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Overview of the Indian Army Structural organization of the Indian Army Induction of personnel and Military Academies Talent Attraction Recruitment process Training of Army personals Development and Welfare Schemes Retention strategies Resettlement and Post Retirement plans

Overview of the Indian Army

is one of the armed forces of India PRESENT STRENGTH: 1,130,000 soldiers in active service and about 1,200,000 reserve troops. The force is currently headed by the Chief of Army Staff, General Deepak Kapoor.

Primary: Preserve national interests and safeguard sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of India against any external threats by deterrence or by waging war. Secondary: Assist Government agencies to cope with proxy war and other internal threats and provide aid to civil authority when requisitioned for the purpose."


First Kashmir War (1947) Participation in UN peace-keeping operations Inclusion of Hyderabad (1948) Goa, Daman and Diu Operation (1961) Sino-Indian Conflict (1962) .Second Kashmir War (1965) Bangladesh Liberation War (1971) Siachen conflict (1984) Counter-insurgency activities Kargil conflict (1999) Major Exercises

Indian Army arms and services

Regiments Infantry (Mechanised) Artillery


Armoured Army Aviation Army Air Defence Engineers Signals Intelligence Armoured Army Aviation Army Air Defence Engineers Signals Intelligence Judge Advocate General's Department Military Farms Service Military Nursing Service




Army Ranks Insignia. Field marshal is an honorary rank. It does not exist in present army organization structure, however two distinguished officers of the Indian Armed forces have been conferred with the Rank. They are Late Sam Manekshaw and Late K M Cariappa. Field Marshals do not retire and the rank is for life. Gold national emblem outlined in red over a gold star outlined in red, all over a crossed gold baton and scimitar the same. Gold national emblem outlined in red over a crossed gold baton and scimitar the same.

Field marshal


Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant

Gold star outlined in red over a crossed gold baton and scimitar the same.
Gold national emblem over three gold stars in a triangle formation. Gold national emblem over two gold stars. Gold national emblem over one gold star. Gold national emblem. Three gold stars. Two gold stars.





1) Those for gallantry in the face of the enemy. Param Vir Chakra Maha Vir Chakra Vir Chakra Sena, Nao Sena and Vayu Sena Medal Mention in Dispatches Chiefs of Staff Commendation Card

2) Those for gallantry other than in the face of the enemy

Ashoka Chakra * Kirti Chakra * Shaurya Chakra * * These were originally named Ashoka Chakra Class I, Class II, Class III


ACADEMIES Sainik Schools: OBJECTIVE It was established Sainik Schools was started in 1961 with these objectivesbroad-base recruitment remove regional imbalance in the officer's cadre of the Defence Forces. Sainik Schools are a joint venture of the Central and State Governments. At present, 18 Sainik schools are being administered by Sainik Schools Society. affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education Chail Military School Chail (oldest one) (Previously known as King George Royal Indian Military College) Shimla Ajmer Military School Ajmer Bangalore Military School Bangalore Belgaum Military School Belgaum Dholpur Military School Dholpur

Military Schools

Rashtriya Indian Military College

It was founded on 13 March 1922 with the objectives of providing necessary preliminary training for boys of Indian birth or domicile, wishing to become officers in Indian Armed Forces


National Defence Academy ( NDA) is a premier Inter-Service training institution where future officers of Armed Forces are trained. training involves an exacting schedule of three years before the cadets join their respective Service Academics, viz., Indian Military Academy, Naval Academy and Air Force Academy.

Army Cadet College DEHRADUN:

is a Wing of IMA which caters for training of service cadets selected for commission.

Officers Training Academy (OTA), Chennai:

It moulds young men and women into courageous, dynamic and honorable officers of the Indian Army. The training at the OTA aims at inculcating in the Gentlemen and the Lady cadets (GCs/LCs) moral values, leadership traits, mental and physical prowess, a spirit of adventure and a will to win. It is premier All Arms Tactical Training Institution for officers and performs important functions of evaluation of concepts and doctrines in the fields of

Army War College:

tactics and operational logistics.

Indian Military Academy (IMA), Dehradun

Aim of IMA Train Gentlemen Cadets (GCs) for commission into the Army. It also has a Wing for training Service cadets selected for commission in the Army. Fullest development of intellectual, moral and physical qualities with basic military training and abroad academic education. Develops the qualities of dynamism, initiative and understanding, which form the very of leadership in war, as well as in peace.

