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Is the capacity of a material to ignite and burn rapidly, causing fire or combustion.


point (FP)

is the lowest temperature at which a liquid or a solid can form an ignitable mixture in air.

Ignition Source: lighted match, cigarette, a road flare, an electrical spark, or static electricity, friction or grinding, ember, etc. The flammability hazard of a material is directly related to its flashpoint. The lower the flash point is, the greater the hazard.

USEPA, OSHA, and USDOT An ignitable material has a flashpoint of less than 140 F.


Substances that are already gases at normal temperature and pressure do not have flash points.


Pressure (VP)

or equilibrium vapor pressure is an important parameter in determining the ease of ignition. The higher the vapor pressure, the more flammable vapor is involved from a free liquid surface at a given temperature.

Flammable Liquid Any liquid having a flash point below 100 F.

Combustible Liquid Any liquid having a flash point above 100F and below 200F.

Is the concentration range of a vapor or a gas that will support combustion. Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) or Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) is the minimum concentration of gas vapor in air that will ignite in the presence of a source of ignition; concentrations that are less than the LEL are too lean to burn and will not ignite. Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) or Upper Flammable Limit (UFL) is the maximum concentration of gas or vapor in air that will ignite; higher concentrations are too rich to burn. In general, the wider the flammable range is, the greater the flammability hazard.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) NFPA diamond.

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Hazard Description
Materials that will not burn. Materials that must be preheated before they will ignite. Materials that must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before they will ignite. Liquids and solids that can ignite under almost all temperature conditions. Materials which will rapidly vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal temperatures, or are readily dispersed in air and which burn readily.

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If your clothing is on fire (and the floor is not), STOP, DROP and ROLL on the ground to extinguish the flames. If you are within a few feet of a safety shower or fire blanket, you can use these instead, but do not try to make it "just down the hall" if you are on fire.

Dry chemical

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Class A fires are ordinary materials like burning paper, lumber, cardboard, plastics etc. Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids such as (gasoline, kerosene, etc.) Class C fires involve energized electrical equipment, such as (appliances, switches, panel boxes, power tools, etc.)

Class D fires involve combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium. These materials burn at high temperatures and will react violently with water, air, and other chemicals. Class K fires are kitchen fires.

1. Water extinguisher Water extinguishers are suitable for class A fires (paper, wood etc.), but not for class B, C and D fires such as burning liquids, electrical fires or reactive metal fires. 2. Water mist extinguisher Water mist extinguishers are ideal for Class A fires where a potential Class C hazard exists.

3. Dry chemical (Type BC or ABC)

Dry chemical extinguishers are useful for either class ABC or class BC fires. Two kinds of dry chemical extinguishers:

1. Type BC fire extinguishers contain sodium or potassium bicarbonate. 2. Type ABC fire extinguishers contain ammonium phosphate.

4. Carbon dioxide (CO2 )

CO2 (carbon dioxide) extinguishers are for class B and C fires. But not approved for class D fires.

5. Metal/Sand Extinguishers Metal/Sand Extinguishers are for flammable metals (class D fires) and work by simply smothering the fire.


Pull the Pin at the top of the extinguisher. The pin releases a locking mechanism and will allow you to discharge the extinguisher. Aim at the base of the fire, not the flames. This is important in order to put out the fire, you must extinguish the fuel. Squeeze the lever slowly. This will release the extinguishing agent in the extinguisher. If the handle is released, the discharge will stop.

Sweep from side to side. Using a sweeping motion, move the fire extinguisher back and forth until the fire is completely out. Operate the extinguisher from a safe distance (6-8 ft away).

STEP 1: Know how fire extinguisher are classified. STEP 2: Inspect the fire extinguisher. Check the pressure gauge, broken seal and other damage. STEP 3: Consider the size of the fire the amount of smoke in the room or whether there is a reliable escape room. STEP 4: Remember the PASS. STEP 5: Pull the pin that unlock the fire extinguisher operating handle. Aim the extinguisher at the base of the fire. (6-8 ft away) STEP 6: Squeeze the extinguisher lever to discharge its content and sweep the host back and forth until the extinguisher is empty.