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WCDMA Principles

Huawei Confidential. All Rights Reserved

Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 WCDMA Network Structure Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies Chapter 4 WCDMA RNC Area

Internal Use

Mobile Network Evolution


2.75G Enhanced Data

1G Analogue

2G Digital

2.5G Packet Data

WCDMA

GSM NMT TACS AMPS CDMA


1982-1996+
3

EDGE GPRS
384K

2M, 14M

TDMA

115K

TD-SCDMA
2M

PDC cdma2000 1X EV-DO


2.4M

CDMA 1X 144K

1992-2002+

2001+

2004+

2002-2004+
Internal Use

Standardization Course of ITU IMT-2000

IMT2000
3GPP 3GPP2 CWTS ETSI

1985: ITU-T form FPLMTS. Later renamed as IMT-2000 in 1996 1992: 230MHz spectrum was allocated in WARC92 Standardization organizations such as 3GPP(1998.12), 3GPP2(1999) were established 2000: All the network standards of IMT2000 were completed Family concept adopted in network part was

ITU-DS

ITU-SC

ITU-MC

ITU-TC UMTS TDD

ITU-FT DECT

WCDMA UWC-136 CDMA2000

Internal Use

Main CDMA 3G Proposals


Regional StandardRadio Transmission Organization(RSO) Technology(RTT)

U.S.

TIA(TR 45.5) T1

cdma2000 WCDMA TTA1(~WCDMA) TTA2(~cdma2000)

Korea

TTA

Japan Europe China

ARIB ETSI(SMG 2) CWTS

WCDMA WCDMA TD-SCDMA

Internal Use

Target of IMT2000

Global uniform frequency band and standard, global seamless coverage High efficient spectrum utility High quality of service, high security Easy for evolution from 2G system Providing multimedia service Car speed environment: 144kbps Walk speed environment: 384kbps Indoor environment: 2048kbps

Internal Use

QoS Requirements of Different Services

Sensitivity of error
conversational

streaming

interactive

background

Sensitivity of delay
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Internal Use

WCDMA FDD
WCDMA FDD
Multiple access method Duplex Method Frequency Band Base Station Synchronization Chip Rate Frame Length Service multiplexing Multi-user detection, smart antennas Power Control Handover Transmit Diversity Voice Coding DS-CDMA Frequency Division Uplink : 1920-1980MHz, Downlink : 2110-2170MHz Asynchronous/Synchronous operation 3.84Mcps 10ms Multiple Services with different multiplexed on a single connection QoS are

Supported by standard, optional in implementation Fast Power Control, 1.5KHz Softer, Soft & Hard Handover Open & Closed Loop AMR Voice Coding, rate 4.75kb 12.2kbps

Internal Use

WCDMA Voice Evolution

Adopt AMR voice coding, and support voice quality of 4.75Kbps ~ 12.2Kbps Adopt soft handover and transmit diversity to improve system capacity Provide high fidelity voice mode Fast power control

Internal Use

Data Service Evolution of WCDMA


Support maximum 2Mbps data service Support packet switch Adopt ATM platform currently Provide QoS Common Packet Channel(CPCH) and Downlink Channel(DSCH) can support Internet packet services better Share

Provide high-quality support for uplink-downlink symmetric data service, such as voice, video phone, conference TV

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Internal Use

Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 WCDMA Network Structure Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies Chapter 4 WCDMA RNC Area

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Internal Use

WCDMA Network Structure

CS domain
GSM /GPRS BSS BSC BTS PCU A HLR/AUC MSC/VLR GMSC PSTN/other PLMN

Gb

SCE SS7 SMS SCP


PS backbone

RNC NodeB

Iu-CS Iu-PS SGSN

Internet, Intranet GGSN

UTRAN

CG

PS domain

BG Other PLMN

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Internal Use

WCDMA Interfaces

MSC
A Interface

SGSN
Gb

MSC
Iu-CS

SGSN
Iu-PS Iur Iub

BSC BSS
A-bis

RNC UTRAN
Iub

RNC

BTS
Um Uu

NodeB
Uu

NodeB

UE

UE

UE

GSM

WCDMA

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Internal Use

Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 WCDMA Network Structure Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies Chapter 4 WCDMA RNC Area

