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INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

[SKIN, HAIRS, GLANDS,NAILS]

FUNCTIONS
1.

2.

Protection Against abrasion and UV light Prevents entry of microorganisms Prevents dehydration Sensation Sensory receptors that can detect heat, cold, touch, pressure, and pain

FUNCTIONS

3. Temperature regulation by controlling Blood flow through the skin Sweat gland activity 4. Vitamin D production 5. Excretion of small amounts of waste products

SKIN
1.2-2.2 m2 and weighs 4-5 kg (9-11 lbs) 2 MAJOR REGIONS: 1. EPIDERMIS 2. DERMIS * HYPODERMIS/SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE (not a part of the skin)
SA

FIG. 5.1

EPIDERMIS

Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium CELL TYPES: 1. Melanocytes 2. Keratinocytes 3. Merkel cells 4. Langerhans cells 5 LAYERS

EPIDERMAL CELLS
Keratinocytes Most

abundant cell type Produce the fibrous protein keratin Gives skin its protective properties
Melanocytes Produce

the brown pigment melanin Found in the deepest layers of the epidermis

EPIDERMAL CELLS
Langerhans

cells Epidermal macrophages Help activate the immune system Merkel cells Touch receptors in association with sensory nerve endings

EPIDERMAL LAYERS

STRATUM BASALE/GERMINATIVUM STRATUM SPINOSUM STRATUM GRANULOSUM STRATUM LUCIDUM STRATUM CORNEUM

EPIDERMAL LAYERS
Stratum
Deepest

Basale (Basal Layer)


epidermal layer firmly attached to the

dermis Structural strength is provided by desmosomes and hemidesmosomes Consists of a single row of the youngest keratinocytes Cells undergo mitotic divisions ~every 19 days 10-25% are melanocytes

Stratum Spinosum Melanin granules and Langerhans cells are abundant in this layer Melanin is taken up by the keratinocytes and accumulates on the sunny side to protect the nucleus from UV damage Stratum Granulosum Keratohyaline and lamellated bodies (waterproofing) accumulate in the cells of this layer Above this layer the epithelial cells die because they are too far from the dermis

Stratum Lucidum
Thin,

transparent band superficial to the stratum granulosum

Consists

of a few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes Present only in thick skin

Stratum

Corneum
layer of keratinized

Outermost

cells Accounts for three quarters of the epidermal thickness 20-30 cell layers thick, all dead. Millions rub off everyday. Totally new every 25-45 days.

FIG. 5.2B

FIG. 5.3

THICK & THIN SKIN


Thick

skin has all five epithelial

strata Thin skin contains fewer cell layers per stratum Stratum lucidum is usually absent Hair is found only in thin skin

SKIN COLOR
Melanocytes

produce melanin inside melanosomes and then transfer the melanin to keratinocytes
The

size and distribution of melanosomes determine skin color

Melanin

production is determined genetically but can be influenced by UV light (tanning) and hormones

SKIN COLOR
Increased

blood flow produces a red skin color (Erythema), whereas a decreased flow causes pale skin
Decreased

oxygen content in the blood results in a bluish color called cyanosis

Carotene,

an ingested plant pigment, can cause the skin to appear yellowish

DERMIS
Second

major skin region containing strong, flexible connective tissue

Cell

types include fibroblasts, a few adipose cells and macrophages of two layers: papillary and

Composed

reticular

PAPILLARY LAYER
* Areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers *Its superior surface contains peg-like projections called dermal papillae Genetically determined Responsible for fingerprints and footprints (films of sweat)

PAPILLARY LAYER
Contains

blood vessels that supply the overlying epidermis With nutrients Remove waste products Aid in regulating body temperature

RETICULAR LAYER
Dense

irregular connective tissue Accounts for approximately 80% of the thickness of the skin Collagen fibers in this layer add strength and resiliency to the skin Elastin fibers provide stretch-recoil properties Striae (stretch marks) are caused when skin is overstretched, the dermis ruptures and leaves visible lines

HYPODERMIS

Deep to the skin Composed of adipose and areolar connective tissue Not really part of the skin Mostly adipose tissue Stores fat and connects the skin to the underlying structures (mainly muscles) Shock absorber and insulator Increases greatly as you gain weight

EPIDERMAL APPENDAGES
HAIRS

GLANDS

NAILS

HAIRS

Lanugo (fetal hair) is replaced near the time of birth by terminal hairs (scalp, eyelids, and eyebrows) and vellus hairs At puberty, vellus hairs can be replaced with terminal hairs Hairs are columns of dead, keratinized epithelial cells
A

shaft above the skin A root below the skin A hair bulb at the site of hair formation

