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Organization of the Media Function

Media planners- responsible for the overall strategy of the media component of the advertising strategy. The role of the media planner- to supervise all areas of the advertising campaign as it relates to the media functions. Contemporary media planners have added the role of marketing specialities too. Media environment changing rapidly, so media planners must anticipate future trends in communications.

The Media Research department coordinates both primary & secondary research data. It functions as a support group for media planners. The media research department is responsible for gauging & anticipating future trends in media.

Media Buying department executes the overall media plan. Media buyers select and negotiate specific media placements. They are responsible for monitoring postplacement executions. Depending on the size of the unit,there may be separate groups for Print & Broadcast.

The New Media Function

An assessment of the future of media planning & buying includes the following important aspects: Convergence, Interactivity, Creativity & Optimizers. Convergence: is one of the primary trends. It is the blending of distribution, content and/or hardware from a number of media companies to create a new or significantly expanded communication system. Example: cable company offering internet connections, home TV becomes a computer link etc.

Interactivity: The future of advertising to a great extent will be controlled by the audience. The advent of technology will permit consumers to deal directly with marketers for their entertainment, purchases and other services. This system will allow buyers & sellers to deal on a one-to-one basis with communication & production which will meet specific households & individuals. Sony anticipates to use the Web & broadband to sell directly to consumers.

Creativity: Interactivity will have effect on the creative process. This is an era of permission marketing and thus the need for attention getting creative techniques & interest building advt. Formats will be greatly diminished. Optimisers: In the 1990s, the concept of optimization was applied to television spot buys.Media planners made use of optimising computer programs to budget advt funds to those commercial spots that would deliver the greatest number of prospects at the lowest cost per viewer. Cost considerations- integral to optimising models

Importance of Media Planning

Proper media planning enables the selection of the right media It helps allocate advertising funds to the right products in the right media It indicates the period or season in which the advertiser needs to concentrate on advertising efforts It helps in achieving the objective of advertising

It minimizes wastage of advertising funds A media plan helps the advertiser agency to obtain approval from the client Proper media planning will help the advertiser to reach the right target audience It helps to finalise the frequency of advertisements.

Media Unbundling & Independent Media Buying Firms

In a media environment characterized by convergence & creativity, one of the new approaches to media function is Unbundling. Unbundling refers to the establishment of agency media departments as Independent Unit besides the traditional role as departments in the full service agencies.


The idea of breaking out media function as a separate business is a major trend since the last decade. Some independent media firms- have control of the overall media function including both negotiation & buying Some firms execute only the media planning & the buying is left to the agency/client

Very essential to have good co-operation and communication between media & creative departments yet they can operate well independently. Though some media directors opine differently & state that media planning is a strategic function & an integral part of the communication process.

Media Strategy

Media planners have made use of the building block strategy to develop a media schedule Its important to keep in mind the factor of cost & cost efficiency in media planning. Therefore, they start with the medium that reaches the most prospects & works down to those that reach the smallest portion of the audience .First or second blocks were quite easy to understand (in the past).


Most advertisers used television or magazines as a dominant medium. Other media vehicles were considered by media planners to reach smaller audience segments. Media options available to supplement an advertiser primary vehicles have grown. The introduction of Internet, video catalogues have brought major changes to the job of the media planner.

Important to go beyond costs in developing plans. While dealing with specialized media, importance to consider factors such as additional weight against prime prospects, ability to deliver a common message in a unique manner.


Importance for media planners to examine the communication interactions between the audience & the individual media Media placement was viewed as a channel for creative messages; but this idea is fast changing in some fundamental wages. Core value of the media: Media planners & creative departments work together to understand the quantitative core values of each medium.

These core values-interact with advertising messages to enhance or diminish the advertising. For example: Magazines provide information. T.V. scores better as an emotional medium. Direct mail-is about presentation.


If the brand message is conflicting to these values-the advertising wont be simply wont connect to an audience, however thoughtful & introspective seeming a brand maybe-it might be difficult to sell on a billboard even to the audiences-to be registered by driversgoing at 60 miles an hour.

It is important for the experienced media buyer to be able to look beyond personal media preferences & determine the media vehicles that will BEST reach prospects. Media planners must step away from their personal biases & put themselves in the place of a clients prime prospects.

Fading distinctions among Media

Technology is changing the fundamental relationships among media,audiences & advertisers & it is creating an environment where distinctions among media are fading. For example: The delivery of a newspaper content over a computer-is it still a print medium? Text messages available through televisionstill broadcast signals?


In this new environment media planners must be creative in the utilisation of media vehicles. They should look less at the distribution system & more at the audiences & communication effectiveness. Its important to realise the traditional organizations of agency media departments in order to comply with the changing media technology.

Media Accountability
Changes in media buying and scheduling are putting pressure on media planners to become more knowledgeable in the areas that were not part of their responsibility only a few years ago. In the near future,job functions such as media planners & media buyers-maybe replaced by more inclusive terms such as marketing specialist.

The new approach to media planning is demanding greater acceptability for advertising media planners. A number of research tools are being developed to allow planners to view the media buying in unique & creative ways. (In the US The Media Edge (TME)-developed software known as TME Television Tree (T3) The entire network TV schedule is divided into program clusters that are most likely to reach particular target audiences)


The idea of T3 is to treat program-program cluster as brands. Research has shown that networks also have distinctive brand identities that appeal to demographic & buyer categories. For Example: The Discovery channel,Weather channel,National Geographic-top brands- viewership is limited (viewing audience).It foretells well for the networks since audience fragmentation drive viewers to niche vehicles.

Network Branding
Another factor just as in the case of products.Affinity of audience for certain networks. Survey conducted researchers on(respondents) which media preferred,types of people they wanted to associate. By correlating the 2 scores,media planners able to understand which media have the highest affinity & those programs & networks with whom advertisers & consumers would want to have their products associated.

Chapter 2
Media Planning- Overview

Media Planning A general Overview

What is Marketing? It is a task of creating and /or fulfilling a customer need for a profit. It is defined as The management process responsible for identifying,anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably It involves mainly sever activities Identifying the needs of existing and potential customers/consumers.


Providing a product that satisfies those requirements Developing the best possible product strategy Making the product available across the length and the breadth of the market place Informing customers of its availability and persuading them to buy it(which is where advertising plays an important role) Determining the price at which the product should be sold Ensuring after sales service of the right quality

Elements of the marketing mix:(the 4Ps of marketing) Product-The object/service which aims to satisfy consumer/customer needs Place-The outlet where the product/service is available Promotion-All the activity that is undertaken to sell the product-including advertising and schemes Pricing- The cost of the product/service to the buyer

The Role of Advertising

The role of advertising really begins with the marketing objective. Marketers set an objective,and use advertising as one of the tools to achieve that objective. MARKETING OBJECTIVE The marketing objective for a brand is almost always related to sales.Usually it is defined as follows To increase sales(in terms of value or volume) To increase /consolidate market share.


Introduce a new product or service Increase market share by Increasing width of consumption(demographic and /or geographic) Increase depth of consumption Consolidate position in the market Fend off competitive threats It is imperative for the marketer to identify the source of growth(of sales).In other words,is the growth likely to come From new consumers/costumers(demographic)or new markets(geographic),which is called width of consumption.

By getting existing consumers /costumers to use more of the brand (which is called depth of consumption) What is Advertising? Advertising is any paid for communication ,overtly intended to inform and /or influence one or more persons.

Advertising Objectives The task of advertising is to get consumers to react Confirm a favorable opinion/image Accept the significance of a product attribute Change a long held belief Become aware of a previously overlooked benefit Elicit a direct response (couponing)

The process is really one of movement moving consumers from point A to point B Point A What our prospects think today ? Point B What we want them to think in one,two or three years from now?

Elements of the Advertising Strategy Target Consumer DescriptionWho Creative Strategy Media Strategy What & How When,Where, To how many, How often

Introduction to Media Planning & its components

Introduction to Media Planning

The success of advertising depends upon the extent to which it persuades the audience to react. Advertising persuasiveness is a function of Exposure to the advertising message Retention of the message To create advertising that sells, an optimum use of media is absolutely essential. Hence media planning has become integral to advertising.

The function of media planning assumes greater importance when Budget is limited Number of available options are large Definition Media planning is the process of designing a course of action, that shows how advertising time and space can be used, to contribute to the achievement of marketing objectives.It translates into finding the most cost-effective method of utilising a given budget,to reach a desired number of people ,with a certain frequency,within a given period of time.

A Typical Media Plan

Marketing Analysis A) Fundamental Market Strategy: 1. Sales, share of market, profitability goals. 2. Prime prospects identified by: a) Demographic characteristics b) Psychographics characteristics c) Geographic location d) Level of product usage B) Product benefits & differentiating characteristics: C) Pricing strategy D) Competitive environment: 1. Number & competitive market share of product

category firms 2. Regulatory & economic situation facing product category Advertising Analysis A) Fundamental Advertising Strategy: 1. Product awareness goals 2. Target audience/s advertising weight B) Budget: 1. Allocation to marketing communication mix 2. Allocation by media category 3. Allocation by media vehicle

Media Strategy A) Match media vehicles with preferences of target audiences B) Creative & Communication considerations: 1. Need for product demonstration 2. Need for complex message 3. Day part and/or seasonal requirements 4. Media compatibility with message themes & competitive considerations Media Scheduling A) Print insertion dates & production requirements

B) Broadcast allocations & availabilities C) Budget allocation- each medium & medium vehicle D) CPM estimates(by total audience, prime prospects) Justification & Summary A) Statement of ad goals in terms of measurable results B) Research plan to measure achievement of ad goals C) Contingencies for media scheduling adjustments

Need for greater Cost Efficiencies

Major expenditure for most advertisers is the cost of media. Media planners need to examine factors like circulation & costs to ensure best media buys. Media planners are looking at cost efficiencies. Requires that media plans maximize delivery of prospects as opposed to people or households. Media planners tended till recently, to concentrate on overall audience delivery by various media i.e.reaching the greatest audience at the lowest cost- ensures that the media schedule would reach a fair share of prospects.

This strategy worked in a day of mass circulation magazines & network television domination of the airwaves. The most common measure of cost efficiency was the Cost per Thousand (CPM). The CPM is a means of comparing media costs among vehicles with different circulations. The formula is CPM= cost of ad X 1000 circulation e.g. Assume that Femina has a circulation of 8 lakh & the ad rate for a 4 color page is Rs.1 lakh, its CPM is calculated: 1,000,00 X 1000 8,000,00 i.e. Rs.125 is the cost per thousand

Todays world consists of fragmented media with much smaller, but homogeneous audiences. Advertisers are paying more for each person reached these days. The continuing splintering of the audience will lead to great opportunities for target marketing. Media planners today look at reaching the advertising messages to consumers who are more engaged and receptive.

Media Planning Definition one The process of deciding how to most effectively get your marketing communications seen by your target audience.

Media Planning

Media planning: Definition Two A process for determining the most costeffective mix of media for achieving a set of media objectives Goal: maximize impact while minimizing cost Media is often the largest MC budget item

Definition Three: Media Planning

The design of a strategy that shows how investments in advertising time and space will contribute to achievement of marketing objectives

Functions of Media Planning


Delivering ad to target audience


Which audience? Where? When? How long?

Media planners perform four basic functions

1. 2.

3. 4.

Conduct media research Determine media objectives and strategies Determine the media mix Do the actual media buy

Media Planning
Driven by strategic goals of campaign Nature of the product leads to:

Target market, ad content, media choices

Nature of target market leads to:

Ad content, media choices

Nature of ad content leads to:

Media choices

Media choices:
Type of medium and media vehicles

Media Plan components

Target audience Campaign objectives

media plan
Competitive context Timing Geographic focus Budget

Media Planning Process

Media planning involves the coordination of three levels of strategy formulations:

Marketing strategy Advertising Strategy Media Strategy

What Are The Media Planning Steps?

Market analysis Market analysis

Planning Planning Steps Steps

Activities involved in developing the Market analysis

The situation analysis:


purpose: To Understand the Marketing


An analysis is made of a company and its competitors on the basis of:

1. Size & share of the total Market. 2. Sales history, costs, and profits. 3. Distribution practices. 4. Methods of selling 5. Identification of prospects. 6. Nature of the product

The marketing strategy plan

Purpose: To plan activities that will solve one or
more of the marketing problems, includes the determination of:
1. Marketing objectives 2. Product and spending strategy. 3. Distribution strategy. 4. Which elements of the marketing mix are to be used. 5. Identification of best market segments.