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Internal Use

Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies


Section 1 - Correlation Function
-

OVSF and PN code Information Spreading & Recovery Rake Receiver

Section 2 - WCDMA Transmission Block Diagram Section 3 - Power Control - Handover - Diversity

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Internal Use

Correlation Function

Correlation is a measure of similarity between any two arbitrary signals. EXAMPLE:

+1 0 -1 +1 0 -1

-1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1
1 correlation Identical signals

+1 0 -1 +1 0 -1

-1 1 -1 1
11 11 -1 1 -1 1
Zero correlation Orthogonal signals
Internal Use

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Orthogonal Function

Orthogonal functions have zero correlation. Two binary sequences are orthogonal if their XOR output contains equal number of 1s and 0s

EXAMPLE:

0000 0101 0101


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1010 0101 1111


Internal Use

OVSF & Walsh Code


Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1) Cch,2,0 = (1,1) Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) Cch,1,0 = (1) Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) Cch,2,1 = (1,-1) Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4

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Internal Use

SF and Service Rate

Symbol Rate*SF=Chip Rate In WCDMA system, if rate=960Kbps;

chip

rate=3.84MHz,

SF=4,

then

symbol

Symbol Rate=(Service Rate + Checking Code)*Channel Coding Rate* Repeat or Puncture Rate In WCDMA system, if service rate=384Kbps, channel coding=1/3 Turbo coding, then symbol rate=960Kbps;

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Internal Use

Scrambling Code

Scrambling codes GOLD sequence. Uplink scrambling codes Uplink scrambling codes are used to distinguish different UEs Downlink scrambling codes For downlink physical channels, a total of 218 -1 = 262,143 scrambling codes can be generated. Only scrambling codes k = 0, 1, , 8191 are used. 8192 codes are divided into 512 groups, each of which contains 16 scrambling codes. The first scrambling code of each group is called primary scrambling code (PSC), and the other 15 ones are secondary scrambling codes (SSC).

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Internal Use

OVSF and PN Code Usage


OVSF Code Usage PN Code

Uplink : Separate physicalUplink : Separation of UEs data (DPDCH) & control channels (DPCCH) from the same terminal Downlink : Separate downlink connections toDownlink : Separation of different UEs within the cell cells Uplink : 4 256 chips Downlink : 4 512 chips Uplink/Downlink : 10ms = 38400 chips

Length Number of codes

Number of codes under oneUplink : Several Million scrambling factor = spreadingDownlink : 512 factor Orthogonal VariableGold code Spreading Factor (OVSF) Spreading increaseNo change in transmission transmission bandwidth bandwidth

Code Family Bandwidth

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Internal Use

Information spreading over orthogonal codes

+1 -1 User Input Orthogonal Sequence Tx Data +1 -1 1 0 0 1 1

0110 1001

0110 0110

0110 0110

0110 1001

0110 1001

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Internal Use

Information recovery

1001 Correct Function 0110 1111


+1 -1 1

Rx Data

0110 0110 0000


0

0110 0110 0000


0

1001 0110 1111


1

1001 0110 1111


1

Rx Data Incorrect Function

1001 0101 1100


?

0110 0101 0011


?

0110 0101 0011


?

1001 0101 1100


?

1001 0101 1100


?

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Internal Use

Spreading and De-spreading

The improvement of time-domain information rate means that the bandwidth of spectrum-domain information is spread. S f information f0 f The spectrum before spreading S f information f0 f The spectrum before despreading information f0 S f information

f0 f The spectrum after spreading

S f Interference/noise

information Interference/noise f

The spectrum after despreading White noise

pulse interference

S(f) is the energy density.


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Internal Use

Principle of RAKE Receiver

Correlator 1 Correlator 2 Receive set Correlator 3 Calculate the time delay and signal strength

Combiner

The combined signal

Searcher correlator

s(t)

s(t)

RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive performance of the system
Internal Use

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Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies


Section 1 - Correlation Function
-

OVSF and PN code Information Spreading & Recovery Rake Receiver

Section 2 - WCDMA Transmission Block Diagram Section 3 - Power Control - Handover - Diversity