Army Education Corps (AEC) Training College and Centre

OBJECTIVES are as to devise need based educational training courses for the personnel of the Para Military Forces and defense personnel of the friendly foreign countries to function as a teacher's training institute under NCTE norms to create a corpus of resource personnel in the field of education, map reading, foreign languages, computer applications and military music to function as a nodal agency for ADP training of minor Corps to provide technical training to AEC personnel to develop human resources in the Indian Army to train and provide interpreters for Border Personnel Meetings (BPMs).

School of Artillery (Maharashtra):

Objectives cover:
imparts effective training, evaluation of new equipment for induction development of new concepts/ doctrine for application of artillery fire to impart technical training to officers, JCOs and NCOs of the Regiment of Artillery on artillery weapons and systems including training of pilots of Air Observation Post duties. It is responsible to develop the complete spectrum of tactical drills and concepts pertaining to infantry operating in varied terrain and environment and introduce them from time to time.

Infantry School

Some other Military Academies

Corps of Military Police (CMP) Centre and School Army Medical Corps (AMC) Centre and School Military College of Electronic and Mechanical Engineering Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) Military College of Telecommunication Engineering College of Military Engineering Institute of Military Law Army Airborne Training School Army Air Defence College National Defense College

Motivating Factors Appeals to the deeply ingrained values of patriotism, service, and a spirit of adventure. Brings with it a prestige/status and benefits rarely seen in other professions. In a country with huge unemployment the job security that an army career brings is another motivating factor.

Demotivating Factors
Fear of the hardships that soldiers have to encounter not to mention death. Long periods of staying away from family/friends. The collapse of the Joint Family system. Officers are unsure of the well-being of their spouses and children, while nuclear family parents are overprotective of their children and do not want them to join the Army. Compensation being poor when compared to the private sector A steep organizational pyramid causing promotions to become rarer A plethora of alternative career choices

Catch Them Young:

Interact with students in schools and colleges about the life of an army person. Use mainstream media to bring army people closer to the rest of the country. Create a website which disseminates information about the Army and the various career options. Take advantage of the popularity of computer games. Collaborate with any software company to create a computer game. The game can be modeled after the highly popular US Army designed computer game: Americas Army. Sell official Army merchandise like caps, slacks, model tanks and planes to increase awareness and create a sense of curiosity.

Recruitment through the UPSC
The UPSC holds an all-India competitive examination, known as the Combined Defense Services Examination (CDSE), twice a year. University graduates are eligible to appear in the examination. Successful candidates join the respective training academies, viz., the Indian Military Academy (IMA) for the Army, the Naval Academy for the Navy and the Air Force Academy for the Air Force. The UPSC also holds, twice a year, an examination for entry into the National Defense Academy (NDA). Candidates on completion of the 10+2 Examination or while in the 12th standard, are eligible to compete in this examination. Successful candidates thereafter join the NDA. On completion of the NDA course, they are sent to the respective service academies for their pre-commission training.

University Entry Scheme

Final/pre-final year students in engineering disciplines are eligible for induction into the technical branches/services of the Army, as Commissioned Officers under the University Entry Scheme

Short Service Commission(Technical) Entry Scheme

The Short Service Commission (Technical) Entry Scheme envisages recruitment of qualified technical graduates through the SSBs, to attend the Officers Training Academy (OTA), Chennai, after medical tests, for a 10 months course.

On completion of training at the OTA, successful candidates are inducted as Short Service Commissioned Officers in the technical branches of the Army.

Recruitment of Medical Officers

Medical graduates from the Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC), Pune are directly inducted as permanent Commissioned Medical Officers in the Armed Forces. For recruitment of Regular Commissioned/Short Service Commissioned Medical Officers from the graduates/Post graduates of Civil Medical Colleges, the Director General of the Armed Forces Medical Services conducts an all India competitive examination.

Recruitment of Women Officers

Eligible women are recruited as officers on Short Service Commission basis in the following Branches of the Armed Forces ARMY : EME, Signals, Engineers, Army Education Corps, Army Ordnance Corps, Army Service Corps, Intelligence and Judge Advocate Generals Branch. NAVY : All Branches of the Indian Navy AIR FORCE: Flying, Aeronautical Engineering (Electronics), Aeronautical Engineering (Mechanical) Education, Administration, Logistics, Accounts and Meteorology

Recruitment through NCC

University graduates possessing NCC C Certificate with minimum B grading and 50% marks in graduation are inducted in the Navy and Air Force as Regular Commissioned Officers and as Short Service Commission Officers in the Army. These graduates are exempted from appearing in the CDSE conducted by the UPSC and are selected through the SSBs.