The creative strategy plan

Purpose: To determine what to communicate
through advertisements. Includes the determination of: 1. How product can meet consumer needs. 2. How product will be positioned in advertisements. 3. Copy themes. 4. Specific objectives of each advertisement. 5. Number and sizes of advertisements.

Determining media objectives


To translate marketing objectives and strategies into goals that media can accomplish.

Setting media objective is the second step in media planning. Media objectives are in harmony with the advertising and the marketing plans.

Thus while launching a new product or repositioning an existing product, there are specific objectives which will guide our media decisions. These objectives must be measurable. It facilitates Co-ordination and evaluation once the campaign is over.

There are broadly five elements in a media objective statements:

1. Target Audience 2. Reach 3. Frequency 4. Message Distribution 5. Message Weight

Specifying Media Objecties


What proportion of the population should be reached with advertising message during specified period (reach)? How frequently should audience be exposed to message during this period (frequency)? How much total advertising is needed to accomplish reach and frequency objectives (weight)?



Specifying Media Objectives


How should the advertising budget be allocated over time (continuity)? How close to the time of purchase should the target audience be exposed to the advertising message (recency)? What is the most economically justifiable way to accomplish objectives (cost)?



Decision on the Target Market

It begins with the proper identification of the prime target market/s for a brand. The target audience is classified Gender, Age, Income & other factors such as Demographics, Social & Psychological terms. The classification of the target audience helps the media planner to understand the profile of the T.A. & their media habits. This helps the media planner to select the most appropriate media.

For media planning operations, it is important to keep their focus on the total picture of the consumer, the product & benefit. e.g. Rasna- T.A.- middle & upper middle income group families having children. Primary T.A.women i.e. women who actually buy the products for their households, while the Secondary T.A.children, who influence the purchase. The media planner will therefore decide to put 60% of the emphasis on women & 40% on children.

In the media strategy the target audience must be defined more clearly and thoroughly. 1. Target audience and advertisement must fit each other. a. Kind of argumentation, aesthetics, used language etc. b. Appropriate prominent endorsers (e.g., Aamir Khan for Coke). 2. Advertising might communicate to different target audiences with different objectives, e.g., Increase product sales in age group 14-29, Increase brand awareness and image in age group 30+.

We can describe demographics in terms of the income and occupation. Audience can also be described in psychographic terms activities, interests, opinions forming a life style, personality traits, brand preferences, values, belief.

After having a complete picture of our target audience, we undertake the study of the medias readership in terms of demographic, economic and psychographic terms.

Agencies conduct their own media research. Even media itself provides a demographic profile of their readers. There are readership surveys to guide us.

Media Planner have to select those media vehicles whose demographic profile matches the target audience of our product.

Media Planner can target product to a segment of the market. Then they have to select that media vehicle which reaches this segment.

Media Planner may have to use another media vehicle to reach some another segment; It should, however, be seen that a united image is projected and consistency of message is maintained through different media mix.

2. Reach

Reach: The percentage of an audience that has had the opportunity to be exposed to a media vehicle within a specified period of time
Ideal goal: 100% reach


Reach indicates a percentage of target audience who is exposed at least once in a given period to a particular media vehicle. It does not matter how many times they actually see or hear the ad message.

We concentrate on one exposure only. Thus if 3000 out of a target audience of 10000 teenagers tune in to the FM radio one or more time during a month, the reach is 30 percent, i.e., 3000 divided by 10000.

3. Frequency

Frequency: The average number of times those who are reached have an opportunity to be exposed to a brand message within a specified time period
Frequency to be effective: 3-10 exposures Varies widely by brand

Frequency indicates the number of times people in the target audience are exposed to a media vehicle during a given period of time.

Average frequency gives the average number of times people or households in our target audience are exposed to a media vehicle.


Average Frequency = Total Number of Exposures Total Audience Reach

If 1500 people in the target audience tune in to an FM radio program 3 times during a four week period, and 1500 people tune in 6 times, the calculation would be Total Number of exposures

= (1500 x 3) + (1500 x 6) = 13,500 Total audience reach = 1500 + 1500 = 3000 Average frequency = 13500 = 4.5 3000

In the example, we reach 3000 people, 4 times on an average. It does not necessarily mean that everyone has 4.5 exposures. It is just an average.

Generally, a single exposure may not work either in creating an awareness or provoking someone to buy.

The more the exposures, the better the impact. Besides, more exposures make us rise above the competitive noise.

It is good to plan how many times we would like our audience to see the message in a given medium.

While introducing a new product, we need more frequency. When the ad size is small, we need more frequency.
When the message is complex, we need more frequency. Higher frequency helps us stand out in the clutter.

We have to decide the effective frequencyit is not frequency which is needed to communicate effectively with the target audience. It is a difficult thing to settle.

There can be a minimum frequency and maximum frequency to be effective. Lesser frequency makes the communication ineffective.

Higher frequency may be a waste of ad resources. There can be also ad fatigue if there are too many repetitions.

Just as the situation analysis leads to establishment of marketing and communications objectives, the media situation analysis should lead to determination of specific media objectives.

The media objectives are not ends in themselves. Rather, they are designed to lead to the attainment of communications and marketing objectives. Media objectives are the goals for the media strategies.

While we talk of effective frequency to set the least number of exposures needed, we also consider effective reach to indicate the percentage of the target audience exposed to the ad some minimum number of times or more.

This adds the dimension of repetition to the concept of reach and frequency. Greater reach and frequency stretches the media budget. It is necessary to optimize both reach and frequency.

Balancing is difficult especially when two or more ads are being employed or two or more media are being used.

We have, therefore, to consider the message weight of the entire media plan.

Market Factors Affecting Frequency

Market Factors Type

High Low Low High High High

Brand History Brand Share Brand Loyalty Purchase Cycle

New High High Short

Usage CycleShort Share of Voice High

Message Factors Affecting Frequency

Message Factors Message Complexity Message Uniqueness Newness Image Factors Message variation Type Simple Unique New Image Little Frequency Low Low High High Low

Media Factors Affecting Frequency

Media Factors


High Low Low Low Low

Clutter High Editorial Nature Consistent Attentiveness High Scheduling Continuous Number of Media Fewer

4. Message Weight

The sum of the reach number of specific media vehicles in a given media plan gives the message weight. Here while summing the reach, duplication or overlapping is ignored. Message weight is expressed in terms of gross impressions or gross rating points (GRP).

Message weight
The total size of the audience for a set of ads or an entire campaign.

Message weight can be expressed as:



Opportunity to see: Advertising impression is possible exposure of the advertising message to one audience member, sometimes called an opportunity to see (OTS). Gross Impressions is the total number of potential exposures (audience size by the number of times the ad message is used during a period).

Gross impressions are a summation of exposures of the target audience to media vehicles in a media plan. Each exposure is counted as one impression.

Suppose an advertiser puts advertisements on a programme of a TV channel viewed five times by 6000 people in the target audience and seven times by 6000 people in a four week period.

Also suppose during the same four week period, the ad is put another programme of a second TV channel viewed 3 times by 3000 people in the target audience, the gross impressions would be:

Gross impression = (6000 x 5) + (6000 x 7) + (3000 x 3) = 81000

The first group receives 30000 impressions, the second group receives 42000 impressions and the third group receives 9000 impressions. Thus in all 81000 impressions are received during a four week period.

As duplication is ignored between the media vehicles while summing up the impressions, we use the term gross.

3. Televisions households: Because gross impressions are often expressed in millions and are awkward to handle, media planners prefer to use percentages - or a rating, for example, a rating of TV households is the percentage of homes exposed to an ad medium. A rating of 20=20% of the households with TV sets; televisions households, or (TVHH).

4. Gross Rating Points (GRPs) - the total weight of a specific media schedule, computed by multiplying the reach, expressed as a percentage of the population, by the average frequency.

Gross Rating Points (GRPs): The combined measure of reach and frequency indicating the weight of a media plan
The more GRPs, the more weight a plan has

Gross Rating Point (GRP)

A unit of audience measurement, commonly used in the audio-visual media, based on reach or coverage of an ad. A single GRP, usually, represents 1 per cent of the total audience in a given region.

For a mass media like a TV channel, message weight is expressed in gross rating points (GRPs).

It is a sum of the rating points of all programmes in the TV media plan. One rating point indicates one percent of the target audience.

The Simple Formula to Calculate GRPs

Gross Rating Points (GRPs) = Reach x Frequency

Print example 50 reach X 5 insertions = 250 GRPs

Broadcast example 6 (rating) X 5 (frequency) = 30 GRPs

GRPs for TV are calculated generally for a week or a month. Television Rating points (TRPs) are available in India calculated on the basis of the panel method.

The ultimate business of TV is to deliver to the eyeballs. It is obviously an issue of audience share. Gross impressions in print media are counted for every ad in every media vehicle used during the whole campaign.

There should be an attempt in the media objectives to balance the reach and frequency. There should be an appropriate message weight at the same time.

This will help us realize our advertising plan. To face heavy competitive campaign, we should have greater frequency to ensure the repetition of the message. It is not so important to have a wider reach.

While advertising an innovation, a greater reach is preferred, to a greater frequency.

It is also important to have a large message weight. Once the media objectives are set, we are ready to develop strategies to realize them.

For a mass media like a TV channel, message weight is expressed in gross rating points (GRPs). It is a sum of the rating points of all programs in the TV media plan. One rating point indicates one percent of the target audience. GRPs of the entire media plan are given by GRPs of Media Plan = Proportion of target audience reached X average frequency

In the example given for gross impressions, the total target audience was 20000. The audience reached was 15000. In other words, it was 75 per cent. The average frequency was (81000/15000) = 5.4. So the GRPs would be GRPs = (75 x 5.4) = 405 GRPs can also be computed by us using the following formula: The number of gross impression x 100 The number of people in the target audience In the above example, there was a target audience of 20000 and there were 81000 gross impressions. Therefore GRPs = (81000/20000) x 100 = 405


5. Message Distribution:
Message-distribution objectives define where, when, and how often advertising should appear. To answer these questions, a media planner must understand the following: Audience size and message weight

Audience size - simply the number of people in the medium's audience. In print media, for example, Audit Bureau of Circulation actually counts and verifies the number of subscribers (circulation) and multiplies by the number of readers per copy (RPC) to determine total audience.

Reach vs Frequency

Since advertisers have a variety of objectives and face constraints in budget, they usually must trade off reach & frequency. They must decide whether they want the message to be seen or heard by more people (reach) or by fewer people more often (frequency).

How much Reach is necessary?

The hierarchies model requires that the first stage of each model requires Awareness of the product and/or brand. The more people are aware, the more likely are they to move to each subsequent stage. Achieving awareness requires Reach- that is, exposing potential buyers to the message. New brands or products need a very high level of reach since the objective is to make all potential buyers aware of the new entry.

High reach is also desired at the later stages of the hierarchy. For example, at the trial stage of the adoption hierarchy, a promotional strategy such as sampling may be considered useful so as to reach a large number of people with these samples. The problem arises because there is no way of determining how much reach is required to achieve levels of awareness, attitude change, or buying intentions. We cannot be sure that an ad placed in a vehicle will actually reach the intended audience.

While buying advertising time in say, a 8-8.30 p.m. program in Star Plus channel, the question that arises is that will everyone who is tuned to the program see the ad? Many viewers may leave the room or engage themselves in some other activity during the ad or may be distracted during the commercial, and so on. If I expose everyone in my target group to the message once, will this be sufficient to create a 100% level of awareness? The answer here is No. So this leads to the next question of what frequency of exposure is necessary for the ad to be seen and to have an impact?

What Frequency Level is Needed?

In media planning, frequency is the number of times one is exposed to the media vehicle, not necessarily to the ad itself, during a specified period of time. Research studies estimate the actual audience for a commercial may be as much as 30-40 percent lower than that for the program. Not all researchers agree to this. Many advertisers feel that a 1:1 exposure ratio does not exist. So, if your ad has been placed in a certain vehicle, the fact that the consumer has been exposed to that vehicle does not ensure that your ad has been seen.

As a result, the frequency level expressed in the media plan overstates the actual level of exposure to the ad. Hence this has led some media buyers to refer to the reach of the media vehicle as opportunities to see an ad rather than actual exposure to it. Since the advertiser has no sure way to ascertain whether the exposure to a vehicle results in exposure to the ad, the media and advertisers have adopted a compromise; one exposure to the vehicle constitutes reach, given that this exposure must occur for the viewer to have an opportunity to see the ad. Thus, the exposure figure is used to calculate reach & frequency levels.

