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TOWARDS INCLUSIVE CITIES

Presentation by: Sunita Kumari

INTRODUCTION Todays world more urbanization Economic vibrancy of urban centers (pull factor) Urban spaces under pressure land value rising, rent shoots up (push factor for poor people) Now more confined in developing countries, where an extra 2 billion people will need to be provided with housing and services over the next 30 years. The questions that the world need to ask are Where will these new urban residents live? Which land should they use? Which schools will their children go to? Where will they get their water ? Who will protect them? Infact, very few POLITICIANS and POLICYMAKERS are even asking these questions.

Today more than 25% of the developing worlds urban population live below official poverty lines; over 40% of urban households in Sub-Saharan Africa are in poverty. In most developing countries conditions are worsening as inappropriate macro-economic policy and weak urban governance meet the impact of growing inequality, corruption and imbalances in resource allocation Since 1950, mankind has endured its most rapid expansion, from 2.5 billion to 6 billion people (increased more than 6 fold in 50 years) Every year the worlds urban population is increasing by about 70 million, equivalent to 7 new Megacities. All need to be provided with shelter, with employment and services; but the stretched capacity in most developing countries is unable to meet the demand giving rise to informal sectors/slums.

Slum are the products of  Failed policies  Bad governance  Corruption  Inappropriate regulation  Dysfunctional land markets  Unresponsive financial systems  Fundamental lack of political will
Therefore, strategies to improve urban poverty need to consider much more than the provision of housing and social services. Need to consider question of governance and political will; of ownership and rights; of social capital and access ; of appropriate technology and of coordination between different parties in urban activities by different means.

Good practices for improving slum management


 Slum upgrading through concerted strategies and involving self-help and local ownership  Improving tenure security  Attention to the interaction of land, transport and infrastructure provision for the poor  Increasing employment opportunities through support from small enterprises and poverty alleviation  Use appropriate technology for infrastructure and housing provision that are affordable and provide work opportunities.  Mobilizing urban finance  An inclusive approach by local authority  Partnership between different level s of government , NGOs and private sector & CBOs  Bottom-up participatory planning

POLICY ISSUES AND STRATEGIES FOR INCLUSIVE CITY


Today's best practices are strategic, inclusive and holistic, and various projects need to be undertaken because they1. benefit urban citizens, especially low income group and vulnerable groups, and deliver worthwhile social outcomes that improve equity and participation 2. form part of larger strategies and aimed at improving overall well-being and operation of cities for generation. 3. involve all stakeholders, particularly marginalized groups INCLUSIVE STRATEGIES may be applied to all classes of urban inputs and outputs- to slum upgrading, housing tenure and rights

FROM SLUM UPGRADING TO CITIES WITHOUT SLUMS


Best practice with problems of existing slum is participatory slum upgrading (as a political, social and organizational plan) important complimentary components of slum upgrading strategy may include: i. Sectoral reforms: eliminate provisions that raise costs, make subsidy policy effective and establish equitable tariff ii. Finance: engage private financial institution that may extend access to credit for housing, services and development for poor. iii. Jobs: measures to support small-scale enterprise and increase employment iv. Governance: governance and management to be more responsive to issues of poor

AFTER FROM SLUM UPGRADING Improved performance of local governance is necessary to manage future urban growth, particularly by;  effectively carrying out basic land-use planning ( such as revising regulatory policies discourages the sprawl and settlement of unsafe or environmentally fragile areas)  more effectively mobilizing local resources (cities with slums have significant fiscal resources, hence opportunities to mobilize private investment, technical knowledge and indigenous entrepreneurial talents).

Urban Planning should aim to develop a city-wide infrastructure supply system that provides the possibility of individual household connections as and when they can afford it, and the possibility of community mobilization and selfhelp.
Example: In Indore the slums were located on the watercourse of the city. The new infrastructure that was provided in the slums and linked to the rest of the city made it possible to clean up a river, as all the slums gutters were discharging into the river. The whole city did not have an underground sewerage system; by putting infrastructure down for the whole city, including the slums, the whole city benefited. Cross-subsidies for the network then became possible. By providing decent roads within, and on the perimeter of, slum areas, it became possible to complete linkage within the city s with network, which substantially improve traffic flow.

