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SIX MONTHS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AT BHARTI REALTY COMMERCIAL COMPLEX

BY: GURMANPREET SINGH 7140100014

VASCON ENGINEERS LIMITED has more then 25 years of experience in conceiving, developing, constructing and managing various projects. It is active in multiple sectors including residential, industrial, IT parks, malls and multiplexes, hospitality and community.

Right from its inception in 1986, vascon has remained committed to applying the art or value based aesthetics into the science of construction through efficient engineering. The vascon team is mainly made up of engineers who are backed up by highly qualified specialists from various fields of management.

NAME OF THE PROJECT: Bharti Realty Commercial Complex NAME OF THE CONTRACTOR: Vascon Engineers Limited CLIENT: Bharti Realty Limited SITE ADDRESS: Bharti Realty Commercial Complex, Opposite PU Extension Library, Mall Road, Ludhiana. ARCHITECHTURAL CONSULTANTS: Rajinder Kumar & Associates STRUCTURAL CONSULTANTS: Vintech Consultants Estimated cost of project: ` 105 Crores Cost of building work under vascon: ` 30 Crores Total Area: 10009.598 sqm

The Project consists of 3 basements for parking, 11 floors in the superstructure which will consist of Stores, Cinemas & Food Courts.

Site Clearance Excavation Boring Piling Surveying PCC Marking Reinforcement Concreting of Foundation Assembling of Scaffolding Column Casting Slab & Beam Casting Disassembling of Scaffolding Curing

EXCAVATION FOR PILING:- The depth of excavation was approx. 5m


The margin of 1m was provided from the boundary line for providing the working space.

EXCAVATION FOR PCC & FOUNDATION :- Excavation for PCC &


Foundation was done mechanically with the help of machines namely JCB Digger, L&T Komatsu and Kobelco. The RL of the road in front of the site is 99m. Excavation done was 18.045 m (Down) w.r.t to RL of road. So, RL of bottom most point is 80.955m.

Piles are used in this building because of sandy soil. As sandy soil will not sustain loads and is liable to landslide, therefore piles are used. Also Building is at the edge of the main road so vibrations are created due to moving loads (vehicles), this also forced the use of piles in this building. The Reduced level of road in front of site is 99m. So, with respect to it a permanent benchmark of 100m was marked on a particular location at the site with help of auto level. As this permanent benchmark wasnt visible from all the points on the site, therefore some temporary benchmarks were also marked on the site and checked regularly. Reduced level of top of casing of pile was found with respect to these permanent and temporary benchmarks.

Layout of piles was done with the help of Posts (also called burjis) on Reference line and theodolite. Firstly, theodolite was set on one of the Post and then the horizontal angle was measured equal to 0 along the reference line. Taking angle equal to 0 along the reference line and then rotating theodolite by 90, a point was dropped on the ground at a distance of 6.1m from reference line and adjusted in such a way that this point should coincide with the cross hair in theodolite. Similarly another point is also taken at same distance from reference line on the ground and these two points are tied with the help of thread, also called line dori. The two points are marked on the ground and tied with help of a thread. Along the thread we get inner face of the pile, as diameter of pile is 600mm, therefore another two points at a distance 300 mm are marked from previous two points and tied with a line dori so that line dori now is along the centre line of the pile. Then the marking of piles can easily be done with help of a measuring tape such that successive points along the thread are at a distance 750 mm c/c away from each other.

First of all chisel condition is examined. Then a mark is made on the ground( with help of chisel) on which pile is to be bored. Then casing is placed on it. Casing is then embedded into the ground by applying load over its boundaries with the help of chisel. Then after the bore of required depth is made then steel cages are put into the bore and the steel cages are connected with each other by providing lap. Last step is to pour concrete with the help of pipes.

Total no of piles: 477 Concrete used in the piles: M30 Centre to Centre distance between two piles: 750mm Diameter of an individual pile: 600mm RL of concrete top: 95.055 m

REINFORCEMENT DETAIL-: The steel cage is divided into three parts Top Cage Middle Cage Bottom Cage TOP CAGE No of bars: 16 Diameter of bar: 16mm No of Rings: 35@8mm MIDDLE CAGE No of bars: 16 Diameter of bar: 25 No of Rings: 35@8mm BOTTOM CAGE No of Bars: 16 Diameter of bar: 25 No of Rings: 46@8mm Lap length between two cages: 1m

VIEWS OF PILING WORK

Concrete used in the pilling work is of M30 grade. Concrete is brought directly on the site in a mixer from ACC Ready Mix plant situated in Sahnewal. Concrete mix is poured into the piles with the help of a cone and pipe as shown in the figure.

