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# Chapter 2

## Linear Kinematics Describing Objects in Linear Motion

Objectives
Distinguish between linear, angular, and general motion Define distance traveled and displacement, and distinguish between the two Define average speed and average velocity, and distinguish between the two Define instantaneous speed and instantaneous velocity

Objectives
Define average acceleration Define instantaneous acceleration Name the units of measurement for distance traveled and displacement, speed and velocity, and acceleration Use the equations of projectile motion to determine the vertical or horizontal position of a projectile given the initial velocities and time

What is Motion?
Action or process of a change in position Two things are necessary for motion to occur: space to move in and time during which to move Movements can be classified as linear, angular, or both (general)

Linear Motion
Referred to as translation Occurs when all points on a body or object move the same distance, in the same direction, and at the same time Rectilinear and Curvilinear translation Difference is that the paths followed by the points on an object in curvilinear translation are curved, so the direction of motion of the object is constantly changing, even though the orientation of the object does not change

Angular Motion
Referred to as rotary motion or rotation Occurs when all points on a body or object move in circles (or parts of circles) about the same fixed central line or axis Can occur about an axis within the body (ice skater in a spin) or outside the body (child on a swing)

General Motion
Combination of linear and angular motion Most common type of motion exhibited in sports and human movement
Running and BicyclingLinear motion as a result of the angular motion of the legs and arms

General motion of a body or object can be broken down into linear and angular components

Linear Kinematics
Concerned with the description of linear motion PositionLocation in space
Where is an object in space at the beginning or end of its movement or at some time during its movement Consider the importance of the position of players for the strategies employed in sports such as football, tennis, racquetball, squash, soccer, ect

Position
Can be described in one (x), two (x, y), or three (x, y, z) dimensions To describe the position of an object, a Cartesian coordinate system is used Need to identify a fixed reference point to serve as the origin of the coordinate system Number of axes corresponds to the number of dimensions Axes must be at right angles when describing the position of an object in two or three dimensions Each axis has a positive and negative direction

## Distance Traveled and Displacement

DistanceLength of the path followed by the object whose motion is being described, from the starting position to the ending position DisplacementStraight-line distance in a specific direction from the starting position to the ending position Resultant displacementDistance measured in a straight line from the starting position to the ending position

## Distance Traveled and Displacement

Football example:
Resultant displacement can be resolved into components in the x-direction (across the field) and y-direction (down the field toward the goal) In this case the y-displacement of the running back is the measure of importance We can find the y-displacement by subtracting his initial position from his final position

## Distance Traveled and Displacement

dy = y = yf yi
dy = displacement in the y-direction y = change in y-position yf = final y-position yi = initial y-position dy = y = yf yi = 35yd 5yd dy = +30yd

## Distance Traveled and Displacement

We may also be curious about the players displacement across the field (in the x-direction)
dx = x = xf xi dx = displacement in the x-direction x = change in x-position xf = final x-position xi = initial x-position dx = x = xf xi = 5yd 15yd dx = -10yd

## Distance Traveled and Displacement

Resultant displacement could be found using trigonometric relationships
Hypotenuse of right triangle represents resultant displacement A2 + B2 = C2 or ( x)2 + ( y)2 = R2 (-10)2 + (30)2 = R2 100yd2 + 900yd2 = R2 1000yd2 = R2 R = 1000yd2 R = 31.6yd

## Distance Traveled and Displacement

To find the direction of the resultant displacement we can use the relationship between the two sides of the displacement triangle
Tan = opposite side/adjacent side = arctan (opposite side/adjacent side) = arctan ( x/ y) represents the angle between the resultant displacement vector and the y-displacement vector = arctan (-10yd/30yd) = arctan (-.3333) = 18.4

## Speed and Velocity

SpeedRate of motion VelocityRate of motion in a specific direction Average speedDistance traveled divided by the time it took to travel that distance
s= / t s = average speed = distance traveled t = time taken or change in time

