Sie sind auf Seite 1von 78

Chapter 5 Membrane Structure and Function

5.1 Membrane Models The fluid-mosaic model consists of a fluid phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins
scientists first noticed that lipidsoluble molecules entered cells more rapidly than water-soluble molecules
in 1925, Gorter and Grendel suggested the phospholipid bilayer based on lipid content of RBCs

5.1 Membrane Models


in 1940s, Danielli and Davson suggested the presence of proteins coating the inside and outside of the bilayer
by late 1950s, electron microscopy allowed viewing of the membrane; Robertson suggested protein with the hydrophilic heads of phospholipids

Fig. 5.1a RBC plasma membrane

5.1 Membrane Models  Fluid-Mosaic Model


introduced in 1972 by Singer and Nicolson
proteins are partially or wholly embedded in a fluid phospholipid bilayer
proteins are scattered

Fig. 5.1b Two possible models

Fig. 5.1c Freeze-fracture

Fig. 5.1d Freeze-fractured membrane

Fig. 5.2 Fluid-mosaic model

5.2 Membrane Structure & Function The plasma membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins
phospholipid bilayer means 2 layers of phospholipids
phospholipid structure 2 long, hydrophobic fatty acids (tails) hydrophilic glycerol/phosphate area (head)

Membrane Structure

Glycerol/Phosphate Head Fatty Acid Tails

Membrane Structure
Hydrophilic

Hydrophobic Region

Hydrophilic

Membrane Structure
Outside Cell Hydrophilic M E M B R A N E

Hydrophobic Region

Hydrophilic Inside Cell

5.2 Membrane Structure & Function


Cholesterol stiffens and strengthens the membrane, helping regulate its fluidity

5.2 Membrane Structure & Function


Peripheral proteins on one side of membrane often have a structural role
Integral proteins embedded in membrane called transmembrane proteins when they span the membrane diverse in their functions

Transmembrane protein

5.2 Membrane Structure & Function


Glycolipids phospholipids with carbohydrate chains attached only on outside of membrane
Glycoproteins proteins with carbohydrate chains attached only on outside of membrane
therefore, the inside of the membrane is not identical to the outside

5.2 Membrane Structure & Function  Carbohydrate Chains

Glycocalyx a sugar coat of glycoproteins in animal cells protects cell; facilitates adhesion to other cells, reception of signal molecules, and cell-to-cell recognition basis for cell identification (like A, B, O blood groups) due to variety

5.2 Membrane Structure & Function  Fluidity of the Plasma Membrane


consistency of olive oil at body temperature
more unsaturated fatty acids = more fluid
more saturated fatty acids = more solid
phospholipids and proteins both drift through the membrane (demonstrated by fusing mouse and human cells)

Fig. 5.3 Lateral drifting of proteins

5.2 Membrane Structure & Function  Functions of the Proteins

5.2 Membrane Structure & Function  Functions of the Proteins

5.2 Membrane Structure & Function  Functions of the Proteins

5.2 Membrane Structure & Function  Functions of the Proteins

5.2 Membrane Structure & Function  Functions of the Proteins

Membrane protein diversity

Structural Summary

Fluid Mosaic Model




Constantly shifting mosaic of proteins moving in a semi-liquid lipid

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane The plasma membrane is selectively permeable


hydrophilic edges allow membrane to exist in aqueous environment
hydrophobic core is major barrier to charged substances
this makes the membrane selectively permeable, allowing some things to pass but not others critical for sustaining the cells life

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane

What can cross passively (without using energy): water small, uncharged molecules


lipid-soluble molecules, carbon dioxide, oxygen, glycerol, alcohol usually assisted by channel proteins or carrier proteins

sugars and amino acids slowly




involves movement down concentration gradient (from high to low)

Diffusion

O2

O2

Diffusion

O2

O2

Fig. 5.5 Membrane permeability

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane

What cannot cross passively (requires energy input) charged molecules and ions


Ca2+, Cl-

macromolecules anything against its concentration gradient


How molecules cross the membrane

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane  Diffusion and Osmosis

Diffusion: movement of molecules from a higher to lower concentration (down a concentration gradient) until equilibrium is reached done by H2O, O2, CO2 increases entropy (high potential energy to low potential energy) temperature, pressure, electrical currents, and molecular size all affect diffusion rate

Fig. 5.6 Diffusion

Diffusion of a gas

Fig. 5.7 Gas exchange in lungs

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane  Diffusion and Osmosis, cont.