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Internal Use

Block Diagram of WCDMA System

Source coding

Channel coding

Spreading

Modulation

Radio channel

Source decoding

Channel decoding

Despreading

Demodulation

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Internal Use

Common Technical Terms

Bit, Symbol, Chip: A bit is the input data which contain information A symbol is the output of the convolution, encoder, and the block interleaving A chip is the output of spreading Processing Gain: Processing gain is the ratio of chip rate to the bit rate. Closely related to spreading factor, SF. Forward direction/ Downlink : Information path from base station to mobile station Reverse direction/ Uplink : Information path from mobile station to base station

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Internal Use

WCDMA System

Source Coding Voice :

Adaptive multirate technique with rate 4.75kbps 12.2kbps

Channel Coding CRC Attachment. Check for error during transmission. Voice : CRC check returns error, discard information Data : CRC check returns error; ask for retransmission

Convolutional or Turbo Coding Convolution coding for voice and low speed signaling Turbo Coding for large data transmission. Better performance than convolutional coding Interleaving Distribute error over data transmitted Rate Matching Match symbol rate to that accepted by spreading Rate matching technique : Repeat or puncturing

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Internal Use

WCDMA System

Spreading Spreading (OVSF code) SF 4 512, depends on data rate

Scrambling (Gold Code)

Modulation QPSK

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Internal Use

Chapter 3 WCDMA Technologies


Section 1 - Correlation Function
-

OVSF and PN code Information Spreading & Recovery Rake Receiver

Section 2 - WCDMA Transmission Block Diagram Section 3 - Power Control - Handover - Diversity

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Internal Use

Power Control

Open Loop Power Control

Set initial power for transmission of PRACH

Closed Loop Power Control

Inner Loop Power Control


Uplink : Controls power of NodeB. Downlink : Ensures all power received at NodeB are just enough to maintain satisfactory connection Fast Power Control : 1.5khz

Outer Loop Power Control


Set SIRthreshold
based on BER/BLER

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Internal Use

Open Loop Power Control


Controlled by UE. Determine UE initial transmission power for random access procedure. Not in use when inner loop power control running. UE obtain information from network on: CPICH power Uplink interference level Constant value (Default = 2dB)

UE Initial Power = CPICH power CPICH_RSCP + UL interference + Constant


PRACH Tx power

System information : CPICH power, UL interference & constant

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Internal Use

Inner Closed Loop Power Control


Power Control Bit
SIR threshold Located in UE & NodeB Controls power of dedicated physical channels Power controls occurs at 1500Hz, thus known as fast power control NodeB and UE continuously measure and compare SIRmasured with SIRthreshold value, and inform each e other to increase /reduce its power accordingly.

(SIR)masured e
UE3

NodeB

UE1

UE2

Without Power Control

With Optimum Power Control

UE2

UE4
dev ec e R i

UE3 UE1 UE4

UE1

UE2

UE3

UE4

dev ec e R i

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Internal Use

Outer Closed Loop Power Control


Adjust SIR for every user
Needed to keep track of changes in radio environment Aims to provide required quality If SIRthreshold

reaches its maximum, system has to perform - inter-frequency/inter-system handover - RRC connection release

SIR threshold

RNC BER/BLER Value

Change in (SIR)threshold

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Internal Use

Handover
Softer handover
Handover between intra-frequency cells under the control of the same BTS - Radio link connection to new target cell is created before existing connection being deleted.
-

Soft handover
-

Handover between intra-frequency cells under the control of the different BTSs

Hard handover
-

Condition of hard handover:


Intra-frequency handover, cells controlled by different RNCs and no Iur interface between them Inter-frequency handover Inter-system handover

Interruption in voice or data communication occurs but this interruption does not effect the user communication
Internal Use

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Soft/Softer Handover

Selection combination in the RNC during soft handoff Maximum ratio combination in the NodeB during softer handoffs

Power received from a single sector

Combine all the power from each sector

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Internal Use

Transmission Diversity : STTD

B0 B1 B2 B3

Pa th

B0 B1 B2 B3

Transmission diversity processing

Antenna 1

Restoring data stream


B0 B1 B2 B3

2 Path
B2 B3 B0 B1

Antenna 2

Space Time transmit Diversity (STTD)

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Internal Use

Transmission Diversity : TSTD

Data stream 1 Data stream Transmission diversity processing

Pa th

Antenna 1

Restoring data stream

2 Path

Data stream 2
Antenna 2

Time Switch transmit Diversity (TSTD) Used in synchronization physical channel ( SCH)

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Internal Use

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Internal Use