This compromise does not help determine the frequency required to make an impact. The creativity of the ad, the involvement of the receiver, noise, and many other intervening factors confound any attempts to make a precise determination. How does then, one make these decisions? The truth is that the decisions are not always made on hard data. Establishing frequency goals for an advertising campaign is a mix of art & science but with a definite bias toward art.- Joseph Ostrow.

Establishing Reach & Frequency Objectives

It is possible to be exposed to more than one media vehicle with an ad, resulting in repetition (frequency). If one ad is placed on one TV show, the number of people exposed is the reach. If the ad is placed on two shows, the total number exposed once is unduplicated reach. Some people will see the ad twice. The reach of two shows, includes a number of people who were reached by both shows. This overlap is referred to as duplicated reach.

Representation of reach and frequency

Both unduplicated and duplicated reach figures are important. Unduplicated reach indicates potential new exposures, while duplicated reach provides an estimate of frequency. Most media buys include both forms of reach. Let us consider an example. A measure of potential reach in the broadcast industry is the TV (or radio) program rating. This number is expressed as a percentage. Using Gross Rating points: The media buyer typically uses a numerical indicator to know how many potential audience members may be exposed to a series of commercials. A summary measure that combines the program rating and the average number of times the home is reached during this period (frequency of exposure) is a commonly used reference point known as gross ratings points (GRPs):GRP= Reach x Frequency

GRPs are based on the total audience the media schedule may reach; they use a duplicated reach estimate. Target ratings points (TRPs) refer to the number of people in the primary target audience the media buy will reachand the number of times. Unlike GRP, TRP does not include waste coverage. Given that GRPs do not measure actual reach, the advertiser must ask: How many GRPs are needed to attain a certain reach? How do these GRPs translate into effective reach? For example, how many GRPs must one purchase to attain an unduplicated reach of 50 percent, and what frequency of exposure will this schedule deliver?

The following example may help you to understand how this process works. First you must know what these ratings points represent. A purchase of 100 GRPs could mean 100 percent of the market is exposed once or 50 percent of the market is exposed twice or 25 percent of the market is exposed four times, and so on. As you can see, this information must be more specific for the marketer to use it effectively. To know how many GRPs are necessary, the manager needs to know how many members of the intended audience the schedule actually reaches.

The effects of Reach & Frequency

1. One exposure of an ad to a target group within a purchase cycle has little or no effect in most circumstances. 2. Since one exposure is usually ineffective, the central goal of productive media planning should be to enhance frequency rather than reach. 3. The evidence suggests strongly that an exposure frequency of two within a purchase cycle is an effective level.

4. Beyond three exposures within a brand purchase cycle or over a period of four or even eight weeks, increasing frequency continues to build advertising effectiveness at a decreasing rate but with no evidence of decline. 5. Although there are general principles with respect to frequency of exposure and its relationship to advertising effectiveness, differential effects by brand are equally important. 6. Nothing we have seen suggests that frequency response principles or generalizations vary by medium. 7. The data strongly suggest that wear out is not a function of too much frequency; it is more of a creative or copy problem.

Determining Effective Reach

Since marketers have budget constraints, they must decide whether to increase reach at the expense of frequency or increase the frequency of exposure but to a smaller audience. A number of factors influence this decision. For example, a new product or brand introduction will attempt to maximize reach, particularly unduplicated reach, to create awareness in as many people as possible as quickly as possible. At the same time, for a high-involvement product or one whose benefits are not obvious, a certain level of frequency is needed to achieve effective reach.

Effective reach represents the percentage of a vehicles audience reached at each effective frequency increment. This concept is based on the assumption that one exposure to an ad may not be enough to convey the desired message. As we saw earlier, no one knows the exact number of exposures necessary for an ad to make an impact, although advertisers have settled on three as the minimum. Fewer than 3 exposures is considered insufficient reach, while more than 10 is considered overexposure and thus ineffective reach. This exposure level is no guarantee of effective communication; different messages may require more or fewer exposures.

The three-exposure theory was valid in the 1970s when consumers were exposed to approximately 1,000 ads per day. Now that they are exposed to 3,000 to 5,000 per day, three exposures may not be enough (Jack Myers of Myers Reports). Adding in the fragmentation of television, the proliferation of magazines, and the advent of a variety of alternative media leads Myers to believe that 12 exposures may be the minimum level of frequency required.

Also, Jim Surmanek, vice president of International Communications Group, contends that the complexity of the message, message length, and recency of exposure also impact this figure. Since they do not know how many times the viewer will actually be exposed, advertisers typically purchase GRPs that lead to more than three exposures to increase the likelihood of effective reach and frequency.

Determining effective reach is further complicated by the fact that when calculating GRPs, advertisers use a figure that they call average frequency, or the average number of times the target audience reached by a media schedule is exposed to the vehicle over a specified period. The problem with this figure is revealed in the following scenario: Consider a media buy in which: 50 percent of audience is reached 1 time. 30 percent of audience is reached 5 times. 20 percent of audience is reached 10 times. Average frequency = 4 In this media buy, the average frequency is 4, which is slightly more than the number established as

effective. Yet a full 50 percent of the audience receives only one exposure. Thus, the average-frequency number can be misleading, and using it to calculate GRPs might result in underexposing the audience. Although GRPs have their problems, they can provide useful information to the marketer. A certain level of GRPs is necessary to achieve awareness, and increases in GRPs are likely to lead to more exposures and/or more repetitionsboth of which are necessary to have an effect on higher-order objectives.

Perhaps the best advice for purchasing GRPs is offered by Ostrow, who recommends the following strategies: 1. Instead of using average frequency, the marketer should decide what minimum frequency goal is needed to reach the advertising objectives effectively and then maximize reach at that frequency level. 2. To determine effective frequency, one must consider marketing factors, message factors, and media factors. In summary, the reach-versus-frequency decision, while critical, is very difficult to make. A number of factors must be considered, and concrete rules do not always apply. The decision is often more of an art than a science.

Media weight theories

A media plan may have various media to suit the objective of the advertising campaign. Media weight theories are about the number of media selected and the relative emphasis given to various media in these schedules.

The following theories are kept in view by planner to choose from exclusive or in combination.

The wave theory

This theory denotes that the advertiser buy space and time in various media for a relative short time and move out in wave in the hope that the impact of advertising will carry over from the period heavy concentration to those of no advertising

The media dominance theory

This theory suggests that advertisers buy bulk time or space in one media for a short time.

After building a coverage and a frequency in that media, he shift to another media for a short time in belief that concentration in a single media helps him build the recall and shifting to other media also helps him gain continuously over a variety of media.

Media concentration theory

This is when the advertiser concentrates only on 1 media to attain both dominance and continuity.

Timing strategy

Besides deciding which media to concentrate on, scheduling requires a determination of extent of advertising that should appear in various media.

The Media Planning Steps

Step 1:targeting Media Media targeting Step 1:targeting Media Media targeting Step 2: Determining media Determining media Step 2: Determining media Determining media objectives objectives Determining media Determining media strategies strategies

Planning Planning Steps Steps

Media Strategy

Media strategy is the way we seek to realize our media objectives. When formulated correctly, it enables an advertiser to rise above the clutter of ads, and stand out against the competition.

Media strategy expects media planners to be creative in using the media. The use of the media should complement and supplement each other.

The ad should be consistent with the editorial environment of the media. The placement should be strategic. The medias creative potential is fully used.

The ad should provoke readers to look at it more than once. It should be engaging enough, say incorporation of a cross-word puzzle in the copy of the ad. We can use non-traditional media like a Tamasha show or a magic-show. Media can be used to build credibility.

Factors Influencing Media Strategy


Market Profile Nature of the Message Geographic Market Priorities Timing of Advertising Reach/Frequency/Continuity

Media strategy has to cover decisions taken in the areas of:

(i) geographic selectivity (ii) scheduling of the ads (iii) media selection (iv) cost efficiency of the selected media.

1. Geographic Selectivity
Our media strategy is based upon our market coverage. If we market our products nationally, we will select all-India newspapers and magazines. However, if our market is limited to a particular region, we shall select vernacular media popular in that region.

In this way, we do not waste the resources by advertising the products in the regions in which it is not available.

It is necessary for us to see how strong a product is in a particular geographical region and advertise more in high potential areas. Marketers may measure the sales strength in particular market by making use of two ratios i) Brand development index & ii) Category development index


Development Index

Brand Development Index indicates the sales potential of a particular Brand in a specific market area. Formula: "BDI" equals "percent of brand's total India sales in the area" divided by "percent of total India population in the area" multiplied by 100.

Where to promote?
Brand Development Index Percentage of brand to Percentage of brand sales to total total U.S. sales in market All India sales in market Percentage of total Indian population Percentage of total U.S. population market in in market


X 100

Brand Development Index

The brand development index (BDI) measures the sales strength of a brand in a particular area of India. This index enables a media planner to allocate the media budget by setting his priorities.

Applying a BDI
North India South India West India East India Export Total

Sales % Popn %
7.6 21.5 42.5 13.4 15.0 100.0 7.6 23.9 38.5 16.8 13.2 100.0

100.0 89.9 110.4 79.8 113.6 ----

Category Development Index(CDI)

The category development index indicates the sales potential of an entire product category. Formula: "CDI" equals "percent of the product category's total India sales in the area" divided by "percent of total India population in the area" multiplied by 100.

Where to promote?
Category Development Index Percentage of product category total sales in market

Percentage of total Indian population in market

X 100

Category Development Index It measures the sales potential of product category. Thus it takes into account the potential of all competitors selling the same category.

Brand and Category Analysis

High BDI Low BDI
The product category shows The product category shows high potential but the brand high potential but the brand isnt doing well; the reason isnt doing well; the reason should be determined. should be determined.

High CDI

The market usually represents The market usually represents good sales potential for both good sales potential for both the product and the brand. the product and the brand.


The category isnt selling well The category isnt selling well but the brand is; may be a but the brand is; may be a good market in which to good market in which to advertise but should be advertise but should be monitored for sales decline. monitored for sales decline.

Both the product category Both the product category and the brand are doing and the brand are doing poorly; not likely to be a good poorly; not likely to be a good place to advertise. place to advertise.

2. Media Scheduling

Media scheduling decisions are the decisions about the timing, continuity and size of the ads. We have to see when to advertise, for how long, and for what time period. We have to see the size and placement of our ad.

Timing: Advertising message can be timed in four ways depending upon our objectives

to time the message in such a way that the customers are most interested in buying that type of a product, e.g., fridges in summer, soft drinks in summer, woollens in winter, gift items during Deepavali. to time the message in such a way that it stimulates demand in the lean period, e.g., ice creams in winter, holiday resorts in monsoons.

to time in such a way that it by-passes competitive campaigns, e.g., Pepsi commercials are to be aired when there are no Coke commercials. to time in such a way that the message is carried by the media when the audience is receptive to it, e.g., household products in the afternoon slot of TV when housewives watch TV. The importance of time element must be understood in the purchase behaviour of the customer by doing suitable research.

Continuity: When an ad is run in the media for a long period without any gap, we are using continuity scheduling. It is used for those products which are in demand round the years. The ads are in the form of reminder.

Alternative to continuity is flighting where advertising runs for some period and then there is a gap, and again it runs for some period. The interval between two advertising runs come after a flight. The message can be schedule to correspond to peak purchasing periods or at a time when the audience is most receptive. When we have a media mix alternative flights are adjusted in such a way in different media that overall continuity is achieved.

Pulsing is another option. It represents a consistent low-level advertising activity, and addition of pulse to make a high-level of advertising during certain periods. A pulse is a period of intense advertising activity. The pulses can occur at the start while launching a new product. There can a promotional pulse of one shot, e.g., financial advertising of a companys issue.

Bursting is a technique for scheduling TV ads.

Here the commercial is repeated on the same channel time and again to reinforce the message for a short period.

3. Selecting the Media

An advertiser can choose a single medium or a mix of media to take its message to the target audience. Media mix a combination of several media is used when it is not possible to reach the target audience by one single medium adequately and with a good impact.

Marketers segment a market, and a suitable media can be chosen to match a specific segment. Creative execution becomes varied when a media mix is used. In a media mix, one medium can be used to promote a product and the other as reminder, thus reinforcing each other. A combination must be synergistic, where the sum total of effects is greater than the sum of individual mediums effect.

Each media has a particular readership or viewership. We have to understand the size and the characteristics of the readership or viewership.