## Speed and Velocity

SI unit for describing speed is meters per second (other units commonly used include miles per hour or kilometers per hour) Average speed does not tell us what went on during the race itself
Does not tell us the maximum speed reached by the racer Does not indicate when the racer was speeding up or slowing down

## Speed and Velocity

Johnson: Average speed entire 100m s = 100m/9.79s s = 10.21m/s Lewis: Average speed entire 100m s = 100m/9.92s s = 10.08m/s

Average speed first 50m s = 50m/5.50s s = 9.09m/s Average speed 50m to 100m s = 100m-50m/9.79s 5.50 s = 50m/4.29s s = 11.66m/s

Average speed first 50m s = 50m/5.65s s = 8.85m/s Average speed 50m to 100m s = 100m-50m/9.92-5.65 s = 50m/4.27s s = 11.71m/s

## Speed and Velocity

10m split times can be used to determine the average speed of each sprinter during each 10m interval (e.g. during the 50-60m interval both sprinters reached maximum speed) By taking more split times during the race, we can determine the runners average speeds for more intervals and shorter intervals Instantaneous speed or velocitySpeed or velocity of an object at a specific instant in time (very small time interval)

Velocity
Average velocityDisplacement of an object divided by the time it took for that displacement v = d/ t v = average velocity d = displacement t = time taken or change in time

Velocity
If the motion of the object under analysis is in a straight line and rectilinear, with no change in direction, average speed and average velocity will be identical in magnitude However, if the direction of motion changes, speed and the magnitude of velocity are not synonymous (e.g. 100m swim in a 50m pool)

## Importance of Speed and Velocity

Direct indicators of performance (e.g. baseball, soccer, track and field) Baseball example:
In his prime Nolan Ryan could pitch the ball 101mi/hr or 148ft/s or 45m/s Distance from the pitching rubber to home plate is 60.5ft (ball is released ~2.5ft in front of the rubber), so the horizontal distance it must travel to reach the plate is 58ft How much time does a batter have to react to Nolan Ryans fastball?

## Importance of Speed and Velocity

Sample Problem 2.1 (text p. 61)
Average horizontal velocity of a penalty kick in soccer is 22m/s Horizontal displacement of the ball from the kickers foot to the goal is 11m How long does it take for the ball to reach the goal after it is kicked?

Acceleration
Rate of change in velocity An object accelerates if the magnitude or direction of its velocity changes (speeds up, slows down, or changes direction) Average accelerationChange in velocity divided by the time it took for that velocity change to take place Instantaneous accelerationRate of change in velocity at a specific instant in time SI unit for describing acceleration are meters per second per second or m/s2

Acceleration
a = v/ t a = vf vi/ t a = average acceleration v = change in velocity vf = instantaneous velocity at the end of an interval of final velocity vi = instantaneous velocity at the beginning of an interval, or initial velocity t = time taken or change in time

Acceleration
Direction of motion is not necessarily the same as the direction of the acceleration Before analyzing a problem, first establish which direction + will be assigned to

Acceleration
If final velocity is less than initial velocity, the change in velocity is a negative number and the resulting average acceleration is negative (slowing down in the positive direction) Negative acceleration will also result if the initial and final velocities are both negative and if the final velocity is a larger negative number than the initial velocity (object is speeding up in the negative direction)

Acceleration
Car example: Car can accelerate from 0 to 60 in 7s
a = v/ t a = vf vi/ t a = 60mi/hr 0mi/hr/7s a = 8.6mi/hr/s In 1s, this cars velocity increases (speeds up) by 8.6m/hr If the car is accelerating at 8.6mi/hr/s and moving at 30mi/hr, how fast will the car be traveling 1s, or 2s later?

