c { 1,
Harmonic Series: nth harmonic number, nI
+
,


! !
n
i
n n
n i
c
c nc c n
nc c c ic
1
2
2 1
2
) 1 (
) 1 (
2 .
n
H
n
1
3
1
2
1
1 ! .

!
! !
n
k
O n
k
1
) 1 ( ) ln(
1
asymp - 35 Comp 122
Review on Summations
Telescoping Series:
Differentiating Series: For |x| < 1,

!
n
k
n k k
a a a a
1
0 1

g
!

!
0
2
1
k
k
x
x
kx
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Review on Summations
Approximation by integrals:
For monotonically increasing f(n)
For monotonically decreasing f(n)
How?

e e
n
n
k
n
dx x f k f dx x f
1
1
) ( ) ( ) (


1
1
) ( ) ( ) (
n
m
n
m k
n
m
dx x f k f dx x f
asymp - 37 Comp 122
Review on Summations
nth harmonic number

! u
n
k
n
n
x
dx
k
1
1
1
) 1 ln(
1


!
!
n
k
n
n
x
dx
k
2
1
ln
1

!
e
n
k
n
k
1
1 ln
1
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Reading Assignment
Chapter 4 of CLRS.