We have to match the target audience of our product to the demographic characteristics of the readers/viewers of the media as far as possible. Media research helps us in this matching the product and the media.

Each medium has a different attention value. But attention given to a medium also depends upon the message and its execution. Each medium has a motivation value whereby it stimulates readers to respond. Each medium has its own editorial environment provided by its contents which surround the ad

This environment should be compatible with the product and its benefits. The environment should also be consistent with the mood of the desired audience. A commercial of an air-line is not consistent with the news of an air-crash.

The audience mood is not conducive to the reception of the message. Several media provide an environment of respectability. We have to consider the placement of the ad and the editorial material and keep on changing the same if necessary.

We can confront them head on. We can change the media mix. We can bypass a media selected by them. We can change our geographic allocation. A competitors share of voice can be studied. It is given by: Share of voice = Brand Expenditure Product Category expenditure

We have to decide whether we can match a competitors share of voice or exceed it. We can use another medium in which there is a large share of voice for us. We should not forget that we never buy media. We only buy audiences. The client pays the agency to buy the audience attention to his brand.

Size and Placement

The decisions about the size of the ad and its placement are also important in scheduling. There are several size options in print media right from a small portion of the page to a full page to several pages.

In electronic media, we have options to select commercials for various lengths of time, 10-seconds, 30-seconds or 60-seconds. The size decision is based upon our objectives, the creative execution necessary, the budget and the reach and frequency decisions.

Cost Efficiency of Selected Media

The cost of advertising in various media must be analyzed properly. Costs of various media must be compared based on costefficiency. It helps us select the best media to optimize our objectives.

Cost per Thousand Cost per thousand (CPM) is one yard-stick to compare the costs of different media. It is the cost of reaching a thousand persons. The formula for CPM is: Cost per Thousand = Cost of media unit x 1000 Gross Impression Though two media can be compared on the basis of costs, this cannot account for the differing media ability and creative execution in the two media. CPM is good for cost comparisons, but fails to measure effectiveness.

Determining Media Cost

Cost per thousand (CPM): What a communication vehicle charges to deliver a message to 1,000 members of its audience Used commonly for print media

Cost of ad unit X 1,000 = CPM Circulation or audience

Cost per Thousand

Cost per thousand is expressed as CPM because M stands for 1000 in the Roman numeral. It is also expressed as CPT.

CPRP: Cost per rating point

The cost of reaching one percent of the target population. CPP is calculated by dividing the cost of the schedule by the gross rating points. National and regional advertising buyers frequently use this cost efficiency measure, since it can be applied across all media.

The cost per rating point is used to estimate the cost for TV advertising on several shows.

Cost per rating point =

Commercial time cost Percentage of audience.

The Media Planning Steps

Step 1:targeting Media Media targeting Step 1:targeting Media Media targeting Step 2: Determining media Determining media Step 2: Determining media Determining media objectives objectives Determining media Determining media strategies strategies Selecting Media Mix Selecting Media Mix

Planning Planning Steps Steps

Step four: Selecting Media Mix

Media mix means the advertising strategy encompasses the use of more than one type of advertising media to get its message across the target audience. A combination of media types is known as the media mix. No advertiser can rely only on one medium to reach his audience..

Even a small advertiser having a small media budget has thousands of media from which to choose. A typical media mix for consumer products, such as a soft drink, will include television, outdoor, POP and even the print media. this combination plays a crucial role in reaching the maximum number of consumers at the minimum cost.

Determining Media Mix Selecting Broad Media Classes

Selecting Media Within Class

Media Use Decision Broadcast

Media Use Decision Print

Media Use Decision Other Media

Selecting broad media classes


To determine which broad class of media best fulfills the criteria. Involves comparison and selection of broad media classes such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and others. The analysis is called intermediate comparisons. Audience size is one of the major factors used in comparing the various media classes.

Selecting media within classes

Purpose: To compare and select the best media within broad classes, again using predetermined criteria. Involves making decisions about the following: 1. If magazines were recommended, then which magazines? 2. If television was recommended, then a. Broadcast or cable television? b. Network or spot television?

3. If radio or newspapers were recommended, then a. Which markets shall be used? b. If network, which program/s c. If spot, which markets? d. What criteria shall buyers use in making purchases of local media?

Media use decisions- Broadcast

1. What kind of sponsorship (sole, shared, participating, or other)? 2. What levels of reach and frequency will be required? 3. Scheduling: On which days and months are commercials to appear? 4. Placement of spots: In programs or between programs?


use decisions-Print

1. Number of ads to appear and on which days and months. 2. Placements of ads: Any preferred position within media? 3. Special treatment: Gatefolds, bleeds, color, etc. 4. Desired reach or frequency levels


use decisions-Other media

1. Billboards a. Location of markets and plan of distribution b. Kinds of outdoor boards to be used. 2. Direct mail or other media: Decisions peculiar to those media.

The Media Mix

Media mix means the advertising strategy encompasses the use of more than one type of advertising media to get its message across the target audience.

A combination of media types is known as the media mix. No advertiser can rely only on one medium to reach his audience. Even a small advertiser having a small media budget has thousands of media from which to choose.

A typical media mix for consumer products, such as a soft drink, will include television, outdoor, POP and even the print media. this combination plays a crucial role in reaching the maximum number of consumers at the minimum cost.

Once a media plan is ready, the decision is to be made about the media mix. Selecting the media mix involves several considerations.

Factors considered while selecting a media mix

The media plan which is derived from the marketing and advertising plan has set a broad framework for media decisions. The execution of this plan depends upon the following considerations:


Choice of media depends to a large extent on the advertising budget. Certain media types are too expensive. Example:The cost of national transmission may be high for an advertiser. The cost of maintaining a neon sign cannot be afforded by small budget advertisers.

Competitors Strategy
Media decisions are influenced by the strategy of the competitors. Earlier, only large advertisers used television in India. But with the success of Nirma detergent- both large & small manufacturers use T.V. to gain maximum exposure. An advertiser-tries to reach the same audience as its competitors. Also they try to identify specific target groups not reached by its competitors. An advertiser considers his competitors strategy before deciding his media mix.

Frequency Vs Reach

Another important consideration in the media plan is the frequency & reach. Frequency refers to the no.of times the advertiser reaches the same person,whereas Reach refers to the total no.of people covered. The greater the frequency with which you reach the same person through the media selection,smaller the reach will be & vice-versa (assuming a limitation in the size of the budget) An advertiser must know the quantitative data about media audience in order to make more accurate frequency & reach decisions.

For example: if an advertiser uses radio, he maybe able to afford to broadcast the advertising jingle every 30 minutes & this increases the frequency of the radio listeners exposure to the message.But reach of this message is limited & will not cover those who are not listening to the radio. With the same budget,the advertiser can buy less radio time,place a few insertions in the print media & buy some time in television. The combination reduce the frequency at which an individual consumer is exposed to the message but will increase its Reach. There will always be a trade off between these 2 considerations.

Increasing distributors support Although consumer media is selected primarily to affect the consumer, the impact of the media upon distribution channels is also important. Effective use of advertising media-lends support to the distributors efforts at selling the product. Distributors are more likely to support a brand that has grater exposure in the local media. Promotional efforts such as POP, display material, hoarding & posters are welcomed by retailers. Continuity Important to consider as to how long an advertising campaign should be run on one media. There is a cumulative advantage from continuity as a greater audience will be reached in terms of both frequency & coverage by advertisements continually placed in one medium.

For FMCG products (that are frequently purchased) continuity is an important consideration. Products infrequently purchased may find it suitable to use a variety of media in order to reach varied audience. For example: a water tank. Flexibility Is the ability of the media to adapt to changing & specific needs of advertisers. Certain media allows advertisers such flexibility with respect to the advertised message. For example: The Times of India group of publications may offer advertisers such flexibility of placing ads in different editions of the paper. So, if the competitive activityincreases in Delhi, make use of Delhi edition to match competition.

Franchise Position When an advertiser uses a certain medium over a period of time, the advertiser may enjoy special franchise positions .Special page positions may be reserved for them in magazines & newspapers. India Today-back page may be booked by Hero Honda for a long time while the inside back cover may be booked on a long term basis by Cartier. Standard of Acceptance & Code of Ethics Most media vehicles-codes of ethics that set the standards of acceptance.For example:the code of ethics may not permit the use of medium for advertising cigarettes or liquour etc while some other vehicle may permit to do so.

Cost per Thousand This is an important consideration while making media decisions. Although, the cost is considered while fixing the budget,the concept of cost per thousand is the accepted norm for measuring the media effectiveness. The formula for the same is Price of medium to the advertiser /Delivered audience(in thousands). CPM= ad cost x 1000 Delivered Audience (circulation) The formula has its limitations.The delivered audience may not be the same as the prospective customers.Also,there is no data available to determine if the delivered audience has actually seen or heard the advertised message.

Creative Considerations This refers to the quality of reproduction, the color effect, special effects; all these have to be considered. The medium chosen must be appropriate for the ad message also in keeping with creative considerations. Example: Ads for paints or ice-creams or a luxury carare reproduced better in color & therefore black & white newsprint is not an appropriate medium. Media decisions must be made in consultation with the creative team. Within the selected medium, decisions related to unit buying is also influenced by the creative team. While the creative team seeks larger space in T.V, print, POP material, the media planning along with the finance department looks for economy & maximizing the effect of every money spent on the media.

The Medium & the Target Consumer Match The media mix must importantly reach the target consumer. If the advertiser requires to reach men between the ages of 25 & 55 who are professional, the obvious choice of media would be Economic Times over Femina. But, sometimes matching consumer profiles with media characteristics become difficult. A thorough analysis should be made to reduce wastage of media expenditure. Language The appropriate language must be used for any media. Prestige of the Media The prestige of the advertising medium is transferred to the advertised product. Sponsorship of prestigious programs such as Grammys,Oscars,Filmfare Awards, World Cup matches should be considered.

The Editorial Environment Using the appropriate editorial environment :every publication has its individual editorial philosophy. Nature of the Product or Service & Nature of the market to be covered Some products have niche markets & a special direct advertising medium will be suitable for them. Daily consumer products have a wider market & may make use of mass media. The geographical extent of the market too must be considered. Availability of Time & Space Media time & space have to be booked in advance. If an announcement has to be made suddenly, then the advertiser has to make use of whatever media & space is available to him.

Media buying has become an important component of media planning due to cost constraints and increase in competitive activity.

The Media Planning Steps

Media targeting Media targeting Determining media Determining media objectives objectives Determining media Determining media strategies strategies Selecting Media Mix Selecting Media Mix Budget allocation and Media Budget allocation and Media buying buying

Planning Planning Steps Steps

Step five: Budget Allocation and Media Buying

Budget Allocations: classifies

spending on medium, region, and time of year

Media Buying

once plan is approved Buyers work with media representatives to negotiate final prices for the various activities

The important thing is not awareness but impact. It's not about remembering a brand but remembering that brand in the context of a certain content-led story.

So, if you can create an impact in consumer's mind which is long lasting and probably equivalent to 10 exposures - there will be a shift towards qualitative aspects. Clients will definitely appreciate this paradigm shift and agencies will also be inspired to take risks.

Earlier, brand managers with Rs 10 or 20 million budgets felt that they couldn't get on to television.

Today, appropriate consumer profiling enables one to choose channels and accordingly advertise. For instance, a combination of Star Movies and Star World would give a SEC A+ kind of a household.

So this combination which makes it possible to reach out to that particular segment despite budgetary constraints. Wastage levels will be lower and segments can be reached in a focused manner.
A lot of segmentation is possible in the medium of television due to the existing fragmentation. Earlier, advertisers used to feel inhibited due to the preoccupation with mass-based programmes and planning was restricted. Now, we have moved much ahead from the previously restricted scenario.

Print Media Buying Newspaper buying


affecting the choice of newspapers are as follows:

1. Circulation and Readership It is important to know who will notice our ad. Reach of a newspaper is given by circulation which is the number of copies distributed each day for a daily or each week for a weekly.

Paid circulation means the subscribed copies sold on stalls.

Controlled circulation means free copies distributed. The circulation is certified by a body Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC).

2. Advertising Rates

Most advertisers are constrained by their budgets and thus a newspaper that offers a competitive rate is most attractive.

Publishing groups such as the Times of India offer special rates for booking space in several newspapers from the same group. (for example, an advertiser would get a competitive rate if he placed ads in the Times of India, Navbharat Times, The Economic Times and the Illustrated Weekly.