## Uniform Acceleration and Projectile Motion

In certain situations the acceleration of an object is constantOccurs when the net external force acting on an object is constant (e.g. gravity) If an object undergoes uniform acceleration, its position and velocity at any instant in time can be predicted

## Vertical Motion of a Projectile

ProjectileObject that has been projected into the air or dropped and is only acted on by the forces of gravity and air resistance Acceleration due to gravity or g is 9.81m/s2 downward (upward is the positive direction) We can predict projectile velocity and position

## Vertical Motion of a Projectile

Equations to describe the vertical motion of a projectile:
Vertical position of a projectile:
yf = yi + vi t + g( t)2

## Vertical velocity of projectile:

vf = vi + g t vf2 = vi2 + 2g y

## Vertical Motion of a Projectile

yi = initial vertical position yf = final vertical position y = yf yi = vertical displacement t = change in time vi = initial vertical velocity vf = final vertical velocity g = acceleration due to gravity = -9.81m/s2

## Vertical Motion of a Projectile

If we are analyzing the motion of something that is dropped, the equations are simplified
vi = 0 yi = 0 Vertical position of falling object: yf = g( t)2 Vertical velocity of falling object: vf2 = 2g y

## Vertical Motion of a Projectile

Sample Problem 2.2 (text p. 66)
Upward velocity of the ball as it passes any height on the way up is the same as the downward velocity of the ball when it passes that same height on the way down Time it takes for the balls upward velocity to slow down to zero is the same as the time it takes for the balls downward velocity to speed up from zero to the same size velocity downward tup = tdown (if the initial and final y-positions same) tflight = 2 tup (if the initial and final y-positions same)

## Horizontal Motion of a Projectile

Horizontal Motion of a Projectile Difficult to examine or observe the horizontal motion of a projectile separately from its vertical motion, though, because you see both horizontal and vertical motions simultaneously Horizontal velocity of a projectile is constant, and its horizontal motion is in a straight line (ignoring air resistance)

## Horizontal Motion of a Projectile

Equations to describe the horizontal motion of a projectile:
Horizontal position of projectile:
xf = xi + v t x = v tif the initial position is zero

## Horizontal velocity of projectile:

v = vf = vi = constant (ignoring air resistance)

## Horizontal Motion of a Projectile

xi = initial horizontal position xf = final horizontal position t = change in time vi = initial horizontal velocity vf = final horizontal velocity

Linear Kinematics
Vertical and horizontal motions of a projectile are independent of each other An equation can be derived to describe the path of a projectile in horizontal and vertical dimensions
yf = yi + vyi (x/vx) + g(x/vx)2

Equation of a parabolaDescribes the vertical (y) and horizontal (x) coordinates of a projectile during its flight based solely on the initial vertical position and vertical and horizontal velocities

Projectiles in Sport
Any ball used in sports becomes a projectile when it is thrown, released, hit, kicked, ect Once in flight the path of the ball cannot be changed (ignoring air resistance) Vertically constant acceleration downward Horizontally ball wont slow down or speed up Initial conditions determine projectile motion

Projectiles in Sport
In sports involving projectiles, one of three things concerned with:
Time of flightDependent on initial vertical velocity and initial vertical position
Football punt, tennis lob, gymnastics, diving Optimum angle of projection to achieve maximum height and time of flight is 90 (straight up) Sometimes desirable to minimize flight timeVolleyball spike, tennis overhead smash, baseball throw, soccer penalty kickProjection angle < 45

Projectiles in Sport
Peak height reachedDependent on initial vertical velocity and initial vertical position
Higher the projectile is at release and the faster it is moving upward at release, the higher it will go (basketball and volleyball players) High jumpingAngle of projection > 45

Projectiles in Sport
Horizontal displacementDependent on initial horizontal velocity, initial vertical velocity, and initial height
Shot put, hammer throw, discuss throw, javelin throw, and long jump Javelin and discuss can be affected by air resistance so equations may not be accurate Maximum horizontal displacement will occur if the horizontal and vertical components of the initial velocity are equal, or when the projection angle is 45 (assuming initial release height is zero) The higher the release height and the greater the lift effects of air resistance on the projectile, the farther below 45 the projection angle should be (shot put 35)

Summary
Motion can be classified as a combination of linear, angular, or a combination of both (general motion) Displacement, velocity, and acceleration are vector quantities described by size and direction Horizontal velocity of a projectile is constant and its vertical velocity changes at the rate of 9.81m/s2