Introduction Class
Diode
Ohms law
Current = voltage / resistance I=V/R V=IxR Definitions Voltage = potential energy / unit charge, units = Volts Current = charge flow rate, units = Amps Resistance = friction, units = Ohms V1 Example Voltage drop when current flows through resistor I R V1  V2 = I R V2
Schematics
Battery
Sample circuit
V Resistor
Ground
Resistors in Series
Resistors in Parallel
Reff = R1 + R2
R1 I
I V
+
R1
I1
R2
I2
R2
Note: these points are connected together
Vin
Vout
R1
+
R2
external connection
Capacitors
Capacitor charging curve time constant = RC Vin Vout
t = RC t
Vout
Capacitor charging circuit
R
+
Q C
Q = C V (1  exp(t/RC))
Vout = Vin (1  exp(t/RC))
AC circuits
Resistive ac circuit
V0 cos(2 p f t) I= (V0/R) cos(2 p f t)
I=  2 p f CV0 sin(2 p f t)
DC vs AC Signals
I rms
T=
1 __
Ip Irms 2
T = period (sec) f = frequency (Hz) Ip = Peak Current (Amp) Irms = rms value (Amp)
Capacitor Circuits
Impedance ZC = 1/ (2 p j f C) Limit of low frequency f ~ 0
ZC > infinity Capacitor is open circuit at low frequency
Battery
Resistor
Potentiometer
AC voltage source
Capacitor
Potentiometer
2inputs plus center tap
Nonconnecting wires
+
Op amp
Color code
Resistor values determined by color Three main bands
1st = 1st digit 2nd = 2nd digit 3rd = # of trailing zeros
Color Number black brown red orange yellow green blue violet gray white 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Examples
red, brown, black 2 1 no zeros = 21 Ohms yellow, brown, green 4 1 5 = 4.1 Mohm purple, gray, orange 7 8 3 = 78 kOhms
Ground
The PN Junction
Steady State1
Metallurgical Junction 
Na

Nd
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
ionized acceptors
ionized donors
EField
+ h+ drift =
+ h+ diffusion
e diffusion = e drift
Kristin Ackerson, Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002
Properties of Diodes
Figure 1.10 The Diode Transconductance Curve2
ID
(mA)
VD = Bias Voltage ID = Current through Diode. ID is Negative for Reverse Bias and Positive for Forward Bias IS = Saturation Current
IS VBR ~V VD
(nA)
Kristin Ackerson, Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002
pn junction diode
Modes of Operation
ForwardActive BE junction is forward biased BC junction is reverse biased
Figure 44
Forward bias narrows the BE depletion region Reverse bias widens the BC depletion region
For the BC junction to be reverse biased, the Collector is made more +ve than the Base
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Transistor Currents
The three currents in the transistor are IE, IC, and IB IE = IC + IB The IB is very small compared to the IC and IE The IC is controlled by the BE voltage
Transistor Operation