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# Electronic Circuits 10CS32

## Theory 100 + 25 = 125 Marks Practical 50 + 25 = 75 Marks

12 Experiments Part A 6 from EC subject a part hardware b part software Part - B 6 from LD subject a part hardware b part software

## Dos & Donts

Silence No mobiles No mischievousness Previous class prepared Come prepared to laboratory

Introduction Class

Diode

Ohms law
Current = voltage / resistance I=V/R V=IxR Definitions Voltage = potential energy / unit charge, units = Volts Current = charge flow rate, units = Amps Resistance = friction, units = Ohms V1 Example Voltage drop when current flows through resistor I R V1 - V2 = I R V2

Schematics

Battery

Sample circuit

V Resistor

Ground

## Ground voltage defined = 0

Resistors in Series

Resistors in Parallel

## Parallel and series resistors

Series circuit V = R1 I + R2 I = Reff I Parallel circuit I = V/R1 + V/R2 = V/Reff 1/Reff = 1/R1 + 1/R2 V
+

Reff = R1 + R2

R1 I

I V
+

R1

I1

R2

I2

R2
Note: these points are connected together

## Resistive voltage divider

Resistive divider I = Vin/Reff = Vout/R2 Vout = Vin (R2 / (R1 + R2) )

Vin

Vout

R1
+

R2

external connection

Capacitors
Capacitor charging curve time constant = RC Vin Vout

t = RC t

Vout
Capacitor charging circuit

R
+

Q C

## schematic symbol: capacitor

Q = C V (1 - exp(-t/RC))
Vout = Vin (1 - exp(-t/RC))

AC circuits

Resistive ac circuit
V0 cos(2 p f t) I= (V0/R) cos(2 p f t)

## Capacitive ac circuit 90 degree phase lag

V0 cos(2 p f t)

I= - 2 p f CV0 sin(2 p f t)

DC vs AC Signals

## Period, Frequency, RMS Value

Ip
T

I rms

T=

1 __

Ip Irms 2

T = period (sec) f = frequency (Hz) Ip = Peak Current (Amp) Irms = rms value (Amp)

## Simplified notation: ac-circuits

V = V0 cos(2 p f t) = V0 [exp(2 p j f t) + c.c.]/2 Drop c.c. part and factor of 1/2 V = V0 exp(2 p j f t) Revisit resistive and capacitive circuits Resistor response: I = (V0/R) exp(2 p j f t) = V / R = V/ ZR Capacitor response: I = 2 p j f CV0 exp(2 p j f t) = (2 p j f C) V = V/ ZC Definition: Impedance, Z = effective resistance, units Ohms Capacitor impedance ZC = 1 / (2 p j f C) Resistor impedance ZR = R Impedance makes it look like Ohms law applies to capacitive circuits also Capacitor response I = V / ZC

Capacitor Circuits
Impedance ZC = 1/ (2 p j f C) Limit of low frequency f ~ 0
ZC --> infinity Capacitor is open circuit at low frequency

## Limit of low frequency f ~ infinity

ZC --> 0 Capacitor is short circuit at low frequency Capacitive ac circuit
V0 cos(2 p f t) I = V/ZC

## Summary of schematic symbols

+

Battery

Resistor

Potentiometer

AC voltage source

Capacitor

Potentiometer
2-inputs plus center tap

## Inductor Ground External connection Diode

Non-connecting wires

+
Op amp

Color code
Resistor values determined by color Three main bands
1st = 1st digit 2nd = 2nd digit 3rd = # of trailing zeros

Color Number black brown red orange yellow green blue violet gray white 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Examples
red, brown, black 2 1 no zeros = 21 Ohms yellow, brown, green 4 1 5 = 4.1 Mohm purple, gray, orange 7 8 3 = 78 kOhms

## Capacitors can have 3 numbers

use like three colors

Ground

## Example of how components are Inserted in the protoboard

The PN Junction
Metallurgical Junction -

Na
-

Nd
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

ionized acceptors

## Space Charge Region

ionized donors

E-Field

+ h+ drift =

+ h+ diffusion

e- diffusion = e- drift
Kristin Ackerson, Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002

Properties of Diodes
Figure 1.10 The Diode Transconductance Curve2

ID

(mA)

VD = Bias Voltage ID = Current through Diode. ID is Negative for Reverse Bias and Positive for Forward Bias IS = Saturation Current

IS VBR ~V VD

## VBR = Breakdown Voltage V = Barrier Potential Voltage

(nA)
Kristin Ackerson, Virginia Tech EE Spring 2002

pn junction diode

## Basic Transistor Operation

To produce a desired mode of operation, the two pn junctions must be correctly biased NPN transistor will be used for illustration The operation of the PNP is the same as for the NPN except that - the roles of the electrons and holes - the bias voltage polarities - the current directions are all reversed

Modes of Operation
Forward-Active B-E junction is forward biased B-C junction is reverse biased

## Saturation B-E and B-C junctions are forward biased

Cut-Off B-E and B-C junctions are reverse biased

Figure 44

## Illustration of BJT action.

Forward bias narrows the B-E depletion region Reverse bias widens the B-C depletion region

For the B-C junction to be reverse biased, the Collector is made more +ve than the Base

## Thomas L. Floyd Electronic Devices, Electron Flow Version, 5e

Transistor Currents
The three currents in the transistor are IE, IC, and IB IE = IC + IB The IB is very small compared to the IC and IE The IC is controlled by the B-E voltage

## Alpha () and Beta ()

measures the portion of the emitter current that survives after passage through the base to become collector current
IC = IE

## is the dc current gain of a transistor

IC = IB

Transistor Operation