The number of readers exceeds its circulation figure; because each copy of the paper is read by more than one person. Readership is thus the total number of person who read a print vehicle either newspapers or magazines.

Readership thus can be equated to audience. An average 3-5 person read a newspaper in India. It determines the number of people who notice the publication in which the ad is carried.

Newspaper Ad Rates The rates of the ads, production specifications and ad deadlines and other relevant details are given in a rate card. When no discount is offered, it is called a flat rate.

Some newspapers offer a volume discount for repetitions. Open rate is highest rate for the single ad. We have to pay open rate first, and then qualify for a discount by buying further space.

Contract rate or earned rate is based on

agreement. It gives a scheme of the number of ads or the amount space to be bought for earning a discount. If this condition is not satisfied an additional charge is levied called the short rate.

Basically, ad rates are ROP run of press, and ads can be placed anywhere on any page. But for special position, we have to pay more. If the same publication house publishes more than one newspaper, it can offer a combination rate which is lesser than the rate of buying in each individual media.

3. Split Run Facilities

Many newspapers offer split run facilities. The split run test is a service used for testing print advertisements in which the media cooperate with an advertiser in allowing the same space for two or more copy variations to appear in systematic rotation through the entire circulation. This permits simultaneous circulation of two or more advertisements in identical editorial surroundings with comparable audiences.

4. Type of Readers
In an age where product segmentation is the key to success, it is important to know the characteristic of the newspapers readers while deciding its capabilities as an advertising medium. For instance, a survey done by NRS- ORG (National Readers Survey of the operations Research Group) reveals that almost 45 percent of Times of India readers are graduates and post graduates. Thus while advertising an encyclopedia, Times of India would make a good vehicle

5.Space Available When the advertisement is to be published urgently, space availability may be the only determinant. The positions available in the newspaper is also of a prime consideration.

The front page is the most attractive commands the highest rate. Certain other positions close to a popular section are also sought after by advertisers.

6. Language

This consideration is closely related to the profile of the readers.

For products that have local markets, regional language newspapers are attractive. When an advertiser wants to appeal to a specified ethnic group he may use regional language newspapers. For example, a music group catering for Dandia Raas enthusiasts would find Gujarati newspapers the most suitable medium.

7. Editorial Policy

This factor plays a crucial role in todays changing political scenario. Newspapers that are pro-government may find it easier to attract advertisers.

Advertising in anti-establishment newspapers would imply that the advertiser is against the government and this may create problems such as delay in granting license and so on. Some newspapers are owned by political groups such as Samna by the Shiv Sena in Maharashtra. This also influences the reader profile.

8. Color Many newspapers offer color supplements which are more attractive than the black and white section. Advertisers are willing to pay higher rates to enjoy the color advantage.

9. Time of Issue
Morning newspapers attract advertisers of new products who make announcements that require immediate attention. The copy is short and it has less technical information.

Afternoon newspapers attract advertisers of household products and entertainment, while Sunday newspapers attract a great deal of advertisers catering for women (colour ads of Garden sarees), children (ice-creams), men (industrial products).

Types of Newspapers Advertising


Display advertising :To distinguish

advertising from editorial matter, display advertising is designed comprising the copy, the layout, the visuals. These ads come in all sizes. They are placed all over in a newspaper, depending upon the policy of that paper. Display advertising is national or local.

2. Co-operative advertising:. Local ads can

be inserted on cost sharing basis between the manufacturer and retailers co-operative advertising. Local display advertising is charged a lower tariff than the general display advertising.

3. Classified ads: are small ads charged in terms

of number of words, and putting the message in several categories or classes such as employment, real estate, matrimonial, automobiles and so on.

Classified ads can be classified display ads, where bold letters, illustrations, borders and other visual elements are used. Newspaper also put a pre-printed ad insert in the paper. The paper with the insert is delivered to the reader. It is just a method of distribution for advertisers. It can be geographically selective and cost-effective.

Placing the Ad in the Newspapers

We have to fill an insertion order while placing the ad. This order gives specific date(s) on which the ad is to be published, the rate at which it is to be published, and production details preparatory to the publishing of the ad. Agencies provide newspapers the ad material in finished form.

If a small advertiser expects the newspapers to compose the ad, the newspapers first create a proof which is to be checked by the advertiser for correctness.

Once the ad is run, a tear-sheet which is an actual page torn from the newspaper in which the ad was run is sent to the advertiser. It is a proof of publishing as per requirements. If there is an error, the advertiser or its agency can ask for rate adjustment or free insertion.

Characteristics of Newspapers
1. Immediacy
Newspapers offer the greatest advantage of conveying the message quickly. They are flexible and so the advertising copy can be written very close to the time it goes to press.

This characteristic is especially useful while launching new products or making public announcements. The advertisements can thus have a powerful new emphasis.

2. Selectivity
This is one of the greatest advantages in the Indian context. The advertiser can select the geographical area over which the message is to be communicated as also the language.

Newspapers offer split-run facilities using which advertisers can test different campaigns in different geographical areas.

3. Newspapers Mechanical Requirements

Newspapers come in standard and tabloid sizes. Advertising space in newspapers is sold on the basis of columns and inches.

In addition to innovative color techniques, newspapers are adding other features to attract advertisers. Flex form advertising offers the advertiser the opportunity in any conceivable shape.

Those parts of the newspaper page not containing the advertisement are filled with editorial matter. For example, the ads of Cinthol Lime, lime Lite and Liril have used the technique. Such unconventional layouts, surrounded by editorial matter are hard for the reader to ignore.

4. Variety
Most newspapers present a suitable variety of material to provide an interesting mix for a wide range of readers. A typical newspaper has sports, financial pages, society news, city news, shopping columns, comic strips and other features.

Some pages are widely read by women, other by men interested in business news, and so on. An advertiser can select a target market by placing his advertisements in certain sections or pages of the paper.

5. Penetration

Morning newspapers are read by almost all the literate people.

The readership is much more than the circulation. For example, the Times of India circulation is 6,00,126 while its readership is 35,36,000. Children are also keen readers of certain section

6. Types of newspaper There are a wide variety of newspapers to choose from. Advertisers who wish to make announcements would use morning newspapers.

Specialty newspapers such as The Economic Times can be used for business-to-business communication such as advertisements of SKF ball-bearing, HCL computers, and so on.

Advantages of Newspapers as an Advertising Medium

1. Prestige

The prestige and respectability of the newspaper is transferred to the advertised product/service.

2. Segmentation Editorial content of the newspaper influences the type of its readers and thus offers segmentation of the market. For example, the Independent claims that its readers are young decision-makers, highly educated and professional, while the Times of India has greater appeal among the middle and older age groups.

The characteristics of selectivity and variety explained above increase the newspapers advantage in market segmentation.

3. Flexibility

The newspapers offer tremendous flexibility to advertisers.

When it is raining in Bombay, it may be hot in Delhi. While the Bombay newspapers can be used to advertise raincoats and umbrellas, the Delhi edition of the same newspaper can be used to advertise air coolers.

The most important is the time flexibility, that is the contents of the advertisement can be changed upto a few hours before the paper goes to press.

MRF Tyres use the press medium just before the monsoons in Bombay by predicting the date of the first rainfall and thereby communicating to the consumers the urgency of changing to MRF Tyers before the monsoons.

4. Split Run Facilities Many newspapers offer split run facilities. The split run test is a service used for testing print advertisements in which the media cooperate with an advertiser in allowing the same space for two or more copy variations to appear in systematic rotation through the entire circulation.

This permits simultaneous circulation of two or more advertisements in identical editorial surroundings with comparable audiences.

5. Keying the advertisement

It is possible to key the advertisement and attach a mail order coupon in order to measure its effectiveness.

6.Measuring Reach
The Audit Bureau of circulation (ABC) gives the readership and circulation figures and therefore it is possible to measure the reach of different newspapers.

7. Mobility

Newspaper can be carried and read anywhere, while travelling, at the place of work, in library, in a doctors waiting room and so on.

Limitation of Newspapers as an Advertising Medium Despite the above advantages newspapers have the following limitations: 1. Limited coverage. In India with the literacy, level being low newspapers cannot be used to penetrate the lower income segments of the market.

2. Short Life. It is often said as stale as yesterdays newspaper. A newspaper has a very limited life and therefore advertising will have little impact beyond the day of publication.

3. Hasty reading. Studies indicate that people spend about 30 minutes on the paper. This means that the ad must make its impression quickly or it will fade.

4. Cost. It is an expensive medium that

is unsuitable for small advertisers especially the morning English newspapers such as the Times of India.

Poor Reproduction. Most of the pages are in

black and white and the colour advertisements are not as well reproduced as those in magazines. Therefore we rarely find food and fashion ads in newspapers.

6. Demonstration and Display. It is not

possible to demonstrate product usage as in television commercials.

Advantage of Magazine Advertising

The newspapers and magazines have different advantages though both belong to the print media. The peculiar advantages of magazines are:

Demographic selectivity: Every magazine has a different audience whose demographic and psychographic characteristics are different.

Thus Femina is a magazine for young women, whereas Savvy is a magazines for mature women. Manohar Kahaniyan has a typical audience of north Indian middle class. Each magazine thus helps us to target at a particular age group, gender group and income group. Special interest magazines provide a specific audience.

Geographic Selectivity: Some magazines have allIndia circulation like India Today. Some magazines are confined to a region like Malayalam Manorama. So magazines help us target a geographic market we require without considerable waste.

a specialty of magazines on account of their superior quality of paper and printing. They also provide opportunities for innovative adds like pop-up ads, sample-bearing ads, scented ads, outside inserts as booklets.

Flexibility: High fidelity reproduction is

Long life and creative options.

A TV commercial is over in 30 seconds, we whiz by a highway billboard so quickly that only a fleeting glance is possible, and the average newspaper is in the recycling bin before we leave for work

In this disposable media world, magazines stand alone as a tangible vehicle. Magazines are often used as reference sources. Articles are clipped, back issues are filed, and readers may go back to a favorite magazine numerous times before finally discarding it. Advertisers potentially benefit from each of the exposures.

Magazines also offer advertisers a wide range of flexible formats such as doublepage spreads, bright colors, even product sampling.

Magazines are particularly suited to long copy. Discussions of detailed product attributes for automobiles and appliances as well as advertising for financial services all lend themselves to magazines.

Durability of Message: Magazines are

kept for a longer time, and are read again and again. More time is devoted to reading a magazine.

It means that the chances of the ad message being seen are more in magazines. As the magazines is preserved for a longer time, the message has a durability of longer duration.

Disadvantages of Magazines Advertising

In spite of several advantages, magazines have many drawbacks as advertising media.


Time Longer: The ad material will have to

be submitted much in advance because a magazine requires elaborate production plan.

The lead time is sometimes 90 days before the release of an issue. It is difficult to change the message on account of changed circumstances and contingencies.

These days magazines are trying to shorten the lead time as much as they can.

Limited Reach and Frequency: Magazines have limited reach as far as the total number of households are concerned. To reach a larger audience, it is necessary to buy a lot of magazine space.

As their periodicity is either a month or a fortnight or a week, it is difficult to have higher frequency. To overcome this drawback, a media planner uses several magazines or adds other media to supplement magazine ads.


Sound and Motion: Magazines rely upon the

printed copy and visuals to convey the message, and lack the sound of radio or motion of TV which makes these audio-visual ads greatly effective.

Planning Magazine Advertising

While planning magazine ads, we have to consider factors like circulation and readership, ad rates, placement of ads, special facilities given by the magazines.

Placements of Ads:

Three date-lines are of importance in the placement. The on-sale date is the date on which the magazine appears on the stalls for sale. It indicates when exactly the readers will first see a specific issue. The cover date is the date that appears on the cover of the magazines. Mostly, the on-sale date precedes the cover date. Closing date is the deadline by which the advertisement material must reach the magazines it is either a few days or a few weeks prior to the on-sale date.

Magazine buying


affecting the choice of Magazine are as follows:

1. Circulation and Readership:

Circulation figures indicate the number of people who will get to see the ad. But circulation for magazines keep on fluctuating. The ad rates are based on guaranteed circulation.

It is the figure of those least number of copies which will be delivered..

Because the guaranteed circulation is the number of readers advertisers purchase, it is also known as the Rate Base. i.e. The circulation that magazines guarantee advertisers in computing advertising costs.

Primary readership of a magazine is the readership of actual buyers or subscribers. Secondary readership get to read the magazine as it is passed on by the primary readers.