Publicity for Recruitment

The means of publicity adopted to attract better talent are as follows:

Press advertisements

Advertisements are released through the Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP) in the Employment News/Rozgar Samachar and in newspapers in different languages for various entries viz National Defence Academy, Combined Defence Services Examination, Technical Graduate Course, Short Service Commission (Technical & Non-Technical), University Entry Scheme, Law Graduates, Induction in Medical Services for both men and women, Special Entry Scheme (Officers), Havildar Instructors, Junior Commissioned Officers (Catering and Religious Teachers) etc. A composite advertisement on various entries in the Army is also brought out periodically both in English and Hindi. Concerned Zonal Recruitment Offices (ZROs)/ Branch Recruitment Offices(BROs) also publish advertisements on recruitment of Other Ranks in local regional newspapers.

Advertisements in Journals/Magazines
These are normally brought out in the journals of educational institutions

are erected at ZRO/BRO premises as well as adjacent to Engineering Colleges all over the country to attract technical talents into the Army. DAVP approves the sites and thereafter, the hoardings giving detailed information are installed and maintained by them

Printed Publicity:
Information folders, leaflets, brochures, data cards, posters and blow-ups, prepared through DAVP and private professional agencies are widely distributed.

Exhibition and Fair:

Each year, at the Defence pavilion at the India International Trade Fair, New Delhi , a stall is established where recruiting information is provided to visitors. This is also done in other organised fairs, which are career oriented and meant for students


The Aim of Training: Inculcate in the gentlemen cadets moral values,leadership qualities interdependent upon honour & duty, mental and physical prowess, a spirit of adventure and the will to win. It involves training in character building, discipline, military and academic subjects, physical exercise, drill, sports and adventure activities To inculcate team spirit and a commitment to excellence.


Tactical Training It includes: Knowledge of basic tactical training at platoon level Use of ground and fire and movement tactics. Use of supporting arms and services Low intensity conflict is taught to create awareness and generate responses when faced with such a dilemma. Tactical exercises generate opportunity for leadership development, independent thinking, stress endurance and team building.

Physical Training
It includes: A challenging obstacle course individual physical proficiency tests, endurance marches battle efficiency tests expertise in swimming Adventure activities such as river rafting, para jumping, rock climbing, trekking, mountaineering and desert safari.

Academic Training
Academic training aims to: Provide a broad educational base, essential for future professional development. Enhance power of analysis, reasoning and expression, both verbal and written in Hindi and English. Provide scientific orientation to keep abreast with technological advancements in the field of warfare. Teach relevant functional skills and develop creative and critical faculties.

Academies for academic training

Recreational Pursuits AcademyIt encourages GCS to develop hobbies and interests through various recreational clubs. Outdoor Clubs: Riding and Polo, Driving & Maintenance, Yoga, Shooting, Cycle Polo, Weight Lifting & Body Building, Flora & Fauna and Angling Indoor Clubs: Photography, Arts, Science & Technology, Computers, Dramatics, Music and Workshop.

Army Cadet College Wing

Aim of training at ACC Wing is to improve upon the following: Character qualities. Leadership traits. Basic military knowledge. Broad based academic education

INDIAN ARMY JOINT TRAINING PROGRAMMES WITH OTHER COUNTRIES Indian Army Troops Travel to U.K. for Exercise "India and the U.K. are key strategic partners and enjoy a close defense relationship," the Indian Defence Ministry said in an Aug. 22 statement. "This exercise is a great step for the armies of two democratic countries to train together and gain from each other's experience. The U.K. Army had earlier participated in joint training with Indian troops in India last year, and this exercise is reciprocal to U.K. forces training in India."


Self-development is continuous and should be emphasized in both institutional and operational assignments. It starts with an assessment of individual strengths, weaknesses, potential, and developmental needs. Self-development focuses on maximizing individual strengths, minimizing weaknesses, and achieving individual development goals. Initial self-development is very structured and generally narrow in focus. It is accelerated and broadened by specific, goal-oriented self-development actions. Self-development actions may include self study, reading programs.

PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT RECORD (PDR) The PDR is issued to all ranks of the Regular and Territorial Army. It is used to help personnel to record their work and learning experiences, to help them plan and achieve their goals during their Army career and beyond. It can also help soldiers map their plans against career and personal goals.


Why people want to leave the Army? The wide variety of choices available outside Rigid hierarchies leading to a sense of non-accomplishment and the self-actualization need left unsatisfied. Low individual empowerment. Officers suffering from a sense of potential being wasted High Stress levels leading to burnout Domestic problems: marital discord, aged parents, property disputes Promotions being rejection-based and not selection-based

Avoid burning out the best talent. Retaining mid-career and high performing officers Enhance the Employability of Officers

Post Retirement and Resettlement Schemes

To resettle/re-employ ex-servicemen, the Central Government arranges the following: Training programs to reorient retiring Defense personnel towards civil employment. Reservation of posts for providing employment opportunities in government/semi government/ Public sector organizations and assistance in employment with corporate sector. Schemes for self-employment and Assistance in entrepreneurship and setting up small scale industries


The programme includes courses on information technology, managerial science, technical skills and agro based industries. Constant endeavour is made to improve the quality of training by regular monitoring.