First of all, excavation work was done at the required area. Then, PCC bed was prepared by ramming the soil with the help of hand rammers. The RL of bottom most point was 80.955m. PCC of thickness 75 mm was laid, therefore RL of top of PCC = 81.030m (80.955+0.075). Grade of concrete used for PCC is M7.5 having ratio 1:4:8

Firstly, the posts (burjis) on X Grid (X1, X2, X3...) & Y Grid (Y1, Y2, Y3...) were dropped and marked on the ground with the help of theodolite. Now the column whose marking is to be provided is seen in the drawing from which we get to know about the centre point of column. For each column, two lines will be there, one each from a post (burji) on X Grid & Y Grid, the intersection point of these lines is actually the centre point of column. Then by using the dimension given in the drawing, marking of the column is done accordingly may it be circular or square.

MARKING OF SQUARE COLUMN

MARKING OF CIRCULAR COLUMN

Foundations are structural elements that transfer loads from to earth.

ISOLATED FOOTING
Isolated footings are provided under each column and may be square, rectangular, or circular in plan. Footing may be flat or sloped. At our site isolated square footings provided are sloped ones.

REINFORCEMENT DETAIL

Size of Isolated Footing: 6m 6m Concrete Used: M20 Steel Used: Fe415 Diameter of bars: 20mm Spacing: 200mm c/c

ISOLATED FOOTING

COMBINED FOOTING
Combined footings are provided to support two or more column loads. These may be continuous with rectangular or trapezoidal in plan. Combined footings become necessary under the following circumstances: A) When the isolated footings overlap. B) When the exterior column is close to the property line such that symmetrical isolated footing cannot be provided. In combined footings, a slab was provided at the bottom, through which a strap beam passes, columns were then erected from within the strap beam. The basic purpose of providing strap beam is to distribute the pressure uniformly on footing.

Sizes of Combined Footing: 14m 5.5m Beam Depth: 1725mm Slab Depth: 900mm Diameter of bars: 32mm, 25mm, 20mm (Main) 16mm (Distribution)

RAFT FOUNDATION
Raft foundation is provided when the soil is having very low bearing capacity and or when columns loads are heavy, the required footing area becomes very large and uneconomical.

RAFT FOUNDATION (PLAN)


In raft foundation, for each column individual pedestals were provided, columns were then erected from within the pedestals.

Size of Raft Foundation: 24m 12m Slab Depth: 1200mm Diameter of bars: 20mm, 16mm, 32mm(extra steel b/w columns)

Shuttering should be cleaned of all dust and debris before laying of concrete In order to prevent the shuttering from absorbing water from concrete, a coat of crude oil or grease etc. is usually applied to the shuttering before concreting. While placing concrete, care should be taken that it should not be thrown from height. Concrete should be properly compacted before laying next one.

The term compaction of concrete means the compaction between aggregate and aggregate, between aggregate and reinforcement, and between aggregate and forms. The main aim of compaction of concrete is done to eliminate air bubbles and thus to give max density to the concrete. An intimate contact between concrete and reinforcement is ensured by proper compaction.

Mechanical compaction was done at site as shown below.

Concrete achieves its strength through a hydraulic process known as hydration. With the addition of the correct amount of water, cement gels into a paste that glues sand and aggregates together to form hardened concrete. It has been established that the strength of concrete increases with the age provided it is kept damp. During the process of curing the concrete absorbs the water necessary for its complete chemical action to reach its required strength. The strength of concrete increases more rapidly in the first few days after setting and afterwards the rate of increase in strength go on retarding. The period for which curing should be continued depends upon the atmosphere conditions. Correct curing also increases resistance of concrete to abrasion and reduces shrinkage.

POUNDING WITH WATER It was done on horizontal surfaces. It is carried out by supplying water to the surface of concrete in a way that ensures that it is kept continuously moist. CURING WITH JUTE BAGS It is done on vertical surfaces. Fabrics are particularly useful in case of vertical surfaces since they help distribute water evenly over the surface.

Firstly beam bottom and beam top(same as that of slab top) are marked on the column. Assemblage of Scaffolding and Shuttering is then done accordingly. The oil is applied to the shuttering plates so as to obtain the smooth surface. After this, the slab and beam are checked for steel as per drawing. Now the steel is lifted from bottom to maintain a cover with the help of a cover block. Concreting of slab and beam is done with mix 1:1.5:3 by pipes. Compaction of concrete is done by vibrator.

Type: Two way slab. Slab thickness: 150mm Steel used: Fe 415 Concrete used: M20(1: 1.5 :3) Diameter of bars used as main steel: 12mm @ 250mm c/c Diameter of bars used as distribution steel: 10mm @ 250 c/c Effective cover provided: 25mm

SCAFFOLDING refers to a temporary platform built around the face of a structure, allowing workers to perform construction or maintenance tasks that cannot be reached from the ground. In scaffolding work we use lasers, cup locks, base plate, u head, vahler etc.

It is necessary to provide some temporary structure to confine and support the fresh concrete till it gains strength for self supporting. The temporary structure provided for this purpose is known as FORMWORK OR SHUTTERING.