THE CITIES WITHOUT SLUMS ACTION PLAN CALLS FORi. Challenging donors, government and slum communities to improve lives of 5-10 million slum dwellers by 2025. ii. Increasing investment aimed at providing basic services to urban poor iii. Leading a worldwide effort to move from pilot projects to larger scale level iv. Investing in global knowledge and reduce new growth of slum

6 KEY ACTI0NS NECESSARY TO MEET THE GOAL i. Restructuring policy and regulatory and operating frameworks . ii. Preparing National upgrading programmes by helping committed countries to design programmes for upgrading iii. Supporting regional and global knowledge and learning , that capture and share varied approaches iv. Investing in slum, with appropriate basic infrastructure v. Strengthening partner capacity to focus attention on the task, with emphasis on resources, knowledge and tools to help government and communities vi. Leadership and political buy-in by the partners of the Cities Alliance to prioritize slum upgrading

IMPACT OF THE LOCATION OF HOUSING FOR THE URBAN POOR Location of affordable low-income housing should be major concern in Urban Policy Low-income housing be made more accessible to income generating opportunities and other vital sites of urban exchange Transport and housing policies can create pressures on the poor to be pushed towards urban peripheries Such impact will be severe transport related problems, including loss of jobs or income from informal enterprises, increased level of travel time and costs, and loss of community ties.

TENURE ISSUES AND ACCESSTO LAND FOR THE URBAN POOR The urban poor and the large segments of low- and low-to-medium-income groups have no choice but to rely on informal land and housing markets for access to land and shelter.  This situation led to the rapid spatial expansion of irregular settlements.  Squatters are decreasing in most developing countries and unauthorized settlements are on the increase; this reflects the ever increasing accommodation of land delivery systems for the poor of the cities, and the fact that there is less and less public land available for occupation by squatters.

SECURITY OF TENURE: A KEY TO THE INCLUSIVE CITY  Tenure of security can be considered as the main component of the right to housing and on essential pre-requisite for access to citizenship.  Tenure often involves a complex set of rules, frequently referred to as a bundle of rights. A given resource may have multiple users, each of whom has a particular rights to the resource. Some users may have access to entire bundle of rights, with full use and transfer rights. Other users may be limited in their use of the resources.  Population living in irregular urban settlement are all confronted by set of inter-related problems no or limited access to basic services and have no security of tenure.

 Security derives from the fact that the right of


access to and use of the land and property is underwritten by a legitimate set of rules.  A person or household can be said to have secure tenure when they are protected from involuntary removal from their land/residence, except in exceptional circumstances and then only by means of known and agreed procedure which must itself be objectives, equally applicable, contestable and independent .  Protection against forced eviction is a pre-requisite for integrating irregular settlements within the city.

 Security of tenure can be considered the main component of the right of housing, and an essential prerequisite for access to citizenship, as emphasized by the Global Campaign for Secure Tenure (GCST).  Security of tenure is a fundamental requirement of progressive integration of the urban poor within the city, and one of the basic components of the right to housing.  Granting of secure tenure is one of the most important catalyst in stabilizing communities but not sufficient to break poverty cycle. The social structure of irregular settlement is far from homogeneous within a single city or even within one settlement. Irregular settlement are not exclusively occupied by urban poor, but also middle income households, when the formal markets cannot meet their demands.

Some informal residential tenure arrangement can guarantee a reasonably good security of tenure. In communal or customary land delivery systems, recognition by the community itself and by the neighbourhood is often considered more important than recognition by public authorities.  Whatever the irregular settlement (for instance, unauthorized land development on customary or private land, or squatters etc), four main points contribute to protect household from eviction;
1) Length of occupation (older settlement have better level of legitimacy over new settlement ) 2) Size of the settlement (smaller settlement are vulnerable) 3) Level of cohesion of community organization. 4) Support, which concerned communities may get from 3rd sector organization such as NGOs

 The current pre-occupation with security of tenure issues by institutions that are responsible for urban land management and housing development programmes is to a large extent the result of lessons learned from the experiences of recent years.  When large scale allocation of property titles to households living in informal settlements has been made possible, it has often resulted in increased housing prices within settlements and/or in an increase in the cost of services, both of which have tended to exclude the poorest sections of the population. Policies based on large-scale provision of land and housing by the public sector have been effective, in some cases in reaching the urban poor, but only when carried out in a very determined way and in a fairly special circumstances (for egsituations of housing scarcity and strong govt. that can mobilize significant resources.)

 Market-oriented responses tend to increase social urban segregation as the formal private sector responds much better and often, almost exclusively to the needs of households in the upper-income bracket. Centralized land registration and management system and procedures, as well as existing legal and regulatory frameworks, cannot respond to the requirement of large scale tenure regularization programmers in cities where upto 50% of the urban population are living in irregular settlement for govt. rarely has sufficient human and financial resources to operate on large scale.  Most countries opt in favour of private land and housing ownership, to the detriment of other options, due largely to conventional responses to the expansion of informal settlements that always reflect culturally and ideologically oriented development model.

 Situation regarding access to land and housing, and the perceptions of needs and rights, are primarily guided by western forms of technical rationality and financial logic that have been design by international finance institutions and aid agencies.  The long-term objectives to promote private ownership through the allocation of individual freehold/property titles may have a negative impact on the urban poor. On one hand this measures are expensive and may price the poor out of the land market. On the other hand, excluding informal or other landlords who normally provide low cost housing removes both a ready source of capital with some access to the formal sector, and the better political connections that this group may have in supporting neighborhood upgrading in the long-term.