Secondary readership is a matter of research. It always exceeds the circulation. (ABC) Audit Bureau of Circulation certifies a magazines circulation

2. Magazines Ad Rates: The rate card shows the rate to be paid and production specifications.

It also spells out the agencys commission policy and provides other relevant information. There are separate rates for Black and White and colour ads.

The rates increase depending upon the number of color used. Bleed ad has its background color spread all over the page till its edges. It carries an extra charge.

Magazines offer a variety of sizes full-page, halfpage, quarter-page ads. Fractions of a page in several combination can be offered. Gatefold ad opens like a safe, when its two folds are opened. It occupies an extra-wide page.

Run-of-press ads are placed anywhere. The preferred positions are the first-cover, the front inside cover (second cover), the inside backcover (third cover) and the outside cover (fourth cover). Generally, ads are not sold on first cover.

Cover ads get more attention, and command higher rates. Preferred position is opposite to the contents, or near popular editorial features. Even a run-ofpress ad can be made effective by using appropriate copy and layout.

3. Audience Selectivity.

As we noted earlier, the audience niche reached by a publication is normally the starting point for evaluating a magazine.

Exposure to a companys primary target audiences. Magazines can reach narrowly defined audience segments, especially among high income households.

There is no question that magazines represent the most efficient means of reaching a significant segment of affluent prospects.

Furthermore, the majority of this audience are not heavy users of other media.

Therefore, when the marketing objective is to reach affluent customers, magazines will almost always play a central role in the advertising plan.

For more and more national advertisers, the decision is not one of deciding between magazine and television, but rather how to use hem as complementary media. A study commissioned by the MPA found the following:

The combination of print and television produces greater communication of brand attributes than print alone or television alone.

The selection of a brand versus its competitors increases more when print and television are used in conjunction with each other than when television or magazines are used separately.

It is evident that advertisers must plan their creative strategies and executions to strengthen and enhance the communication objectives for both media.

The complementary advantages of combining magazines and television are greatly reinforced when creative strategies are complementary for both media.

4. Availability of demographic and geographic editions.

On a national scale, magazine demographic and geographic editions meet the same demands of large advertisers. It is very rare that a national magazine does not offer some type of regional or demographic breakout of its total circulation. These special editions are called partial runs and are very common and important to magazine advertising.


Many consumer magazines are considered the leading authority in their field.

As we discussed earlier, it is this position of magazines as authoritative sources that led to so many cross-media spin offs into other media. Sometimes the relationship between media credibility and advertising is direct.


When a person picks up Golf Digest, Glamour, or PC Computing, there is little doubt about their interests.

Specialized magazines can practically guarantee a synergism between reader and editorial content.

The average reading time for a consumer magazine is 52 minutes.

More importantly, the more highly educated a reader, the more thoroughly he or she reads a magazine.

Reader involvement is related to the credibility and editorial relationship that readers develop with their favorite magazines. While not easy to quantify, these factors play a role in determining in which medium advertisers will invest their money.

8. Long closing dates Unlike the spontaneity of radio and newspapers, magazines require a long lead time between when advertising material must be submitted and when the ad will run.

For example, a magazine advertisement may run 8 to 10 weeks after an advertiser submits it. This long lead time makes it difficult for advertisers react to current marketing conditions either in scheduling space or developing competitive copy. The long closing dates are one reason why most magazine copy is very general.

9. Ad Banking. While not an inherent disadvantage of all magazines, ad banking is a practice that some advertisers do not like.

Ad banking is the practice of publications such as National Geographic to cluster (or bank) all the advertisements toward the front and back of the publication. Advertisers fear that banking creates advertising clutter and makes it less likely that their advertising will gain high readership. Some advertisers exclude such publications from their media schedules.

10. Partial Run Magazine Editions

When an advertiser buys the entire circulation of a magazine, it is known as buying the full-run edition.

The demand for even more selective audience delineation has required magazines to provide advertisers with special audience segments within their total circulation.

These less-than-full-run buys are called partial-runs. Among the more common partial-run editions are:

Editions. Major magazines

routinely offer advertisers those ZIP codes with the highest average income. Advertisements can limit their ads to subscribers in those areas.

Vocational Editions. A magazine may

identify professionals or executives among its readers and allow advertisers to purchase a partial-run directed only at these readers.

Geographic edition The oldest, and still most available, form of partial-run is the geographic edition.

Depending on the publication, a magazine may offer a combination of city, state, or regional editions.

One advantage of geographic editions is that they can be used for both subscriptions and newsstand sales, whereas both demographic and vocational editions are confined to subscribers.
It is extremely common for even relatively small circulation magazines to offer some form of partialrun advertising.

Split-Run Editions
It is a special form of the partial-run edition. Splitrun editions normally are used by both advertisers and publishers for testing purposes. The simplest form of split-run test is where an advertiser buys a regional edition( a full-run is usually not bought because of the expense) and runs different advertisements in every other issue.

Each advertisement is the same size and runs in the same position in the publication.

The only difference is the element being tested. It may be a different headline, illustration, product benefit or even price.

Partial-run and split run editions offer a number of benefits to advertisers. 1. Geographic editions allow advertisers to offer products only in areas where they are sold.
2. Partial-run can localize advertising and support dealers or special offers from one region to another. As advertisers, increasingly adopt local and regional strategies, the partial-run advantages will become even more apparent.

3. Split-run advertisement allows advertisers to test various elements of a campaign in a realistic environment before embarking on a national rollout.

4. Regional editions allow national advertisers to develop closer ties with their retailers by listing regional outlets. This strategy also provides helpful information to consumers for products that lack widespread distribution.

Partial-run editions also have disadvantages:

1. CPM levels are usually much more expensive than full-run advertising in the same publication and close dates can be as much as a month earlier than other advertising.

2. In the case of demographic editions, the lack of news stand distribution for these advertisements can be a major disadvantage if single-copy sales are significant for the publication.

3. Some publications bank their partial-run advertising in a special section set aside for such material.

Various Kinds of rebates, discounts and rates offered in magazine buys

Frequency & Volume discounts : Discounts based on total time or space bought, usually within a year. Also called bulk discounts. Other discounts such as continuity discounts for advertisers who agree to advertise at a certain rate over a period of time, usually 2 years. Remnant Space: Unsold advertising space in geographic or demographic editions. It is offered to advertisers at a significant discount.

Radio Advertising:
Commercial radio in the Indian context has certain inherent characteristics. Its strengths lies in: Offering local coverage on its medium wave channels; Permeating all economic and social strata, thereby reaching the masses;

Strengths & Weaknesses:


Various formats. Special audiences. Inexpensive

Affordable frequency Affordable production

Radio is cluttered Radio spots are fleeting

Reaches mobile market Scheduling & creative flexibility Immediacy

Its daily frequency, offering scope for continued messages; Broadcasting throughout the day so that message may be repeatedly broadcast;

Reaching un-educated village folk who do not read print publication


Before radio salespeople can convince clients to buy the medium, they must put themselves in the place of individual clients to determine how radio will accomplish their marketing and advertising goals.

Generally, radio accomplished one of three functions for an advertiser: It supplemented other media to add weight to a schedule. It is particularly valuable for special sales or to react to unanticipated marketing conditions. Radio was valuable as a niche medium. As we have seen, radio often reaches market segments that are not heavy users of other media. For example, for many teenagers radio is the primary medium, while print is very ineffective.

For a few retailers, especially smaller stores or those with narrowly segmented clientele, it was their only medium.

Today, advertisers continue to use radio for each of these marketing and advertising objectives.

Unless radio can create a value to the other media, it is unlikely it will be a part of media schedule.

Fortunately, radio offers unique characteristics that will allow it to be considered for at least a secondary role in the advertising plans of virtually all advertisers.

Radio Creativity and Flexibility

Unlike other out-of-home messages, radio commercials are not static but can be changed almost immediately to reflect different market conditions or new competition. The personal nature of radio, combined with its flexibility and creativity, makes it a powerful medium for all types of advertisers and product categories. One of radios greatest strengths is its flexibility. Copy changes can be made very quickly. When marketing conditions suddenly change, you can react instantly with radio. The short lead time in production and copy changes is an enormous benefit to advertisers who may need last-minute adjustments to their sales messages.

The ability to anticipate or react to changing conditions cannot be underestimated. The simplicity of radio can be a major advantage in making tactical marketing decisions. Radios sense of immediately and flexibility, all at a cost within the budget of even the smallest advertiser, has made it an important part of the strategy of many advertisers.

Television Buying

Television Rating Point: TV advertisers eveluate the medium according to the delivery of certain target audiences. In the case of networks and large affiliates, advertisers tend to look for exposure to fairly broad audience segments. The basic measure of television of Television is the rating point. The rating expressed as a percentage of some population (Usually TV households), gives the advertiser a measure of coverage based on the potential of the market.

1. Share of audience:

Although the rating is the basic audiencemeasurement statistic for TV, another measure, the share of audience ( or simple, share), is often used to determine the success of a show.

The share is defined as the percentage of households using television that are watching a particular show. It is used by advertisers to determine how a show is doing against its direct competition.

2. Up-Front and scatter Buys:

Purchase of TV time by advertisers during the first offering for the coming season by networks. Among the major up-front trends are: 1. Greater demand for time 2. Agency using computer models called optimizers which provides additional data to major prime-time advertisers, which gives them confidence to spread their budget.

3. Globalization 4. Special events The up-front season is followed by a second phase known as scatter plan buys. Scatter plans are usually bought on a quarterly basis throughout the year. They are designed for larger advertisers who want to take advantage of changing marketing conditions or, more often, for smaller advertisers who are shut out of upfront buys. Generally, scatter plans will sell at a higher CPM than upfront spots because there is less time inventory and smaller advertisers do not have the leveraged to negotiate the CPM levels of larger networks.

3. Negotiation:

Negotiation is the key to the Television buying. Since each advertising package is unique to a particular advertiser, there are no rate cards for network television advertising. In Negotiation process advertisers negotiate for time across a number of Television options.

4. Spot Television Or Spot Buys

When national advertisers buy from local or regional stations, the practice is known as spot television or spot buys. i.e. purchase of time from a local or regional station, in contrast to purchasing from a national network.

The term comes from the fact that advertisers are spotting their advertising in certain markets as contrasted to the blanket coverage offered by network schedules.

The primary disadvantages of spot television are that it requires a great deal more planning and paperwork than National Network since each market must be bought on a one-to-one basis and it is more costly on a CPM basis than National Network buys.

Primary purpose for Spot Buys

1. To allow network advertisers to provide additional GRPs in those markets with the greatest sales potential. 2.To provide businesses with less than national or uneven distribution, a means of avoiding waste circulation incurred by network Television.

3. Spot buys allow network advertisers to control for uneven network ratings on a marketby-market basis.

4. National advertisers can use spot to support retails and provide localization for special marketing circumstances.

5. Preemption rate:

A considerable portion of spot TV advertising time is sold on a preemptible (lower-rate) basis, whereby the advertiser gives the station the right to sell a time slot to another advertiser that may pay a better rate for it or that has a package deal for which that particular spot is needed

6. Run of Schedule (ROS)

An advertiser can earn a lower rate by permitting a channel to run commercials at its convenience whenever time is available rather than in a special position.

7. Product protection:

Every advertiser wants to keep the advertising of competitive products as far away from its commercials as possible. This brings up the question of what protection against competition an ad will get. Although some station say that they will try to keep competing commercials 5 to 10 minutes apart, and guarantee that they will not run them back to back.

8. Stripping:

Scheduling a syndicated program on a five-dayper-week basis. That is, they will run Jassi or Desh-Videsh, Monday through Friday in the same time slot. This practice is called stripping since the show is stripped across a time period.

It is cost efficient to buy fewer shows for multishowings and allows a station to build a consistent audience for selling commercials to potential advertisers.

Channels do not want huge rating or audience composition swings from one day to another.

Merits and Demerits of TV Advertising

Special Merits of TV: TV has immense impact: No other medium can
ever complete TV as far as effective presentation is concerned. It attracts attention immediately. Computer graphics has made it still more effective.

It arouses interest in the product. In print ads, these two steps require deliberation. Here it comes spontaneously. TV commercials and sponsored programmes are impactive; even when the viewer is temporarily not before the set.