Officers Training
OBJECTIVES to enhance their qualifications and enable them to seek suitable employment after retirement. The Resettlement Training Programs range from vocational courses of three months duration to degree /diploma courses, via distant learning program of one to three years duration. The courses are conducted in multifarious fields like Information Technology, Security Services, Entrepreneurship Development, Business Administration, Personnel Management, Hotel Management, Tourism, Human Resources Development, Law, Insurance and miscellaneous topics. These courses have received an overwhelming response from officers and resulted in good job placements in the corporate sector.

JCOs / ORs Equivalent Training

These programmes are carried out under head Vocational Training. The training courses are conducted in diversified fields for a duration of upto one year in government, semi-government and private institutes spread all over the country. The salient fields covered are Security Services, Management, Information Technology, Travel & Tourism including Adventure Tourism, Entrepreneurship & Small Business Management, technical (including medical) trades, non-technical trades, secretarial support services, agro based industry and many other miscellaneous trades.

Ex-Servicemen (ESM) Training

Under this scheme, funds are allotted to RSBs for conducting vocational training for ESM in their States. The scheme is primarily meant for those ESM who could not avail the facility of resettlement training while in service. The scheme has also been extended to the widow / one dependent of an ESM, irrespective of whether his death is attributable to military service or not. The course is free of cost for the ESM and a stipend of Rs. 700/- per month is paid to each trainee.


OBJECTIVE: encouraging and giving financial support by way of loans to ex-servicemen entrepreneurs intending to set up small and medium industries. Major self-employment schemes are SEMFEX-II, SEMFEX-III and National Equity Fund Scheme.

It has been promoted with the assistance of NABARD to set up agriculture and allied activities, including State Road Transport Operators (SRTO), and also for setting up of village, cottage, tiny and small scale industries in rural areas. There is no upper age limit for loan in respect of projects under farm sector including agro/food processing units. The financial assistance in case of non-farm sector activities is available up to SSI limit, for setting up industries in rural areas. This scheme is operative from the year 1988-89. Rs.124.87 crore loan has been sanctioned to 20455 ex-servicemen since inception and up to June 2005.

This scheme is operative in collaboration with the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC). The maximum loan limit for individual entrepreneurs, cooperative societies/institutions and trusts is Rs. 25 lakh per project to establish industries in rural areas. This scheme is operative from the year 199293. Rs. 12.65 crore loan has been sanctioned to 1074 ex-servicemen since inception and up to June, 2005

Allotment of Army Surplus Vehicles

Ex-Servicemen and widows of defence personnel, who died while in service, are eligible to apply for allotment of an Army surplus phased out Class V-B Vehicles. The application forms are routed through Zila/Rajya Sainik Boards in case of retired personnel, and through units for those in their last six months of service, to DGR for registration and onward submission to Army Headquarters for allotment on the basis of depot-wise seniority maintained by them. During the year 2007, 2519 applications were registered with DGR for allotment of army surplus vehicles. Reservation in CSD The Canteen Stores Department of India (CSDI) has reserved 15% of the 30 selected CSD items and the Ministry of Defence has reserved 10% of the 262 selected items manufactured by Ex-Servicemen Entrepreneurs under the Defence Purchase Programme for which Ex-Servicemen manufacturing units alone are eligible.

New Initiatives and Thrust Areas

PM Scholarship Scheme: To encourage higher technical and professional education for the wards of widows and ex-servicemen of the armed forces, it has been decided to introduce a new scholarship scheme to be known as Prime Ministers Merit Scholarship Scheme from the academic year 2006-07. The scheme would provide a scholarship of Rs. 1250/- p.m. for boys and Rs.1500/- p.m. for girls for the recognised professional and technical courses for a duration ranging from 2 to 5 years. Self Employment Schemes: Intensive interaction with state governments was undertaken to set up pilot projects or suitable schemes in the areas having concentration of ex-servicemen in various sectors, based on local resources and skills, such as food processing, dairy, weaving, etc

REFERENCES Indian Armed Forces Talent Attraction and Retention Strategies: Tarun Bahuguna, Ravi Shankar Personnel Management and Industrial Relations: 2006 08 XLRI, Jamshedpur