 Two approaches to secure tenure are 1) Formal tenure regularization at the settlement levelregularization policies are generally based on the delivery of individual freehold and more rarely of leasehold titles. 2) Security of tenure as the primary goal, rather than formalization and co modification - it combines protective administrative or legal measures against force evictionsincluding the provisions of titles that can be upgrade if required- with the provision of basic services.  The rapid integration of informal settlements within the border community through conventional tenure regularization and the provision of freehold tittles may hinder community cohesion, dissolve social links and induce/accelerate segregation processes through market eviction.

 The consolidation process involves improvement to the economic conditions of households; the emergency of legitimate leadership at the community level; the identification of right holders; and the resolution of conflict.  The essential advantage of options that emphasized incremental regularization procedures, where occupants are granted occupancy rights that can, at a later stage, be incrementally upgraded to real rights, such as freehold or long-term leases is so desired. Such an approach can be used both on vacant land and for regularizing irregular settlements.  Many of the landlords are themselves quite poor, so the rental system actually provides a means of informal income generation, especially for women, and is often the only pension scheme available in slum community.

 The involvement of private landlords hastens co modification, higher land prices ad the growth of high density tenements and poor living condition, as detailed in the 19th century pejorative literature in which the slum reform movement was born.  As emphasized in the New Delhi Declaration and by the Habitat Agenda, there is clearly to have a variety of responses available in order to cope with the diversity of local situation encountered.  Various objectives behind the provisions of security of tenure, such as ensuring social peace (the prime political motivation of most govt.), social justice, urban planning, or environmental and economic objectives such as the integration of informal practices within the sphere of the formal economy.

 Security of tenure policies depend upon the priorities given to these objectives and to forms and types of irregularity encountered.  The responses and options available to deal with security of tenure cannot be seen only in technical terms. They depend upon a set of inter-related social, political, economic and technical factors; 1) The principle of the right to housing and the legal measures to enforce this right frequently contradict constitutional principles regarding the protection of property right, this is the main area of conflict when tenure upgrading and regularization policies are implemented as well as when providing the simplest form of secure tenure.

2) The respective responsibilities of central and local in relation to implementation of security of tenure policies are, generally, clearly defined. More often than not, local entities have responsibilities regarding land and housing policies, but are hindered in carrying them out by the limited resources, both human and financial. 3) At city or municipal level, the options available regarding security of tenure policies depend upon the balance of power between various urban stakeholders, as well as on the political orientation of the municipality. 4) Available options also depend upon the prevailing residential tenure systems in place, and also, to some extend emphasized upon the population living in irregular settlements. 5) At settlement/community level, the measures employed will depend upon the size of the community concerned, any political influence that may be involved, the age of the settlement and level of commmunity organization.

IMPROVING LIVELIHOODS OF SLUM DWELLERS Major objectives of most international agencies is the reduction of poverty Reforms of governance institutions need to be emphasized before anti-poverty strategies Greatest success would have been mobilizing and organizing poor women Once poor afforded the opportunity communities can build their own organization and develop their own leaders Communities often start with self-help group and combine to build larger in order to exert local governance and private sectors

GOOD URBAN GOVERNANCE AND INCLUSIVE CITY The idea of inclusive city has global applicability; notions different in different parts of the world with exclusion of vulnerable groups more significant in some places while exclusion of poor majority more important in others. In this connection it is essential for all actors to discuss the question of WHO in a particular city is excluded from WHAT and HOW The inclusion of man and women on an equal basis is one theme that unites the NORTH and SOUTH

GOOD GOVERNANCE IS CHARACYERIZED BY THE PRINCIPLES OF  Sustainability  Subsidiarity  Equity  Efficiency  Transparency & Accountability  Civic engagement & Citizenship and Security.

Various approaches that must be grounded in the reality of Planning and Management
 Welfare approach- stress importance on providing individuals and groups with the goods that they need, in order to effectively participate in society (land & infrastructure)  Human development approach- empowering groups and individuals to strengthen their ability and willingness to participate in society  Environmental approach- stress the precautionary principles and concern for future generation  Institutional approach- concern with the roles of actors and the institutional frameworks that determine the formal and informal incentives for inclusion  Rights-based approachemphasizes the right to development and provide framework for poverty reduction based on full complement of civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights, underpins all other approaches

Global Campaign on Urban Governance (GCUG) was launched in 1999 by United Habitat to promote good governance, embracing concept of effectiveness, inclusiveness and transparency in both government and civil society  Its main theme was INCLUSIVE CITY, focusing attention on the needs of the poor and on other marginalized groups, and recognizing that participatory planning and decision-making are the strategic means for realizing this vision