Excellent Quality of Production:

TVs sponsored programmes and DD programmes have been improving in terms of quality content wise as well as product wise consistently over a period of time. The agency exercises overall supervision. We have cadre of TV producers now. Sometimes the movie moghuls themselves produce a TV serial (e.g. Sagar produced Ramayana and B. R. Copra the Mahabharat). So skilled hands this medium. Some sponsored programmes are lavishly made. They do a lot of outdoor shooting. But most of the programmes are indoor shot programmes.

familiar and their presence is reassuring. The audience likes the face, and welcomes it. We thus see Karan Lunel, Maya Alagh, Malavika, Suchitra Krishnamurthy, Kavita Chowdhary (Lalitaji) Kittoo (Kaushalya) Gidwani, Juhi Chawla. After all, it is an entertainment medium. The model attracts attention in his or her own right. It adds to our pleasure. This is a distinct advantage of TV. Retailers also watch TV: Both consumers and distributors are TV viewers. The retailers might miss out the ads in print media. But they are exposed to TV ads. Thus they fell inclined to stock these products. Nand Kishore Khanna & Sons, a local firm making Homacol liquid soap has definitely improved its distribution after TV advertising. The single medium does a double job.

Familiar, Friendly Voices: Here the models are all

It is a Comprehensive Technique: In TV, there is a

unique blend of sight, colour, movement, sound, timing, repetition and presentation in the home. Put together it has more attributes than any other medium. It, therefore, produces quick results. Only the product should be a nationally marketed consumer product.

Evocation of Experience: it stimulates the experience

of using and owning the product.

Demonstration: Product benefits can be shown most

effectively by TV. Benefits may accrue over a period of time. But by using the technique of time compression, product benefits can be shown in a 10 second spot.

Creative use of Environment and Mental Make-up of Viewers: The editorial environment of a sponsored programme can

be creatively used to produce a commercial, e.g., circus artistes can be shown using ACTION shoes before the teleserial of CIRCUS. Animation: It is possible to vest the product/logo with human qualities. Animated characters do not alienate us. Image Building: TV succeeds in building a powerful image of the company and its products. It can also project an image of the users rendering it excellent for life-style advertising. Emotional Content: TV triggers off nostalgia, tenderness, generosity kindness and such other emotions. The special effects enhance the impact. You have to be extremely genuine on TV. The slightest put-up is easily captured on the camera-Amin Sayani while speaking to Alyque in Dream Merchants.

Special Demerits of TV Ads

It takes time to produce commercials and sponsored programmes: This medium requires planning and deliberation. The consent for sponsorship is hard to come by. It lacks the flexibility of press and radio. If not rightly produced, the ads look very crude. But once produced as per our requirements, these ads can be repeated over a period of time (Nirma ad).


is a transient medium: Here the commercial

flickers for a few seconds and goes off the air. We work over hard with insistent jingles and repeated sales message. Sometimes, the commercial is repeated frequently. TV ads alone may not be sufficient. They need supportive ads in other media. More than one or two spots are necessary to be as noticeable as one insertion in print.

the mind, it is okay. But otherwise, a mind that is well prepared for buying a certain product cannot do so immediately because there is a night to go by and only next morning the action can be taken. By that times, we might not have kept, the product in mind. The buy now pressure exerted on the TV viewers is totally wasted because the stimulus is often lost by the following morning. This is one of the reason why TV needs a very high frequency to sustain the impact. An immobile medium: Radio can be listened to either in car or while walking. Newspapers are read in locals, in offices and at many other locations. Right now, TV is watched only at home. It requires a captive audience. It penetrates the home. This is an advantage as well as a disadvantage.

Time gap to purchasing: If TV advertisement sinks into

purchases. Detailed enquiries cannot come. It is difficult to note either the telephone number or the address. Another major problem is that too much is compressed in a TV commercial lasting for a few seconds. It is a digest, and is easily assimilated and absorbed. At first viewing, there is novelty. But on absorption, this wears off. On repeated viewing, it becomes monotonous. Everything is anticipated. This problem can be overcome if we can serialize a commercial. It is better to produce several less ambitious films than to produce one super production. Slight changes make all the difference in results. Time Constraint: In a few seconds, we can put forward only one selling proposition.

Difficult to gain enquiries: TV restricts itself to typical

high as compared to costs of the print production. The paying capacity of the client, the prevailing rates in the market, the nature of the product, and the commercial values of the programme that accompanies the commercial determine the final production cost. Hardware Capability: The T.V. set of the viewer and its technical capability determine the overall impact of the commercial. Cinema can afford the luxury of long shots, but not a T.V commercial. All commercials should be tested in real life situations, mostly on portable B & W sets. The colour reproduction is controlled in the print media, but on colour T.V. set the capability of the set itself determines the colour reproduction. Statutory Controls: T.V. commercials have to conform to a broadcast code strictly.

Production Costs: Cost of producing a commercial is

Fragmentation of Audiences: All channels have a diversity of programs to attract viewers. They intend to penetrate the viewers of other channels by a diverse program mix. This channels penetration at the same time gives program options. This naturally leads to fragmentation of audiences and lower regularities of viewership. I is difficult to convey a message in such a situation. It can prove a blessing in disguise for the print media. The relationship with T.V. is extremely flirtatious.


is less than the viewership of the programme which accompanies them. The lengthier the chain of commercials, the less is the viewership. Several studies in India have shown that the total audience for commercial for an average T.V. programme is substantially lower than that of the programme, sometimes below over 50 per cent. The figure is further eroded due to a large passive audiences of the total commercial audience. The duration of a commercial does not seem to play a significant role in brand name recall. Top rate programmes on any channels have high clutter leading to poor and recall.

of Clutter: the viewership of commercials


television advertising: Network

audience continues to decline slightly after a decade of significant slippage. However, network advertising still delivers a huge audience, especially for top-rated shows. Network television is a medium for heavy hitters. Fewer than 700 companies use network television, and the top 10 network advertiser is willing g to I vest millions of dollars, network advertising is probably not a viable option.

2.Local and cable advertising:

The proliferation of nonnetwork options has made television a practical alternative for many advertisers formerly shut out of the medium. However, many (most) of theses options draw very small audience. On a CPM basis advertising independent stations local cable outlets and many cable networks are paying a premium for the viewers they reach. In some cases audience selectively partially offsets this high CPM. In other cases, advertisers simply are lured by the glamour of television without realistically figuring its cost.




Impact Market coverage Intrusive Flexible Cost-efficient (CPM) Prestigious

Fleeting Expensive
Big shows. Big Bucks. Production can be expensive

Best shows have limited availability

VIDEO Advantages of Video as an Advertising Medium 1. Cost. It is mush cheaper than TV. While a 10 sec spot on the National Network in the 9 pm slot costs Rs. 90,000, the comparative cost on a video cassette works out to be just rs. 6,000. According to a study done a 30 sec spot per thousand viewers on video costs merely Rs. 6 compared to Rs. 11 and Rs. 13 on TV and Cinema. 2. Segmentation. Video offers segmentation depending upon the type of movies and languages. An English movie will have a different clientele than a Marathi or a Hindi one while the profile of viewers of Newstrack would be different from the clientele for star buzz.

3. Situational Advertising. It is possible to insert an ad before or after as appropriate situation. For eg. Karan Kapoors Bombay Dying spot appeared just before he made an entry in his maiden film Loha, while the Burnol spots shown just when a character in the film suffered burns. 4. Coverage. Video has been used effectively by companies approaching the rural market. Armed with video cassettes of films and commercials of their product (called video yatra) they have captivated the rural audience. The number of video sets is also on the increase. A survey done by Mode Services in mid 87 puts the numbers at 1.8 million. Each A grade movie is transferred to about 10 to 20 thousands cassettes. Some movies such as Shahenshah had 70 to 90 thousands copies. This ensures a wide coverage.

Limitations of video as an Advertising Medium

1. Zapping. The fast forward control has been a problem area for a advertisers. to overcome this computers have been used to super impose ads on the frame of the film itself. 2. Short Life. A large number of films are released every month and the life of a new film is somewhere between one week and two months. At the end of this period the pirated cassettes will have some another films taped on them. Thus while new films have large viewership and are ideal for a number of campaign, several media planners prefer old evergreen films for long term objectives 3. Variety. Though there are several video magazines the ads are more popular in film based cassettes. This limits the market penetration in up-market segments. The alternative is the English feature films which can reach the up- market consumers. But the poor quality of films imported by the National Film Development corporation (NFDC) has been a handicap.

4. Interference with Entertainment. Too much advertising on video has a nuisance value especially ads superimposed on the movie 5. Boredom Watching the same as again and again leads to boredom and negative appeal. 6. Pirated Cassettes. This can be termed as an advantage since more people watch the cassette than originally paid for. But in most of these films the ads are edited poorly which may spoil the image of the product.


Out-of home media include outdoor posters (Billboards, Painted Bulletins and on-and-of premise signs of all descriptions. Whatever may be the slight difference in the interpretation, all outdoor ads have no editorial vehicle to carry the messages. The viewer has to incur no expenditure, nor has he to make any effort to see an outdoor advertising, where as this is not so with other media. An ad message is not brought to the audience, it is audience who go the message, though they view it in the course of their other activities.

Outdoor ads offer repeat opportunities for looking at the ad messages, either at the same place on an identical Billboard at another location. Only such Billboards are qualified as outdoor media. Roadside and on premises devices, which are not of standard sizes and/or designs, are not classified strictly as outdoor ad. They are referred to as signs. These media can at the best be called Outof Home (OOH) media.

What is a Billboard?

Outdoor advertising is mostly Billboard advertising. The first use of this advertising was in promoting theatrical programmes. The playbill was pasted outside the theatre, so that passerby could see it. This was done to promote attendance at these theatrical performances, and was no doubt a primitive form of advertising; but it is existence even today. The bills were pasted on walls, fences or on boards around the town.

The following are the advantages of the outdoor media The outdoor offers long life. With proper placement, a broad base of exposure is possible in local markets, with both day & night presence. So, it will yield high levels of reach. Frequency of high levels is also established because purchase cycles are typically for 30-days periods, and hence consumers are usually exposed a number of times. It offers geographic selectivity. Local, regional or even national markets may be covered. It may be placed along highways, near stores, important traffic intersections or on mobile billboards.

Billboards give us the flexibility to vary the ad message to suit a particular segment of the market. An advertiser can use this medium nationally, globally, by region, by market and even by specific location within those markets. The advertiser can incorporate the names and addresses of his local dealers or agents at the bottom of the poster. These dealer imprint strips are called snipes. Outdoor ads can be very creative. Large prints, colors and other elements attract attention. Modern technologies have reduced production times for outdoor advertising.

The outdoor offers impact and can thus create high levels of awareness. Shoppers are exposed to last minute reminders by outdoor advertising when they are driving down to the stores or a shopping centre. Outdoor displays are in large size and in bright colour, and have a provocative messageall of which make a good impact on prospective customers. Outdoor advertising allows for a psychedelic display of the product, trademark and slogan. Life-like Visuals and Lifestyle Advertising: New technology makes it easier to advertise the branch on hoardings. It reinforces the TV and Print advertising. Outdoor alone among all other media generates for the local governments and civic bodies.

Disadvantages of outdoor media

Waste Coverage: While it is possible to reach specific audiences, in many cases the purchase of outdoor results in a high degree of waste coverage. It is not likely that everyone going past it is a part of the target market. Limited message capabilities: Because of the speed with which most people pass by outdoor ads, exposure time is short, so messages are limited to a few words and/or an illustration. Lengthy appeals are not likely to be effective.

Wearout: Because of the high frequency of exposures, outdoor may lead to a quick wearout. People are likely to get tired of seeing the same ad every day. Measurement problems: The accuracy of measuring reach, frequency and other effects is a problem.

Additional Out-of-home Media

Aerial Advertising: Skywriting, airplanes pulling banners and blimps constitute for another form of outdoor advertising. These media are useful in reaching specific target markets. Mobile Billboards: This is another popular form of outdoor media. Costs depend on the area and the fees for the mobile board.

Transit Advertising
Transit advertising encompasses a number of formats and distinctly different advertising vehicles. Among the major forms of transit advertising are the following: Bus exteriors Taxi exteriors Bus and commuter rail interiors Commuter station posters Miscellaneous displays such as terminal clocks and air terminal posters The king-sized posters dominate bus advertising space and are the most used format for both national and local transit advertisers.

Transit provides a number of advantages to advertisers and, although still a small medium by total advertising standards, has grown at a significant rate in the past several years. Estimated revenues for transit are approximately $300 million. The popularity of transit advertising are due to a number of factors: Transit prices have low overall cost and CPM levels. Transit prices are even lower than traditional outdoor, less than $1 CPM in many markets. Transit reaches prospects in the market place and is attracting an increasingly upscale audience as public transportation becomes more popular in many cities.