Osmosis: movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane due to a concentration gradient water generally moves to dilute the more concentrated solution (from higher water concentration to lower) osmotic pressure is pressure that develops due to osmosis

Osmosis

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane  Diffusion and Osmosis, cont.


Isotonic solutions have the same solute concentrations as one another
Hypotonic solutions have a lower solute concentration than other solutions plant cells in hypotonic solutions swell (turgor pressure)
Hypertonic solutions have a higher solute concentration than other solutions

Osmosis demonstration

Osmosis

Hypotonic Solution: Less Solute 10% NaCl 90% H2O

2% NaCl 98% H2O

Hypertonic Solution: More Solute

Osmosis

Isotonic Solutions: Equal Solute Concentration

6% NaCl 94% H2O

6% NaCl 94% H2O

Osmosis in cells

RBC osmosis simulation

RBCs in different solutions

Osmosis summary

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane  Transport by Carrier Proteins


uses integral membrane proteins to transport material across membrane that couldnt normally cross
carrier protein: permease or gate
carries large or charged particles
each permease is specific for a particular substance

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane  Transport by Carrier Proteins, cont.

Facilitated Transport movement from high concentration to low through a carrier protein no cellular energy required reaches equilibrium example: glucose (polar)

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane  Transport by Carrier Proteins, cont.

Active Transport movement from low concentration to high (against the concentration gradient) through a protein requires cellular energy (ATP) + + example: Na /K pump (sodiumpotassium pump)

Fig. 5.11 Sodium-potassium pump

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane  Vesicle Formation


used to obtain or release large particles or quantities
Exocytosis vesicle fuses with cell membrane and releases contents can be used to release digestive enzymes or hormones

Fig. 5.12 Exocytosis

Exocytosis animation

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane  Vesicle Formation, cont.

Endocytosis cell surrounds and engulfs material, forms a vesicle Phagocytosis: endocytosis of large material, such as a food particle or another cell


seen in amoeba and white blood cells

Pinocytosis: endocytosis of a liquid or very small particles




seen in RBCs, plant root cells

Fig. 5.13a Phagocytosis drawing

Fig. 5.13a Phagocytosis photograph

Phagocytosis animation

WBC attacking E. coli

Amoeba phagocytosis

Fig. 5.13b Pinocytosis drawing

Fig. 5.13b Pinocytosis photograph

Pinocytosis animation

5.3 Permeability of the Membrane  Vesicle Formation, cont.

Endocytosis, cont. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis: uses receptor proteins bound to signal molecules (e.g., vitamins, hormones, or lipoproteins) to initiate endocytosis selective and more efficient

Fig. 5.13c Receptor-mediated

Fig. 5.13c Receptor-mediated

Transport review  Diffusion

Osmosis

Carrier Assisted Transport


Facilitated Transport
Active Transport

Vesicle Mediated Transport


Exocytosis
Endocytosis Phagocytosis Pinocytosis

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

Transport review

Fig. 5.14a Adhesion junction

Fig. 5.14b Tight junction

Fig. 5.14c Gap junction

Fig. 5.15 Extracellular matrix

5.4 Modification of Cell Surfaces  Plant Cell Walls


surround the plasma membrane
porous
Primary cell wall all plant cells have it contains cellulose fibrils contains pectins to allow the cell wall to stretch during growth noncellulose polysaccharides harden the wall when the cell is mature

5.4 Modification of Cell Surfaces  Plant Cell Walls


Middle lamella pectin-rich layer that serves as an adhesive between cells
Secondary cell wall can form inside primary cell wall contains more cellulose cellulose fibrils at right angles lignin for strength

Plant cell wall structure

5.4 Modification of Cell Surfaces  Plant Cell Walls

Plasmodesmata connect the cytoplasm of plant cells only allow water and small solutes to pass freely

Fig. 5.16 Plasmodesmata