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Concurrency and Transaction Management in an Object Oriented Database

Initial Presentation Author: Jeremy Torres Date: 5/30/2003


Brief introduction to Object Oriented Database Definitions required for the discussion of concurrency and transaction management Desired properties of a database management system Research Goals and Objectives Work Plan Q and A

An Object Oriented Database

Is the coupling of Object Oriented (OOP) Programming principles with Database Management System (DBMS) principles Provides access to persisted objects using the same OO-programming language

OODB and Relational DB Differences2,6

OODB Uses an OO data model

Relational DB

Uses record-oriented model

Data is a collection of objects whose behavior, state, and relationships are stored as a physical entity

Data is a collection of record types (relations), each having collection of records or tuples stored in a file

Language dependence (OOLanguage Specific) No impedance mismatch in application using OODB

Language independence (via SQL) Impedance mismatch in an OO application. Mapping must be performed

Commercial FastObjects (formerly Poet) GemStone Versant Ontos Objectivity/DB Open Source Ozone XL2 FramerD Zope Academic


Definitions4 1 of 3

Data Itemscollection of objects representing a


Granularitysize of a data item Concurrencymultiple users accessing a database

instance at the same time Transactiona logical unit of database processing that includes one or more database access operations

Insert, Delete, Modify, Retrieve operations

SerializabilityInterleaving execution of a set of

concurrent transactions without giving up any correctness

Definitions, 2 of 3
Concurrency Control Protocolsset of rules for defining the execution of concurrent transactions (ultimately to ensure serializability)

Optimistic Concurrency Controlvalidation or certification of a transaction AFTER it executes

If interference is detected, the transaction is aborted and restarted at a later time

Definitions, 3 of 3

Pessimistic Concurrency ControlLocks are used to prevent conflicting transactions

2-Phase Locking Protocol (2PL): Best known locking protocol for guaranteeing serializability

Phase 1: Expanding/Growing. New locks can be

acquired but none can be released Phase 2: Shrinking. Existing locks can be released but no new locks can be acquired

Strict 2PLa transaction does not release any of its exclusive (write) locks until after it commits or aborts

Database Management Systems Should1 of 2

Provide Concurrency Control4

The DBMS should allow more than one user to access/manipulate data concurrently When there is concurrency, Transaction Management must be addressed

The Lost Update Problemtwo transactions have their operations interleaved in such a way that some database item is incorrectinconsistent state! The Temporary Update (Dirty Read) ProblemOne transaction updates a database item and then the transaction fails; the updated item is access by another transaction before it is changed back to its original value

Database Management Systems Should2 of 2

Provide Transactions that have ACID properties4:

Atomicitya transaction is an atomic unit of work; its performed in its entirety or not at all Consistency preservationa transaction takes database from one consistent state to another Isolationa transaction should appear as though it is being executed in isolation from other transactions Durability or permanencythe changes applied to the database by a committed transaction must persist in the database. The changes must not be lost because of any failure

Concurrency and Transaction Management: OODBMs vs. RDBMs

Both DBMSs must deal with Concurrency and Transaction Management issues Many concurrency protocols can be applied to both DBMSs

However, semantically different:

Optimistic and Pessimistic protocols are relevant to both Example: Data Item Granularity

In traditional RDBMS, fine granularity data item would be a record field value of a record In an OODBMS, fine granularity data item may be an Object or data member (field) of an Object

Many OODBsVarying Frameworks

There are many OODBMs existing and emerging in both commercial and open source areas Implementations vary differently

Distributed database model Centralized database model hybrid implementation, such as Object-Relational Databases

Currently, there is no consensus or clear specification for an OODMS as there was for a Relational DBMS (such as Codds original specification for a relational data model and query language)5

Use Relational DBMS Engine Use Structured Query Language (SQL) or an extension of it for providing access to Objects

NOTE: The Object Data Management Group (ODMG) has a specification for portability; however, ODMG-specific object models and query languages are used.

Study Rationale

My research has not found a generic, reusable design pattern for a transactional engine, or layer, geared specifically toward object oriented databases. Even though there are many varying implementations of object oriented databases, there are very few research papers (as found in the initial research phase) describing an complete transactional engine implementation

Research Objectives/Goals

To design a flexible and extendable (pluggable) framework for concurrency and transaction management within the context of an object oriented database using the Java programming language Ideally, the framework will be presented as a design pattern specifically for concurrency and transaction management of an Object Oriented database

Research Objectives/Goals Contd

Provide various implementations of the framework, each providing different transactional properties (e.g., optimistic versus pessimistic locking), for the


Research Design

The generic framework proposed, designed, and implemented by this research will be compared against the strengths and weaknesses of other alternative implementations (e.g., the Gemstone and Ozone object oriented databases) found during the research process The comparison will focus on the design and implementation of the concurrency and transactional software layers of an object oriented database only; the remaining layers are out of the scope of this research

ObjectStore Project Current State

The ObjectStore Object Oriented Database is geared specifically for Java Does not contain transaction management Accessible by remote clients via RMI

High-Level Logical Diagram

Issues To Be Addressed

Object Store is distributed via Java RMI

The framework proposed will have to account for each clients state

Work Plan

Phase I: First Presentation, May 30th, 2003: The research for this first phase will be completed. Phase II: Summer I and II, 2003: Development and implementation of generic Concurrency/Transactional Model via the ObjectStore will be completed Phase III: Second Presentation, September 2003. Results of developed concurrency model and implementations via the object store presented. Completion: Final Presentation, November 2003. Demonstration of implemented framework via ObjectStore. All results of framework and implementations, including changes since second presentation.


Maier et al, Development of an Object-Oriented DBMS, ACM Press, 1986. 2Zand et al, A Survey of Current Object-Oriented Databases, ACM Press, 1995 3Thomasian, Alexander, Concurrency Control: Methods, Performance, and Analysis, ACM Computing Surveys, 1998 4Elmasri, R., and Navathe, S, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Addison-Wesley, 2000. 5Atkinson, et al, The Object-Oriented Database System



Management Systems McClure, Steve, Object Database vs. Object-Relational Databases, International Data Corporation

Dare, An Exploration of Object Oriented Database