In the case of interior signs, advertisers are reaching a captive audience of riders who average almost 20 minutes per trip. The nature of transit audience allows somewhat longer messages than outdoor signs. Creative opportunities are increasing. The New York subway system recently approved a plan to install lighted station posters that were purchased by major advertisers such as THE

GAP AND CALVIN The repetitive nature of the transit audience quickly builds high levels of frequency over relatively short periods.

Transit advertising provides a low-cost option for reaching a mobile, urban audience. With likelihood that mass transit will be more popular in the coming years; the growth of transit advertising is assured. Added to its ability to reach this audience is the fact that municipal governments are seeking new sources of revenue and transit advertising rental space is one that is readily available.

Types of transit advertising

Interior cards or car cards Exterior posters Station, Platform and Terminal Poster Bus and Railway Tickets

Interior Cards or Car Cards. Buses and subways usually have overhead and wall mountings for advertising. Local trains also have advertising space on their walls. These are specially useful when catering for specific target group such as women. The ads can be placed inside the womens compartments of the local trains. Unlike the posters which cannot be read at length, commuters in train have ample time to read the ad. And therefore a longer copy can be used. Situational-specific advertising can also be used, for instance Godrej has used car cards very effectively. Car may be spoilt and disfigured by mischievous youngsters.

The train route is drawn and below that the product is advertised. This ensures that commuters referring to the map will notice the product for its marvel soap. Godrej used the ad line After the hot sticky journey you need the creamy freshness of Marvel. The main disadvantage of this medium is that the ads environment is not pleasing for most commuters and is not a very pleasurable experience. This may put them in hostile frame of mind.

Exterior Posters. Buses also have display ads on the outside space. Trains are painted with the messages of advertisers and so are cabs. The outside posters may appear on yhe sides, backs, and/or roofs of buses, taxis, trains and subway cars. The increasing sophistication of this medium is visibly seen in this form of advertising through innovative techniques such as animation, vibrant colors, and lighting. Space is sold in blocks of time, with cost dependent on the neighborhood it travels.

This medium is not useful during the rainy season as maintenance cost increases. It has also not succeeded in rural areas and semi-urban areas where the state transport buses ply. This is because the roads are so dusty that the buses get very dirty and the advertised message loses its appeal. Stations, Platform, and Terminal Posters: Floor displays, electronic signs and other forms of advertising that appear in train or subway stations, airline terminals, and the like forms of transit advertising. They can be made in a very attractive manner so as to get the attention of the audiences.




Advantages & Disadvantages of Transit Advertising Exposure: Long length of exposure. The long drive will expose the message for a long time and thus allowing more exposure time to a captive audience. Frequency: Since daily routines are standard, audiences will be exposed to the message repeatedly. Timeliness: An ad promoting a product or service at a particular area could be a very timely communication.

4. Geographic selectivity: Transit advertising can reach a very select section of the population. 5. Cost: Transit advertising tends to be one of the least expensive media. Disadvantages : 1. Image Factors 2. Reach 3. Waste Coverage 4. Mood of the audience

Direct Response

Direct-response advertising can reach virtually any demographic, product user, or even lifestyle segments with extreme accuracy. It is a medium particularly attuned to the target marketing philosophy of the 1990s and has shown significant growth in the past decade.

Advantages of Direct Advertising 1. Market Segmentation. It is possible to prepare mailing list spread across different geographical areas depending upon your target market. This is specially useful in India where people speak different language and come from across cultural backgrounds.

2. Personal Touch. Direct ad has personal touch and that appeal to consumers. It is possible to select from mailing lists and addresses letters individually. Reading every name on the cover and several times in the letter flatters the consumer and creates the right atmosphere to sell the product idea. 3. Complete attention. Unlike TV where ads is mixed with entertaining and newspaper where it is read along serious news, direct ads is read with minimum distractions.

4. Flexibility. Unlike the print medium where the ad is constrained by limitations of size and space available, literature in direct ad can come in different forms, shapes and sizes. 5. Testing the Advertisement. It is the most appropriate method of testing effectiveness by keying different mailers. It is possible to measures which ad got the maximum response. 6. Confidentiality. It is possible to control the type of audience that will be exposed to your ad message. This ensures relative secrecy and it is possible to keep the rivals guessing about your sales pitch.

7. An Aid to Sales People. A direct mailer preceded by a sales persons visit makes it easier for the sales person. 8. Industrial Advertising. Direct mailers are useful while advertising industrial products which can be explained in detail in categories. 9. Local Advertising. This medium is used by a local advertiser such as retailers, tuition and coaching classes, gyms and hobby classes. The opening of new outlets, discount sales and other special offers are also made using this medium.

10. Economical. When the market is small and can be identical it is useful to use this medium. 11. Legal Restrictions. MRTP and other legal restrictions disallow advertising by pharmaceutical companies for products other than OTC for example Crocin or Vicks VapoRub. Professionals such as doctors and lawyers also cannot advertise their services. Such classes of advertisers find direct advertising most suitable.

Limitations of Direct Advertising

Mailing List. The success of direct ad depends upon the mailing list. If the mailing list is comprehensive and complete and it reaches the target market it can be effective. In India with limitations of computer facilities and accurate secondary data about consumers demographic profile it is difficult to prepare a suitable mailing list. Cost: Cost per thousand is definitely more expensive than other media that is when large numbers of people have to be reached this medium is not suitable.

Reader Involvement: When too many mailers are received reader involvement reduces and they tend to throw away the sales letters even before opening them. Cost of Production: Brochures and catalogues produced in colour on art-paper can be very expensive and cannot be used by small firms.

Point-of-purchase advertising
Point-of-purchase advertising (POP) is an essential part of any sales promotion strategy for products sold through stores. It provides a final, all-important step in the process of capitalizing on brand awareness and influencing individual purchasing decisions. POP advertising is both a part of the integrated marketing mix and an impulse stimulant. What sets POP advertising apart from other forms of promotional activity is its ability to influence the purchasing decision at the very moment the consumer is selecting a product.

That distinction is reflected in the following definition of POP from the Point-of-Purchase Advertising Institute (POPAI): Displays, signs, structures, and devices that are promotional, and are used to identify, advertise, or merchandise an outlet, service, or product and serve as an aid to retail selling. The key word here is promotional. Merely stocking a shelf with soap or cereal doesn't make for POP. Nor does a sign that says "Meat Department."

But within POP (sometimes known as point-of-sale advertising) are dozens of bright, colorful, sometimes zany items used to encourage the sale of individual brands, product lines, or even entire product categories. MAJOR TYPES OF POP 1. Signs differ from displays in that the messages on them are more general. They may serve notice that a given brand is being promoted or simply direct shoppers to an area of the store where a product is on sale. Signs attached to a display may include price or other information about the product.

Shelf media, such as shelf-talkers and shelf strips, may be attached to existing fixtures, and they don't take up precious floor, wall, or counter space. 2. Windows Displays. These are very popular methods used by chemists department stores showrooms. In fact the term Window Shopping has been used to describe the pullthese attractive window-displays exert on every passes-by. Window display contents are used by manufactures to promote retailers to display their products attractively. At present Wipros BabyCare product have grabbed window displays at chemists outlets.

3. Displays Cards.
These are elaborate cut-out models that are placed outside the retail outlet or placed near the cashcounters. Frooti, a tetra bricks pack soft drink used this medium effectively. Huge cut-outs of the model drinking Frooti were placed besides boxes filled with hay and foorti packs. This gave an impression that Foorti was as fresh as mangoes. 4. Wall Displays. Here the folders may be stringed placed across the wall

5. Merchandising of Racks and Cases. The manufactures

may supply the display racks for their products. The round jar of Cadburys Eclairs placed besides the cash counters the racks to display Maggi Soups and the huge hamper with Maggi Noodles swinging at the doorway of the retail outlets are striking examples. 6. In store Commercials. This is the latest form of P.O.P advertising. The commercials are viewed by consumers within the store and act as sales people trying to effect a sale. Electronically operated display panels near cash counters or small screens near shelf-spaces can be used to exhibit the commercials. These are common in supermarkets.

Advantages of P.O.P Advertising

1. It is the last advertising opportunity before the purchase and therefore the manufactures has to hardsell. 2. The P.O.P material is generally similar to the press and TV advertisements and therefore acts as a reminder of mass advertising. 3. It provides information and identification of the brand its image. 4. the most important advantage is that it increases the sales turnover and makes their outlets attractive.

5.Retailers recognize the value of P.O.P as it increases the sales turnover and makes their outlets attractive. 6. Sales promotion contents can be successful by P.O.P material, for example: A retailer may display the latest Pepsi promotional campaign. 7. At times it can be economical and convenient for the retailer to use P.O.P material, for Example: A manufacturer may be willing to supply one with advertising for his brand, at a cost lower than a retailer would pay for one without advertising. In short P.O.P advertising acts as a dealer aid as well as stimulant for consumers

8. Manufacturers need not depend upon retailers to push their brands as the P.O.P acts as a pull technique. 9. As organized retail such as Big Bazar increases, self service will become the order of the day. This increases the importance of P.O.P advertising. Limitations of P.O.P Advertising 1. With growing competition manufactures are fighting for limited retail spaces. This increases the clout of retailers.

2. P.O.P material is useful only when it is placed at a high level or in an attractive manner. This may not be always possible. 3. A clutter of too many P.O.P materials may confuse the consumer. 4. Retailers are not too bothered about installing the display and when one salesman installs the P.O.P materials, the next salesman from the next sales firm replaces the display with his own. This limits the life of the P.O.P materials. 5. Wall displays and signs may get damaged or may deteriorate.

6.Display racks may misused by stocking it with competitive merchandise 7. Retailers usually do not pay for P.O.P material and therefore may not use it correctly and effectively. 8. Large manufacturers having a long term relationship with the retailers and financial clout may enjoy premium places for their displays to the disadvantage of smaller manufacturers

Internet as an emerging medium in India

The internet is one of the emerging mediums in India as of today. Like many other media it too has its advantages and disadvantages in the below mentioned areas: Advantages: Effective targeting the internet as a medium poses an advantage in this aspect as the kind of people visiting a site or surfing the web can be determined and defined much better and easier then other mediums. However, one must

remember that majority of the people on the net are educated and from urban backgrounds. So it makes sense only for those who are looking at this target audience to advertise on the net. Eg. It doesnt make much sense for lifebuoy to advertise on the net.

Flexibility of execution - theoretically, internet as a medium provides one with a good amount of flexibility of execution. One can communicate its message in the form of print or one can create a whole audio-visual

experience or even set up a virtual tour experience of the product. Eg. Many tour operators have a virtual tour site of different countries. Products like mobile phones can be seen from all angles because of 3-D animation. One-to-one with consumers: The primary attraction of the Internet is its ability to deal one-to-one with consumers. In theory, business and consumers can buy products, exchange product information, and acquire valuable research with the touch of a computer key. In practice, the Internet remains an experimental medium with vast under utilized potential

Growth: However in future one expects the medium to grow across sections of society. The Internet is the ultimate research tool, with its ability to measure exactly how many people used the medium and or purchased a product The Internet is among the most flexible media, with an ability to immediately change copy in reaction to market and competitive conditions. Reach: one of the main advantages of the medium is that it exposes you to the world. The knowledge you can obtain from the internet is close to infinite. Anyone in the world can see your website; see your ad [even if it is a little banner on a small site]. It is also a medium where you can communicate to a specific target audience.

Cheaper medium to advertise: It is a relatively cheaper medium to advertise. Disadvantages: To this point, the Internet is mostly promise rather than performance. It is difficult to determine the effectiveness of the service because it is largely experimental in a commercial sense. Connectivity with respect to India this is one of the main disadvantages of advertising on this medium. Its presence in the rural areas is nonexistent and in the urban areas a lot is left to be desired

Despite the growing popularity of the Internet as a means of informal communication, many consumers are still reluctant to use the service for purchasing products and services. In particular, consumers seem reluctant to give their credit card numbers over the Internet, even though secure sites are available. The sheer number of commercial and non-commercial web sites makes it difficult for consumers to know what is available or, once know, have much time to spend with any single site.

The limitations are that it is not widespread in the country. It is almost redundant for rural advertising. The fact that you cannot do more than animations of a website is a disadvantage. There are several other disadvantages but over a period of time this medium is bound to emerge as a strong force in media planning.