3 CONCENTRIC LAYERS INNER MEDULLA


- with pigment granules & air spaces

MIDDLE CORTEX - pigment granules in dark hair - mostly air in white hair

OUTER CUTICLE - keratinized thin flat cells

FIG. 5.6

HAIRS
HAIR FOLLICLE: surrounds hair root HAIR BULB: houses 1. hair papillae: provides nourishment to growing hairs; contains blood vessels

2. hair matrix: germinal layer hair growth & production

GROWTH CYCLE OF HAIRS


GROWTH STAGE - cells at the hair matrix differentiate, divide, become keratinized, & die -as new cells are added at the hair root, hair grows longer

RESTING STAGE - matrix is inactive - hair follicle atrophies

HAIRS
Normal

hair loss in an adult scalp: 70100 hairs Rate of growth/replacement depends on: Illness Surgery Diet Blood loss High fever Severe emotional stress

HAIR COLOR

Melanin in dark-colored hair Melanin and more of S in blond hair Melanin and more of Fe in red hair Gray hair: progressive decline of TYROKINASE White hair: accumulation of air bubbles in the medullary shaft

SEBACEOUS GLANDS
Simple

or compound alveolar glands Found all over the body except on the palms and soles Soften skin when stimulated by hormones Secrete an oily secretion called sebum Acne is an active inflammation of the sebaceous glands.

FIG. 5.7

SWEAT /SUDORIFEROUS GLANDS


MEROCRINE

SWEAT GLANDS: Produce sweat, which cools the body Most numerous in the palms and soles of the feet
APOCRINE

SWEAT GLANDS: Found in axillary and genital areas Ducts empty into hair follicles Produce an organic secretion that can be broken down by bacteria to cause body odor

SWEAT GLANDS
CERUMINOUS

GLANDS: Modified merocrine glands in external ear canal that secrete cerumen (ear wax)
MAMMARY

GLANDS: Specialized sweat glands that secrete milk

FIG. 5.7

NAIL

Stratum Corneum containing hard keratin PARTS: 1. Nail body 2. Free edge 3. Lunula 4. Nail root 5. Nail matrix

NAILS
Nail

growth: 1 mm/week in toenails

Slower

The

longer the digit, the faster the nail grows

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS


Protection
Skin

Sensation
Skin

Protects against abrasion and UV light Prevents the entry of microorganisms Helps regulate body temperature Prevents water loss

contains sensory receptors for


heat cold touch pressure pain

Hair

Protects against abrasion and UV light Acts as a heat insulator

Nails

protect the ends of the

digits

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS


Temperature Skin Controls

Regulation

Vitamin

heat loss from the body by dilation and constriction of blood vessels Sweat glands Produce sweat, which evaporates and lowers body temperature

D Production UV light stimulates the production of a precursor molecule in the skin that is modified by the liver and kidneys into vitamin D Vitamin D increases calcium uptake in the intestines Excretion Skin glands remove small amounts of waste products but are not important in excretion

Least malignant and most common skin cancer Stratum Basale cells proliferate and invade the dermis and hypodermis Slow growing and do not often metastasize Can be cured by surgical excision in 99% of the cases

BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA Arises from keratinocytes of Stratum Spinosum


Arise most often on scalp, ears, and lower lip Grows rapidly and metastasizes if not removed Prognosis is good if treated by radiation therapy or removed surgically

MELANOMA

Cancer of melanocytes is the most dangerous type of skin cancer because it is: Likely to metastasize Resistant to chemotherapy

MELANOMA

Melanomas have the following characteristics (ABCD rule)


A: Asymmetry; the two sides of the pigmented area do not match B: Border is irregular and exhibits indentations C: Color (pigmented area) is black, brown, tan, and sometimes red or blue D: Diameter is larger than 6 mm (size of a pencil eraser)

Treated by wide surgical excision accompanied by immunotherapy Chance of survival is poor if the lesion is over 4 mm thick

BURNS
First-degree:

only the epidermis is damaged Symptoms include localized redness, swelling, and pain Second-degree: epidermis and upper regions of dermis are damaged Symptoms mimic first degree burns, but blisters also appear Third-degree: entire thickness of the skin is damaged Burned area appears gray-white, cherry red, or black; there is no initial edema or pain (since nerve endings are destroyed)

RULE OF NINES
Estimates

the severity

of burns Divides body into areas that are ~ 9%, or multiples of 9%, of the total body area Younger patients are different Burns considered critical if:
Over 25% of the body has second-degree burns Over 10% of the body has third-degree burns There are third-degree burns on face, hands, or feet

PAGE 115

EFFECTS OF AGING ON THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Epidermal replacement of cells slows


and skin becomes thinner Decreased elasticity and loss of subcutaneous tissue leads to wrinkles Subcutaneous fat layer diminishes, leading to intolerance of cold Skin becomes dry and itchy Sweat and sebaceous glands are less active, and the number of melanocytes decreases